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3 1833 01931 4712 

p u b !.- i c a t i d n s o f t h e b u f f a l. d 

h istori c a l s o c i e t v (1896) 
p u b l. 1 c a t 1 o m s o f t h e b u f f a l. o 

Historical Society 









Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 


Historical Society 


Edited bt Frank H. Severance 

JB-; ...;' : .V; 





VICE, APRIL 1, 1919. 

Copyrighted, 19 19, by W. H. Brendel. 




Historical Society 







„•«#• «" * 





1 920 

President, Hon. HENRY W. HILL 

Vice-President, CHARLES R. WILSON 

Secretary-Treasurer, FRANK H. SEVERANCE 


Term expiring January, 1921 

Howard H. Baker*, G. Barrett Rich, 

Dr. G. Hunter Bartlett, Henry W. Sprague, 

William Y. Warren. 

Term expiring January, 1922 

Hon. Henry W. Hill, Henry R. Howland, 

George R. Howard, Charles R. Wilson, 

Evan Hollister. 

Term expiring January, 1923 

Loran L. Lewis, Jr., Frank H. Severance, 

Carlton R. Perrine, George A. Stringer, 

Andrew Langdon1\ 

Term expiring January, 1924 

Albert H. Briggs, M. D., Edward S. Hawley, 

William A. Galpin, Lee H. iSmith, 

John G. Wickser. 

* Died Nov. 17, 1920. No successor elected in 19(20. 
t Died Nov. 11, 1919. No successor elected in 1920. 



Millard Fillmore, 1862 to 1867 

Henry W. Rogers, 1868 

Rev. Albert T. Chester, D. D., 1869 

Orsamus H. Marshall, 1870 

Hon. Nathan K. Hall, 1871 

William H. Greene, 1872 

Orlando Allen, 1873 

Oliver G. Steele, 1874 

Hon. James Sheldon, 1875 and 1886 

William C. Bryant 1876 

Capt. E. P. Dorr, 1877 

Hon. William P. [Letchworth, 1878 

William H. H. Newman, 1879 and 1885 

Hon. Ellas S. Hawley, 1880 

Hon. James M. Smith, 1881 

William Hodge, 1882 

William Dana Fobes, 1883 and 1884 

Emmor Haines, 1887 

James Tillinghast, 1888 

William K. Allen, 1889 

George S. Hazard 1890 and 1892 

Joseph C. Greene, M. D., 1891 

Julius H. Dawes, 1893 

Andrew Langdon, 1894 to 1909 

Hon. Henry W. Hill, 1910 — 

All of the above except the present incumbent are deceased. 


THE leading paper in this volume, "The History of 
the Buffalo Creek Reservation", by Frederick Hough- 
ton, will commend itself to students of the history of this 
region as an exceptionally thorough, comprehensive re- 
view of natural conditions, aboriginal occupancy and 
gradual acquisition by white men, which form the his- 
tory of this tract of land, now in part included in the 
City of Buffalo. It is a chapter of local history which 
has not heretofore been written. Our readers are fortu- 
nate in that it has now been prepared by so competent a 
student as Mr. Houghton. 

An unusually prominent place is given in this volume 
to reports of the proceedings of the Society. The pre- 
sentation of the Bishop Walker memorial, and other re- 
cent events in the history of the Society, we were unable 
to include in the preceding volume of this series, which 
was wholly devoted to one historical study — Mr. A. C. 
Parker's "Life of Gen. Ely S. Parker." The full report 
of that presentation, with its tributes to the memory of 
Bishop Walker, and with the accounts of the varied So- 
ciety activities which follow, are by no means the least 
important feature of this volume. 

New documentary material, bearing on the history of 
Buffalo, the Lakes and adjacent regions, includes the 
hitherto unpublished narrative of Gen. Jacob Brown's in- 
spection tour up the Lakes in 1819; the memoir of Capt. 
Samuel D. Harris, with its account of his service on the 
Niagara Frontier during the War of 1812 ; and lesser but 



interesting papers printed under the head of "Documents 
of Early Days." 

Judge Woodward's eloquent and scholarly appreciation 
of the character and career of William F. Sheehan is an 
historical paper which, with obvious propriety, is in- 
cluded in this volume, which as a whole will, it is hoped, 
be found not unworthy its place in the series of Publica- 
tions issued by the Buffalo Historical Society. 

It may not be inappropriate to add, that of the twenty- 
four volumes thus far issued, several are out of print, 
and cannot now be supplied by the Society. Volumes II, 
XVI, and XXIII, are especially desired, and the Society 
will gladly buy them, if offered in good condition. 

F. H. S. 
Historical Building, 
Buffalo, Dec, 1920. 



Officers of the Society, v 

List of Presidents of the Society, vi 

Preface, vii 


Frederick Houghton 

I. The Reservation, 3 

II. Archaeology of the Reservation, 13 

III. The Senecas on Buffalo Creek before 1780, . . 43 

IV. The Seneca Nation, 47 

V. The Name Buffalo, 63 

VI. The Refugees on Buffalo Creek, 71 

VII. The Ownership of Western New York, .... 79 

VIII. Indian Wars in the Southwest, 89 

IX. The Treaty of 1794, 99 

X. The Holland Purchase, 103 

XL The Buffalo Creek Reservation, 109 

XII. Home Life on the Buffalo Creek Reservation, . . 117 

XIII. Religion of the Buffalo Creek Reservation, . . 129 

XIV. Handsome Lake and His Great Message, .... 183 
XV. Early Christian Teaching, 141 

XVI. Minor Land Sales, 153 

XVII. Sale of the Buffalo Creek Reservation, .... 167 


Presentation, Bishop Walker Memorial, .... 185 

Fifty-seventh Annual Meeting, 1919 207 

Fifty-eighth Annual Meeting, 1920, 247 



Gen. Brown's Inspection Tour up the Lakes in 1819, 295 

(Service of Capt. Samuel D. Harris, 327 


Frank H. Severance 343 

WILLIAM F. SHEEHAN, .... Hon. John Woodward 359 


Letters of John Haddock, 371 

Early Travel on Lake Erie, 375 

Mail Service in 1812, 377 


Buffalo in the World War, 379 

War Memorials at St. Paul's, 381 

Memorial, 100th N. Y. Vols., 382 

Periodical Press of Buffalo, 383 

Old Buildings that are Gone, 386 

A Famous old Law Office, 388 






INDEX, 411 


Return of the Troops, Frontispiece 

Diagram, probable movements of pre-historic Iroquoian 

Nations, 48 

Diagram, Lands of the Senecas as defined in Treaties of 

1784 and 1794, 102 

Diagram, Land purchases in Western New York, . . . 104 
Diagram, Buffalo Creek Reservation, original boundaries 

AND PURCHASE OF 1826, 110 

Portrait, Rt. Rev. William D. Walker, .... Op. p. 185 

Andrew Langdon Memorial Tablet, Op. p. 291 

Historic Scenes and Vanished Buildings, 417 


Addenda. To the list of Buffalo periodicals, pp. 383-386, may be 

added the following: 

*The Alpha News. 1920. Monthly by Alpha Lodge, No. 611, I. 

O. O. F. John C. Roth, editor, 16 East Eagle St. 4to. pp. 4. 
*The Buffalo American. Feb., 1920. Weekly, by the Buffalo 

American Publishing Co., 156 Clinton St. Elliott 0. Brown, 

man. ed. and publisher. "A Colored Weekly." 
*The Elks Bulletin, Monthly, by Buffalo Lodge 23, B. P. O. E. 

(Vol. xiii, No. 11, Dec, 1920.) 
*The Temple Bulletin. Weekly, by Temple Beth Zion, Louis J. 

Kopald, Rabbi. (Vol. V., No. 16, Dec. 15, 1920.) 
*North Buffalo News. 1921. Weekly, G. Calhoun Moore, ed- 

and pub., 75 E. Eagle St. Continuation of the Central Park 


Erratum. Page 386, second line from bottom, for 1917, read 1919. 






By Frederick Houghton, M. S. 



The innumerable tourists who on summer days travel 
the excellent road which leads southward from Buffalo 
to Gowanda may view with delight the prosperous and 
beautiful farming country through which the road winds. 
Commodious houses, trim in their well painted orderli- 
ness, are flanked by huge and seemingly well filled barns, 
the sure index of their owner's prosperity. Swarthy, 
chattering Italians pick berries or peas in interminable 
rows. Mile long vineyards roll over the slopes of the low 
bordering hills, and southward the blue hills of Cattar- 
augus lift above the deepening valleys where cattle feed 
in deep grass. The whole picture is one of peace and 

Yet without changing the character of the country the 
entire picture may be altered. Turn here at Lawton, 
pass the great milk station and the railway, and proceed 
along the fair country road. A short mile, and the well 
cared for pasture land ends abruptly at a wire fence. 
Beyond is swampy, uncultivated underbrush, in a slight 
clearing of which is a tiny, unpainted, dilapidated shanty. 
Just beyond is another from the open door of which peep 
two chubby, brown-faced children. On a slight rise is a 
well-kept log house with a peach tree in front, and op- 


posite is a wide cvpen space bordered by a few straggling 
log houses all dominated by what looks like an old-fash- 
ioned school house. The whole effect is that of the fron- 
tier, and it is explained by the fact that this is Indian 
country, a Seneca village on the Cattaraugus Reservation, 
the center of the pagan party of the Seneca Nation. 

With a few changes this is what would have been seen 
eighty years ago should visitors have left the main street 
of the thriving little city of Buffalo and gone but a few 
miles from the civilization of that ambitious settlement. 
Riding eastward on an indifferent road, they would have 
quickly passed beyond the outermost fringe of houses and 
would have reached the City line. At this point they 
would leave the road and plunge by a bridle-path into the 
swampy wilderness of the Buffalo Creek Reservation. The 
path would have wound casually amongst trees and 
shrubby clumps of undergrowth, past a few clearings 
centering about rough and unpainted frame houses or 
ill-kept log cabins, finally reaching a large building, the 
tribal council house, set in a wide clearing at the edge of 
Buffalo Creek. Fording the creek, they would pass nu- 
merous clearings and eventually would reach a group of 
houses set in wide fields and orchards, the village of Te- 
kise-na-da-yont, or as the Buffalo people knew it, the vil- 
lage of Seneca. In the midst they would find a com- 
modious church with a weather-vane surmounting its 
steeple. They would undoubtedly visit the nearby ceme- 
tery to look at the graves of Red Jacket, the White 
Woman and other celebrities, and would call upon the 
resident missionary. Beyond would be forest, threaded 
by paths which linked the meagre clearings. 

This anomaly of a wilderness broken by the clearings 
of a primitive Indian community, yet surrounded by the 
cleared fields and cultivated lands of white settlers, and 
jostling a rapidly growing commercial city, was the re- 
sult of a rapid adjustment then in progress between the 


Iroquois Indians and the new and growing United States 
of America. 

At the end of the American Revolution the whole of 
the country which constitutes the central and western 
parts of New York was a forest-covered wilderness domi- 
nated and claimed by the Six Nations of New York. 
Eastwardly their lands abutted upon the settlements 
along the Mohawk River. In the west, Fort Niagara had 
grown up as a French fort, but for a quarter of a century 
it had been occupied by English. Before the war the 
eastern and central portions of this great wilderness had 
hidden wide fields surrounding numerous Indian villages, 
but early in the war these had been destroyed by a co- 
lonial army, and their inhabitants had been constrained 
to abandon their homes and to retire westward to the 
Niagara River. Only part of these refugees had re- 
turned to rebuild their flimsy abodes. Most had pre- 
ferred to make new homes in the vast forest which swept 
smoothly back from the Niagara. Of these refugees a 
large group, mainly composed of Senecas, had selected as 
a likely abode the valley of Buffalo Creek, and here they 
had established themselves in new settlements. These 
settlements formed the nucleus about which was to be 
crystallized the Buffalo Creek Reservation. 

The soldiers of the colonial army which had invaded 
and devastated the lands of the Six Nations in 1779 had 
brought back to the coast colonies marvelous stories of 
the fertile and altogether delectable lands of central and 
western New York, and these had so excited the land 
hunger of the already crowded populations of the eastern 
colonies that at the close of the Revolution there was a 
rapid influx into this more western county. Through a 
series of transfers the Indians sold their lands, wisely 
reserving, however, sufficient to afford them homes and a 
livelihood. One of the tracts thus reserved was located 
about the refugee villages in the valley of Buffalo Creek, 


and this tract became the Buffalo Creek Reservation. 
Here for sixty years lived the main body of the Seneca 
Nation, amongst them their most prominent personages. 
Eventually the demand for their land became so insistent 
that the Senecas sold this reservation and once more re- 
moved, this time to settlements already established on 
the Cattaraugus and Allegheny, and the primitive condi- 
tions of their lands on the Buffalo Creek vanished like 
blown smoke before the inrush of white settlers. 

The Buffalo Creek Reservation was a long rectangle of 
land lying fairly athwart what is now Erie County; one 
end based on Lake Erie, the other in what is now the 
eastern boundary of the county. The southern boundary 
ran straight east from a point at about the present Bay 
View. The northern boundary was intended to be par- 
allel to this, but circumstances made it advisable to 
bend this as it approached the lake so that the mouth of 
the creek might not be in the hands of the Indians. This 
rectangle contained 83,557 acres of land, the most fertile 
and most delightful of all the lands of Erie County. 

The Buffalo Creek Reservation was in general a flat 
plain tilted upward to the east. At its western end 
where it abutted upon the lake, its altitude was 573 
feet, but eastwardly it rose gradually to the flat plains 
about Marilla until it attained a height of 325 feet above 
Lake Erie. This tilted plain is dissected by Buffalo 
Creek and by its main branches, Cazenovia Creek and 
Cayuga Creek. Its southern portion is cut by Smoke's 
Creek which enters it on its southern edge and continues 
in it to its mouth. 

The topography of the Reservation was partly decided 
by the rock formations underlying it. These are mainly 
a long series of soft gray, and more obdurate black, 
shales, being portions of the lower beds of the Devonic 
system, interbedded with which are two rather insig- 


nifiicant beds of limestone. All these dip downward to 
the south and form a series of low and unimportant es- 
carpments extending across the reservation from north- 
east to southwest. The valley of Buffalo Creek has been 
gouged out of the softer shales but where the streams 
feeding it have crossed the harder black shale there have 
been formed numerous steep-walled gorges and cliffs 
which diversify the otherwise flat and uninteresting 
country. At one or two points, also, the hard, black 
shale causes cascades which were taken advantage of by 
the incoming settlers for water power with which to 
drive the wheels of primitive grist- and saw-mills. 

These rock formations have not decided the topography 
of the Keservation to the extent which might have been 
possible had they not been subjected to the action of the 
great glacier which at one time buried this region be- 
neath hundreds of feet of ice. This glacial action, more 
than the rock formations, decided the general character 
of the region, its soil, its topography and its charmingly 
diversified landscape. 

At some time, extremely remote as compared with 
history, yet comparatively recent from the geologist's 
point of view, all western New York, in common with all 
the northern part of the United States, was buried under 
an immensely thick and widely extended sheet of ice, a 
continental glacier of the type which now mantles 
Greenland. This ice centered somewhere about Hudson's 
Bay and because of constantly increasing cold, pressed 
southward until its front stood approximately at the 
present Pennsylvania line. Over Erie County the ice 
stood to a depth of perhaps two thousand feet, and the 
appearance of the country was that of middle Greenland 
today. At its southern edge the tops of a few of the 
Cattaraugus hills stood out above the snow-covered 
waste, but of our hills and valleys, lakes and rivers, 


nothing was visible. They were deeply buried beneath 
the crushing weight of the huge ice mass. 

The tremendous weight of this mass of ice combined 
with a movement slow but constant, generated an im- 
mense erosive power. The bottom of the glacier came 
into contact with the soil and rocks of the ancient land, 
and these were torn from their beds, picked up by the 
ice and pushed or rolled or borne along by the advancing 
ice. Resistant rocks were scored deeply and polished by 
the abrasive action of the bottom of the ice, while on its 
surface rode huge boulders from the far away mountains 
of northern Canada. 

After a long period of cold, the climate so moderated 
that the glacier melted more rapidly than it gained by 
precipitation, and slowly it dwindled away, with frequent 
pauses marking slightly colder seasons. At its receding 
front the included detritus with all the rock rubbish 
from all the ledges over which it had moved, dropped 
slowly down in the melting ice eventually coming to rest 
as a deep mantle over the old soil. Hills were covered, 
valleys were buried, river courses choked and obliterated. 
From the melting glacier sprang great rivers which in- 
stead of following the old and well-established drainage 
systems of the ancient land, reached the ocean by new 
and hitherto unknown channels. The ice lay across the 
natural slope of the land, and between the constantly 
receding ice wall and the emerging high lands to the 
southward of it great lakes formed and persisted for un- 
noted centuries. Water backed up into every ancient 
river valley forming long narrow lakes of the type now 
persisting in central New York. Many of the surface 
features of the Buffalo Creek Reservation are the result 
of this deposit of detritus, and of its consequent distri- 
bution by the icy waters of the melting glacier. All the 
rock beds are buried deeply by this detritus which forms 


the soil of our region. Imbedded in this soil are granite 
boulders which rode down upon the surface of the ice 
from their parent ledges in far away Canada, Across 
the southeastern edge of the Reservation lies a band of 
smoothly rolling knolls, a moraine marking the loca- 
tion of the front of the glacier at some pause in its reces- 
sion. At several places there are long low clay hills, 
masses of compact blue clay and boulders, evidently 
ground moraines laid down under the glacier. 

Originally the whole surface of the Reservation was 
covered by dense forest. Bordering the lake were wide, 
low swamps covered then as now by a dense growth of 
flags and swamp grass. Bordering this and encroaching 
upon the less swampy portions grew a wide belt of black 
ash. The banks of the creeks and the wide flats border- 
ing them were thickly set with basswoods, the abundance 
of which along Buffalo Creek caused the Indians to 
name it Dyosowa, the place of basswood trees. The sur- 
face of the low plains above the creek flat was diversified 
by low, sandy knolls and shallow, swampy depressions. 
Here grew heavy stands of beech, maple, hickory and 
walnut, all dominated by the sombre pyramids of giant 
hemlock and pine. This primeval forest cover, even in 
the days of the Reservation, was rapidly being depleted, 
for the uplands were being denuded to supply the demand 
for building material for the growing city of Buffalo, 
while the bottoms were being cleared by Indian farmers 
to provide cultivated fields. Many of these clearings 
were soon abandoned and allowed to grow up to under- 
brush, yet the effect was that of deforestation. On both 
uplands and bottoms there were originally frequent 
natural clearings, grassy glades surrounded by the for- 
est as by a wall. 

Along the creeks, like beads upon a necklace, were 
strung the humble and, frequently, primitive abodes of 


the Indians. Most of these were solitary, set without 
order in locations which met the needs or convenience of 
their builders. Some of these homes were built of logs, 
a few still perhaps of bark after the ancient fashion, 
yet many were well constructed of sawn lumber identical 
in general appearance and internal convenience with the 
homes of the white people near them. Each house was 
set in its clearing, which according to its owner's thrift 
or ability, was large or small, well cultivated or neglect- 
ed. In the cleared fields grew corn, which with abundant 
squashes and beans, formed the staple food of the peo- 
ple. Apple trees abounded, some, probably, scattered 
and wild, many however, set in well cared-for orchards. 

In a few places the cabins with their clearings were 
set so closely together that the groups deserved the title 
of villages. In ancient fashion these groups had formed 
about some prominent personage as a nucleus. The vil- 
lage best known was that in which lived Red Jacket. In 
the early days this had been the seat of the Pagan party, 
but latterly missionaries had established themselves 
there, and had built a church, whose bell determined the 
Indian name for the village, Te-kise-na-do-yont, the place 
of the bell. 

Of the inhabitants of these primitive abodes most were 
Senecas. Most of these were refugees and their descend- 
ants, driven from their long-established homes in the 
Genesee country by the avenging colonials. A few were 
probably descendants of families who had located here 
in far earlier times, colonists from the more eastern vil- 

With these, but in separate groups, were two cognate 
nations, the Onondagas and Cayugas. In the exodus 
many of these had followed the Mohawks under their 
great leader, Joseph Brant, to the Grand River in Cana- 
da. Some however had thrown in their lot with the 


Senecas and had domiciled themselves along Buffalo 
Creek. A few also of alien blood were to be found, Stock- 
bridges from Massachusetts, a few Delawares and a 
very few whites who for some reason had come to live 
amongst the Indians. 

Cutting through the wilderness of woods were numer- 
ous paths, which connected the scattered cabins, and 
opened communication with other far-away communities. 
Some of these were transient and dim, paths only between 
fields and homes. Others were deeply marked trails, 
trodden and scored by generations of soft-shod aboriginal 

These permanent trails led along the banks of all the 
water courses and eventually converged at the mouth of 
Buffalo Creek, where they joined the great main travelled 
way which followed the shore of Lake Erie to the west 
and continued along the banks of the Niagara to Lake 
Ontario. Another main path led off to the northeastward 
to the Tonawanda villages, eventually reaching another 
main trail at the bend of the Tonawanda Creek where 
now is Batavia. Just before reaching Batavia it joined 
another main road which led to Lewiston and Fort Ni- 
agara. There seems to have also been a main trail di- 
rectly to the east eventually reaching the villages on the 
upper Genesee. 

Where these paths crossed streams, they did so at shal- 
low places, where fording was safe and practicable. One 
of these at the Seneca Council House was so deep that in 
high water it was unfordable, and a canoe must be used 
to cross. At the Onondaga Council House on Cazenovia 
Creek, the water was hardly ankle-deep. 




To one interested in the peoples of past and gone times 
and their culture, the Buffalo Creek Valley offers in its 
archaeology a very interesting and varied field. All over 
its surface are to be found vestiges of an ancient and pre- 
historic people. Every sandy knoll, every creek terrace, 
will yield to the searcher its crude points of chert or its 
bits of pottery, showing that here abode some pre-his- 
toric Stone Age savage. While, as will be told later, 
some of these vestiges may be traced and attributed 
definitely to some distinct peoples, the identity of the 
users of many of them can never be known. 

Although there are scattered over the surface of the 
reservation a vast number of artifacts of different kinds, 
and though any patient search over nearly any field on 
the reservation will yield a few flint points, there are 
certain restricted areas which yield, and have yielded for 
years, hundreds and even thousands of weapons, tools 
and utensils made and left there by the pre-historic oc- 
cupants of the region. These restricted areas are further 
marked in some few cases by very deep deposits of a 
peculiar black, carbonaceous, ashy earth, and a few 
areas are still known to have been surrounded by earthen 
walls. These areas mark the site of large communities, 
all of which are well known locally as "Indian forts" or 
"Indian villages" and most have been searched by col- 
lectors for nearly a century. A few have been studied in- 
tensively for the purpose of gathering some information 
about their inhabitants. There are, besides these, cer- 


tain small areas upon which artifacts are fairly abundant, 
which may be called definitely the camping sites of 
wandering bands of people. 

Of the restricted areas marked by the evidences of a 
large occupancy for many years, there are seven on the 
Buffalo Creek Beservation. The characteristics of these 
are all in the main identical excepting that some of them 
show the unmistakable evidence of contact with Euro- 
peans, whereas others show no evidence that the people 
who had once inhabited them had ever met these over- 
seas foreigners. They are all marked by beds of black, 
ashly earth, the remains of what, in the time of their 
origin, would have been the refuse or garbage heaps of 
the primitive village. These beds in all cases are strewn 
promiscuously over the face of what was the village site, 
though in some few cases where the site was circum- 
scribed partly by ravines, the refuse streams down the 
sides of the ravine and into the bottom of the stream-bed 
below. In some cases these black beds seem to mark the 
position of the cabins of the village. 

This accumulation was composed of all the animal 
refuse of the village combined with the ashes of its fires. 
Into it was swept or thrown practically every article 
that was in use in the village, either in a broken condition 
and thrown away as useless, or lost by accident, and it 
is very astonishing to note the number of articles which 
these deposits yield. The surface of a refuse heap when 
under cultivation, shows on the surface of the site as a 
wide, black area plainly visible in plowed ground, es 
pecially after a rain, and more especially marked by the 
abundance of articles found on them. Of these articles, 
animal bones are probably at present most abundant. 
With these are chert points of various kinds, stone axes 
and chisels, potsherds and pipes in great variety, awls 
and fishhooks made of bone, chisels, gouges and hoes 


made of antler, and occasional ornaments of a somewhat 
limited variety. Many of these heaps have a superficial 
area of two hundred to a thousand square feet and a 
depth of two to four feet, and show evidence of the oc- 
cupancy of this particular site for a relatively long period 
by a relatively large population ; for in order to produce 
a mass of carbonaceous earth three feet thick and thirty 
feet square, there must have been originally laid down 
there a mass of refuse and garbage of much greater di- 
mensions and this only could have been produced by a 
great number of people for a brief period or a smaller 
number of people for a long time. 

Connected with these sites are the graves of the people 
who lived there. Not all the cemeteries of villages on the 
Buffalo Creek Keservation are yet known. Of those 
which are known, some of the graves are to be found di- 
rectly within the area occupied by the houses of the 
village; in other villages they are some distance away, 
outside the palisades which at one time surrounded them. 

The situation of these village sites is somewhat varied. 
At the western end of the Reservation, they are all on 
the low terraces above Buffalo or Cazenovia Creek. At 
the eastern end of the Reservation, in the town of Elma, 
they are uniformly so placed as to take advantage of 
strong, defensive positions, being in every case partially 
or very nearly surrounded by ravines or by steep terrace 
banks. In this latter case, the primary idea seems to 
have been ease of defense in conjunction with which were 
nearness to water and the presence of fertile land. In 
the former case, where the country was flatter and less 
adapted to natural defense, the primary idea seems to be 
only nearness to water and fertile fields. In every case, 
there was a disposition to retire inland from the lake and 
the river; and so far as is known, there was no Indian 


village of any size anywhere near the main thoroughfare 
furnished by the lake and the Niagara. 

Known as they have been ever since the reservation 
was opened up to white settlement, these sites have been 
the subject of a great deal of archaeologic study. Some of 
the desultory collectors of Indian relics, who wandered 
over their surface after every rain or every cultivation, 
gleaned from the fields a great number of artifacts of 
Indian origin. There has been, however, on all the sites 
some detailed and systematic study, and it is from this 
study that we have gained the little that we know about 

One site, that on Buffam Street, now the Seneca Indian 
Park, was rather carefully studied by the writer for the 
Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, one large and deep 
refuse heap being carefully excavated and the graves in 
its cemetery opened up. Similar work was also done on 
a site on the Eaton Farm in West Seneca and on two 
other sites at Elma. A site at the foot of Fenton Street 
in Buffalo was practically destroyed by excavation while 
grading a street and very few data were ever recovered 
as a result. One other site at Elma is still practically 

Of the seven prehistoric village sites known to exist in 
the Buffalo Creek Valley two show evidences that the in- 
habitants had had intercourse with Europeans. One of 
these is at the foot of Fenton Street in Buffalo, the other 
on the Hart Farm in West Seneca. On the surface of 
these sites, and in their graves, there have been found 
articles of European origin, brass kettles, iron axes, glass 
beads and mirrors, and various other articles such as 
constituted the stock in trade of early traders. All of 
these are of a type which are abundant on the sites of 
the great Seneca villages of Canagora and Totiakton of 
1687, and they fairly represent the articles brought into 


the country by the English and Dutch traders of the 
late 17th century. Mingled with these are abundant 
artifacts of primitive Indian manufacture, indicating 
that these sites were inhabited at a time early enough to 
make the manufacture and use of these ancient types 
still necessary. 

A careful study of the remaining five sites has shown 
no evidence that the inhabitants had ever had inter- 
course with Europeans, and so they may be safely 
ascribed to a pre-European time. Of these pre-historic 
and Stone Age villages, that at Seneca Indian Park on 
Buffam Street, Buffalo, has been so carefully studied that 
a description of its archaeology will serve for the rest. 

The site now known as Seneca Indian Park was for- 
merly known locally as the "Old Indian Burying Ground". 
During the Seneca occupation of the Beservation the 
site of the ancient prehistoric village was used by them 
as a cemetery and in it most of their prominent people 
were buried. In 1909 it was bought by Mr. John D. 
Larkin and deeded as a gift from himself and Mrs. Larkin 
to the City of Buffalo to be used as a park. It occupies 
a sandy terrace which conceals from view an outcrop of 
Stafford limestone. 

The area of the ancient village embraced the present 
Seneca Indian Park and extends northward beyond it. 
The entire area when first known was surrounded by an 
earthen wall. This was surveyed and described by Mr. 
E. G. Squier in 1849. 

The surface of the site was originally blackened by 
numerous large and deep refuse beds, most of which have 
been scattered and partly obliterated by continued cul- 
tivation. That portion which was set apart by the 
Senecas for a cemetery has never been cultivated and in 
it there are still a few undisturbed refuse heaps. A large 
heap in this portion of the site was carefully excavated 


by the writer and a large and very complete collection of 
artifacts was acquired. These are now on exhibition in 
the museum of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences 
and give not only an intimate knowledge of the life of 
these prehistoric villagers, but serve as a type of articles 
found on these ancient sites. 

The refuse heap lay on the inclined edge of a slight 
rise which runs across the entire site. Superficially it 
was approximately thirty feet long and thirty feet wide 
in the shaiie of an irregular ellipse. In cross-section it 
was lenticular, thickest on the median line where it at- 
tained a depth of almost four feet. From this it thinned 
out in all directions until its edges merged indefinitely 
with the original mold of the site. 

This mass of earth was composed of layers and lenses 
of almost pure gray ashes alternating or merged with a 
peculiar black, greasy, carbonaceous earth. Below these 
layers was the mold of the original surface and scattered 
through them, embedded in both ashes and black earth, 
were numerous charred organic remains, charcoal, corn, 
beans and nuts, with bones of animals and human arti- 
facts in great number and variety. 

Of vegetable remains preserved by charring, corn was 
abundant and its large size and great quantity gave suf- 
ficient evidence of the agricultural skill of the villagers. 
Beans and squash seeds attested their dependence to 
some extent upon the "Three Great Ones." With these 
were nuts and wild fruits, acorns, hickorynuts and wal- 
nuts, and seeds of various berries. 

Bones of animals were abundant. Literally bushels of 
these were intermingled with the refuse, earth and ashes, 
representing every animal used for food in the village. 
Bones of deer and bear were most numerous. Elk was 
represented together with wolf, dog and fox, wild-cat, 
raccoon, squirrel and rabbit. Bones of fishes of several 


species; of frogs and turtles; and the shells of fresh 
water mussels were abundant enough to show that the 
villagers derived much of their food from the nearby 
creeks and lake. 

How the village hunters secured their animal food 
was shown by numerous implements. Of these by far the 
most abundant were arrow-points, of which over a hun- 
dred were found. These were all made of local chert, 
and all were tiny, keen, well-made triangles, of the type 
which is characteristic of all Iroquoian peoples. Not 
one point large enough to be considered a spear-or lance- 
head was found in the heap, nor one of the notched or 
tanged type. A few fishhooks neatly carved from flat 
bones showed at least one way of securing fishes, and a 
few large flat blades made of antler showed evidence 
that they had been used as hoes or spades. 

Nearly as abundant as bones were potsherds, represent- 
ing dozens of clay kettles of many different sizes. Some 
were fragments of vessels nearly as large as a bushel 
basket, others no larger than a small cup. Most were 
made of clay from local beds, tempered with silica in 
the form of powdered chert or granite. A few were made 
of different clay tempered with pulverized clam-shells. 
All were of the round bottomed type, well made, usually 
beautifully molded and frequently decorated with a band 
of lines impressed in the wet clay before burning. The 
decorative motive was usually, nearly always, the re- 
peated triangle filled in with parallel lines, characteristic 
of Iroquoian pottery. Charred food still adhered to 
many fragments. 

Implements used in manufacturing other articles were 
rather abundant. Most numerous were awls. These 
were beautifully fashioned of bone, and ranged in size 
from one the size of a fine needle to one nine inches 
long. These were used in sewing. A few knife-blades 


and scraper-blades made of chert showed how pelts were 
dressed and cut in making clothing. There were numer- 
ous cylinders carved of antler, tools for use in chipping 
points of chert. 

There were comparatively few evidences of the amuse- 
ments of the villagers. Two small flattened spheroids 
made of antler resemble the peach stones still used 
amongst the Senecas for gambling, and these were prob- 
ably so used. Pipes were abundant. All were fashioned 
from clay, in the shapes common to the Iroquoian peoples. 
Personal adornments were few and crude. There were a 
few teeth and bones, perforated for suspension, which 
were doubtless worn as trophies. A few rude beads made 
of fresh-water mussel-shell were the only other ornaments. 

On the crest of a sandy knoll a few hundred feet north- 
east of the area occupied by the village, was their ceme- 
tery. The graves had been hollowed out in the sand to a 
depth of two feet or more. The bodies were nearly all in 
the flexed position, typical of Indian burials, knees drawn 
up to the body, hands before the face. Most bodies lay 
on their sides without any special orientation. Two 
burials were of the type known as "bundle burials." In 
these the bones had been disarticulated, and tied in a 
bundle, the long bones parallel, the skull and pelvis at 
each end, a burial common amongst the Iroquoian 
peoples. Contrary to usual belief almost nothing had 
been buried with these bodies. Two small clay vessels, 
evidently originally filled with food, were found in two 
graves. This absence of articles in graves is typical of 
graves of Stone Age Iroquois, for the custom of burying 
with the dead their arms or ornaments seems to have 
been almost unknown amongst all the Iroquoian nations 
until after the coming of the Europeans. A few bones 
showed signs of sickness and accident, but none of death 
from wounds. 


The archaeology of the site shows it to have been in- 
habited by a relatively large sedentary community, who 
lived peaceably on the products derived from their fields 
of corn, beans and squashes, and from the forests about 
them, from the waters of the near-by streams and lakes, 
and from the wild animal life which filled the surround- 
ing wastes. They had no intercourse with Europeans. 
Their hunters were armed with flint-tipped arrows. The 
women dismembered the kill with chert knives, scraped 
the hides with chert scrapers, made clothing therefrom 
with bone awl and sinew thread, and adorned it with 
rude ornaments. 

Besides this site at Seneca Indian Park, four other 
sites are to be attributed to similar Stone Age Iroquoian 
communities, one in West Seneca, not far east of the 
Buffalo City Line, the other three centering about the 
hamlet of East Elma. The culture of all these, as shown 
by their archaeology, is identical with that at Seneca In- 
dian Park. The site in West Seneca, on a shale bluff on 
the northern bank of Gazenovia Creek, is on land owned 
by Mr. Schaub and Mr. Eaton. Its refuse heaps are deep 
and numerous and their contents are identical in every 
detail with those found in the refuse at Seneca Park. 
Besides these abundant artifacts derived from the refuse, 
the surface of this site yields numerous notched points 
indicative of an occupation by some other, and non-Iro- 
quoian, people. The sites at East Elma are on the flat 
tops of terraces which here border the eastern side of 
the valley of Buffalo Creek. All are placed in angles 
formed where deep ravines debouch into the valley. On 
all there is deep refuse earth, most of which streams down 
the steep ravine walls. All are of pure Iroquoian culture, 
and despite the presence of a very few European articles 
of a late type attributed to the Senecas who had villages 
here, all are of a pre-European period. 


In addition to these seven pre-historic village sites on 
the Buffalo Creek Reservation, there are three others 
just beyond its borders. Of these, one on the farm of Mr. 
Crookes at South Wales resembles in every detail that 
at Fenton Street, yielding from its refuse and graves 
the usual trade articles of the 17th century. It is an un- 
defended site. Of the remaining two, both are post- 
European, yielding trade articles and abundant primitive 
artifacts of Iroquoian type with marked Neuter char- 
acteristics. These however do not resemble the artifacts 
from the other post-European villages, but have charac- 
teristics of their own. One site is in an angle made where 
a deep ravine enters the steep-walled gorge of Smoke's 
Creek in East Hamburg. The remaining site is three 
miles south of this at Orchard Park, on Smoke's Creek. 
It seems to be an earlier site of the preceding village. 
Nearly all its artifacts are of Stone Age, Iroquoian type, 
yet a few European articles have been found in its graves. 

Of all the remains upon the Buffalo Creek Reservation 
the most conspicuous were the embankments, the walls 
of Indian forts. These were made of earth, ranging in 
height from a foot to four feet, and enclosing areas of 
various sizes and shapes. When the first white settlers 
began to clear their lands, they found numerous walls 
concealed by the undergrowth of the forest, but when 
this was removed the embankments stood out in bold re- 
lief upon the surface. Continued cultivation soon re- 
duced these walls to the level of the surrounding fields, 
and now no embankment remains within the area com- 
prised in the Buffalo Creek Reservation. Fortunately, 
before they were entirely destroyed, some, possibly all, 
were surveyed and described by Mr. E. G. Squier in 1849. 
and some were mentioned or described by others. The 
appearance and location of most are still remembered by 
residents of the localities in which they formerly existed. 


A few still exist not far from the reservation, two being 
especially well preserved, one at Shelby and one at Oak- 
field, and there are numerous well-preserved embank- 
ments at various places in the Genesee Valley, and 
crowning hills in Cattaraugus and Chatauqua counties. 

Of the purpose of these embankments there can be no 
doubt. They are the bases of walls which surrounded 
and defended villages or camps. In nearly every case the 
soil of the enclosed area is strewn with the debris re- 
sulting from a prolonged occupancy. The defences would 
have been a palisade of logs or poles whose bases would 
have been sunk in the earth and which would have been 
strengthened by further heaping up earth about their 
bases. This earth was obtained by digging it from a 
ditch bordering the wall on the outside. The heap of 
earth thus produced would follow the line of the palisade 
and when through time or accident this was decayed or 
destroyed the heap of earth remained as a low wall. 

Excavations on certain of these embankments have 
discovered the holes in which stood the logs of the palis- 
ade. These are now filled with mold but some when 
cleaned out have so far retained the shape of the base 
of the log that casts made from them as molds preserved 
the exact shape and details of the original log. 

The use of palisades as defences was common to all Iro- 
quoian nations and probably to all the sedentary Indians 
of the eastern United States. Many have been visited 
and described by Europeans while in use. A late example 
surrounded the Seneca village of Ganagaro when it was 
visited by LaSalle in 1669, and was described by his 
journalist, Father Galinee, as being "a lot of cabins sur- 
rounded with palisades of poles, 12 or 13 feet high, 
fastened together at the top and planted in the ground, 
with great piles of wood the height of a man behind these 


Besides the sites of villages where, from a very limited 
area, hundreds or even thousands of Indian artifacts may 
be gathered, there are certain areas where artifacts are 
fairly numerous. To be sure, arrow and spear points are 
to be found scattered promiscuously over the fields of 
nearly the entire area embraced in the Buffalo Creek 
Reservation, but in certain areas these are more numer- 
ous. A small area on a creek terrace may yield dozens 
of points and possibly an axe or a polished slate orna- 
ment ; or a sandy knoll in a field may yield a handful of 
flint chips and broken points. Yet aside from these evi- 
dences of human activity, there are none of the refuse 
and ash-heaps or cemeteries which are so characteristic 
of great village sites, and the artifacts which are found 
on these small areas are radically different from those 
of the villages. 

Numerous examples of these small sites occur every- 
where on the reservations, but so similar are they that a 
detailed description of one will suffice for all. 

Just south of the long east and west morainic hill 
which carries the Ridge Road in Lackawanna, is a tiny, 
unnamed brook, a tributary of Smoke's Creek. On a 
sandy knoll on the bank of this brook, is a site which is 
typical of these small camp sites. After any plowing, a 
walk across the knoll will reveal a few points, all of the 
large notched type, and occasionally with these are found 
slate gorgets and stone hatchets. Flint chips are abun- 
dant, showing that there at some time people had made 
arrow points of chert. One piece of pottery gives a rather 
definite clue to the people who once lived here. It is a 
large piece, thick, heavy, coarse-grained and evidently 
broken from a vessel of large size. Its surface is cov- 
ered with cord markings of a type which is well known in 
the country to the south occupied by the Algonkian 
tribes of the Delaware stock. Beyond these few articles 


there is nothing to mark this as the abiding-place of peo- 
ple. No graves have been found, there are no burned 
areas suggesting ash beds, and there is no evidence of 
any refuse. 

It is extremely difficult to attribute a site of this kind 
definitely to any nation of Indians now known to us. 
That they were prehistoric Stone Age people there is, 
of course, no doubt. None of these areas yields any ob- 
jects which show the least influence by Europeans, That 
they are not of the Iroquoian stock is just as sure, for 
the points found on the sites are of a type absolutely dif- 
ferent from those found on the areas marked by the 
refuse heaps of the great villages originating with Iro- 
quoian people. That they were not abiding places of any 
large number of sedentary people for any length of time 
is certain, for any sedentary community established in 
one place for any length of time would leave indubitable 
marks of their occupancy in the shape of refuse and 
ashes, the accumulations of their cooking and of their 

Of these small sites it can be definitely said that they 
were the abiding places for a short time of small bands 
of prehistoric non-Iroquoian people. That these people 
were of Algonkian stock is almost certain, because the 
articles found are identical in every way with those found 
in indubitable Algonkian sites in Pennsylvania; and that 
these Algonkian people were wanderers from the south, 
seems probable. 

In all probability these small sites marked the favor- 
ite camp-grounds for wandering bands of some Algon- 
kian people who drifted about the country from one place 
to another searching out hunting grounds, fishing sta- 
tions, or productive berry patches or sugar groves. They 
would be in all ways identical, excepting in mere pri- 
mitiveness, with the Ojibways of today, who wander 


about the shores of Georgian Bay and the great wilder- 
ness south of Hudson Bay, hunting, trapping, fishing, 
blue-berry picking, establishing their frail, bark-covered 
conical wigwams for a time and then moving on to some 
other point as their fancy leads them. 

But if this be true for these, who were the primitive 
folk, living out their days in the large villages hidden 
away in the forests which shadowed Buffalo Creek, and 
why were they thus immured in these forests? 

The answer can be found only in their archaeology, 
when used to verify the meager information gleaned and 
noted by Jesuit missionaries in far-away Huronia. No 
historian wrote their simple annals. No trader, even, 
drew up his laden canoe at their gates and held aloft his 
gaudy beads or kettle of shining brass for their admiring 
inspection. Not even a black-robed priest or hardy far- 
faring explorer thrust aside the skin curtains of their 
smoky cabins. 

Basing opinions upon the accounts of the Jesuit mis- 
sionaries of the various nations inhabiting the Niagara 
Frontier, we might attribute the occupancy of these vil- 
lages to some one or all of four nations, namely, the 
Neuters, the Wenroes, the Eries or the Senecas. An in- 
tensive study of the archaeology of these four nations and 
a determination of their characteristics have enabled the 
writer to determine with some degree of precision the 
occupants of these ancient villages. 

There has been a tendency to ascribe these remains to 
the Neuter Nation, basing this upon the well-known 
history of the nation. As a matter of fact, no site on the 
Buffalo Creek Reservation can be attributed to these 

When Champlain visited the Huron nation in 1615, 
he made every effort to acquire information about the 
nations which lay near the Huron country. For this in- 


formation he was obliged to rely upon his Huron hosts 
and it was from these that he, first of any European, re- 
ceived knowledge of the nation which he named the 
Neutral nation. 

The real name of this nation is unknown. Ohamplain 
seems to have been unable to get it from the Hurons and 
gave to them merely the descriptive appellation, the "Na- 
tion Neutre," because he learned that in the incessant 
warfare which was then going on between the Hurons 
and the Iroquois Confederacy, this "Neutre Nation" 
took no part and not only maintained neutrality itself, 
but enforced neutrality between parties of the warring 
nations which met in its villages. The name was noted 
on maps based upon Champlain's explorations ; and when 
the French missionaries began their work amongst the 
Hurons, they continued to use the name. The Hurons 
called these people Attiwandarons, another descriptive 
term meaning only "they speak differently" or "their 
speech is twisted," applied because although they spoke 
a dialect of the Iroquoian tongue and could readily be 
understood by either Hurons or Iroquois, enough differ- 
ence in their speech existed to mark them as strangers. 
The same term could have been applied by Senecas to 
the Hurons or by Onondagas to the Andastes. On sev- 
eral maps they appear as Atiraguenrates or Atiragenriga, 
which seem to be mere variations of the term Attiwan- 

When the Neutral Nations first became known to Eur- 
opeans, they lived in that portion of Ontario limited on 
the west by the Detroit River, and on the south by Lake 
Erie. Eastwardly their lands crossed the Niagara and 
abutted upon those of an allied nation, the Wenroes. On 
the north they were hemmed in partly by Lake Ontario, 
though beyond its western end their lands reached north- 
wardly to some unknown boundary which separated them 


from the Hurons and Tionontatis, both kindred nations. 

The archaeology of this peninsula shows plainly that 
the Neuters when they first met Europeans were migrat- 
ing rather slowly from west to east. All the numerous 
village sites west of the Grand River are of the pre-his- 
toric time, but nearly all east of that river show evidences 
in increasing abundance that their inhabitants had come 
into contact with Europeans. 

The Neuters were numerous and sedentary although 
warlike. They numbered 12,000, living in 28 towns, when 
the first European visitor, Father Dallion, came amongst 
them. They lived in long communal houses made of 
bark. Surrounding their villages were fields of corn, 
beans, squashes, sunflowers from the seeds of which they 
made oil, and tobacco, which they sold to other less fav- 
ored nations. 

For a generation after Champlain's time the history of 
the Neutral Nation was well-known to the French mis- 
sionaries, and these made frequent mention of them. The 
first European to pass through this country was un- 
doubtedly Etienne Brule, an employe of Samuel Cham- 
plain. In 1615 he was sent by Champlain with some 
Huron guides to enlist the aid of an allied nation, the 
Carantouans, who had their abodes on the upper reaches 
of the Susquehanna River. To reach them from Huronia 
he must pass through the Canadian peninsula, the coun- 
try of the Neuters, but in his brief account to Champlain 
of his adventures he did not mention this nation. 

Not for ten years thereafter was their country visited 
by a European. In 1625 Father Joseph de la Roche Dal- 
lion, a Recollect stationed in the new Huron mission, was 
assigned the task of visiting the Neuters and preparing 
the way for missionary effort. He spent nine months 
amongst them and seems to have approached the Niagara 
River. He wrote a very interesting account of the Neu- 


ters in a letter written at Tonachin in Huronia to a 
friend in France. 1 

Nothing further is recorded of them until 1638 when a 
war party brought in a great number of captives as a re- 
sult of a raid against the Mascoutins. It seems possible 
that an Iroquoian site at the junction of the Illinois and 
Kankakee rivers may be ascribed to this or similar raids 
by the Neuters. 

The following year, 1639, the Neuter villagers saw a 
weary procession of refugees, Wenroes, of an allied na- 
tion, as they plodded along the well-worn paths that led 
to the Huron country. These Wenroes were kin to the 
Neuters and had at one time been confederated with 
them. For some time previous to 1639 they had been 
harassed by war-parties of the Iroquois, probably the 
Senecas, and in that year they had finally abandoned 
their villages and fields and were passing through the 
Neuter country on their way to the Hurons, who had 
offered them sanctuary. 

In 1640 the Neuter Nation was decided upon by the 
French missionaries in Huronia as a field of religious 
labor and two Jesuits, Fathers Brebeuf and Chaumonot, 
were assigned the task of carrying the cross thither. 
Their task was especially difficult, for the Hurons who 
for years had acted as middlemen in a brisk and profit- 
able trade in French goods with the Neuters, were averse 
to any French action which might open up direct inter- 
course between the French and the Neuter market to their 
own loss. Accordingly the priests were preceded by 
propaganda artfully disseminated by the Hurons, with 
the purpose of antagonizing the Neuters and nullifying 
any efforts made by the priests. 

In consequence of the Huron slanders, the Neuters re- 
ceived the priests as enemies, denied them food and shel- 

l Le Clercq, Establishment of the Faith in Nezv France, I, 263. 


ter and repeatedly threatened them with death. They 
finally allowed them, however, to visit a few villages 
where they were treated with the same distrustful, sus- 
picious, sullen hostility. Eventually they were taken in 
by a Neuter woman who treated them kindly and en- 
deavored to aid them in a study of the Neuter tongue, 
yet so intractable were the Neuters that the next spring 
the two priests abandoned the field and returned with 
the news of their lamentable failure to their brethren 
in Huronia. 

During the years 1648 and 1649 the long war which 
for generations had been waged between the Hurons and 
their kindred, the Iroquois Confederacy of the Five Na- 
tions of New York, culminated in a series of raids into 
the Huron country by the full force of the Confederacy. 
So fierce and unexpected was the onslaught that the 
downfall of the Hurons was accomplished, and the rem- 
nants of the nation either surrendered to the Iroquois to 
be by these fierce clansmen transplanted to their New 
York villages, or fled into the wintry wastes of the east 
shore of Georgian Bay, there to be harried and annihilated 
by their terrible foes. During these troublous years the 
Neuters had contrived to maintain a strict neutrality be- 
tween the two enemy nations. 

The reasons for this neutrality, and how it was possible 
for the nation to maintain it, are problematical. When 
the Iroquois Confederacy was formed there is no doubt 
that the Neuters were a party to it. At least one of the 
personages, who, with Hiawatha and Dekanawideh, were 
most instrumental in promulgating the "Great Peace," 
the doctrine basic to the Confederacy, was the "Peace 
Queen" or "Peace Mother." She is mentioned repeatedly 
in the accounts of the formation of the League. There 
seems no reason to doubt tradition that this Peace 


Woman was a Neuter. Yet the Neuters did not join the 
League, nor were they mentioned in connection with it. 

The reason why they were able to maintain neutrality 
seems to lie in the strength of the nation. Numerically 
they seem to have been the equals at least of the Hurons 
and to have exceeded the Iroquois, for in 1641 the Jesuits 
computed their population at 4,000 warriors, and this 
superiority may have secured for the nation a balance of 
power between the Hurons and Iroquois. This seems 
probable, for no sooner had the Iroquois destroyed the 
Hurons than they seem to have been freed to attack the 

Once settled upon by the Iroquois, the destruction of 
the Neuters went forward with startling and dramatic 
rapidity. The ostensible reason for an attack was a 
happening considered by the Senecas to be a breach of 
neutrality. In 1646 a Seneca war party had operated 
against the Tionontatis, who inhabited the region north- 
west of the Neuters. A Seneca warrior was detached 
from this party by a band of Hurons, who pursued him 
into the Neutral country. He sought sanctuary in the 
Neuter village of Aondirronon, but before he was able to 
enter it he was killed by his pursuers. Neither Hurons 
nor Neuters considered this a breach of neutrality, inso- 
much as neutrality was enforced only in the cabins of 
the Neuters. The Senecas, however, determined to avenge 
the death of their clansmen. 

The next year a large party, mainly Senecas and Onon- 
dagas, set out for the Huron country to avenge the death 
of a prominent Onondaga chief who was a hostage 
amongst the Hurons. Unfortunately for their designs, 
the party met the chief returning and learned that the 
rumors of his death were unfounded. The Senecas of the 
party then decided to punish Aondirronon, and proceed- 
ed to the unsuspecting town. Arriving there the party 


was entertained in the usual Indian fashion, but in the 
midst of the entertainment the Senecas treacherously 
rose against their hosts and massacred many of them. 
Many more they drove away captive to their villages in 
New York. 

Of the events immediately succeeding this treacherous 
act we know nothing. Seemingly peace was maintained 
through diplomacy for no hostilities are known to have 
taken place for some time, and the first intimation of 
war was reported by the missionaries in 1649, two years 

Of the events of the war that followed we know little. 
The Jesuits, the usual news gatherers, had been forced 
to leave the Huron country and so were in no position to 
learn the details but those at the headquarters at Quebec 
learned in 1651 from Iroquois sources that in the fall of 
1650 a party of 1500 Iroquois had destroyed a Neuter 
village, but that this party, having lost 200 of its war- 
riors, had returned to their homes. Another party of 
600 had at once left to avenge their loss. This party 
seems to have been successful, for the Jesuits reported 
late in 1651 that two towns had been taken with great 
slaughter, and that the Neutrals had abandoned their other 
villages and had scattered to avoid annihilation. Yet the 
following year these Neuters had received the aid of the 
Andastes and were enabled to invade the country of the 
Senecas and so terrorize them that the Seneca women 
fled for refuge to the Cayugas. The advantages of the 
Neuter-Andaste alliance were lost when the Mohawks 
were persuaded to make war upon the Andastes, thus to 
leave the Senecas free against the Neuters. 

As a consequence of this war the Neuters abandoned 
their country and fled across the Detroit River, and in 
1653 they joined the remnants of the Hurons and Tio- 
nontatis at Skenchio, on the shore of Lake Huron. 


Thus in four years the powerful Neuter nation became 
"a nation destroyed/' its corn fields given over to wilder- 
ness growth, its populous villages burned, its people 
driven by fear into the remoter wildernesses. Yet not all 
of these perished. Many were taken to the home villages 
of the Iroquois where their blood soon mingled with that 
of their conquerors. The others seem to have joined the 
Huron fugitives and to have re-appeared a century later 
as the powerful Wyandottes. 

It has been the quite general opinion of historians and 
archaeologists that to the Neuters must be attributed the 
village sites in the Buffalo Creek Valley. This is based 
partly upon the definite statement made by Father Lalle- 
mant, that "there are three of four [villages] beyond [the 
river] ranging from east to west towards the nation of 
the Cat or Eriechronons." Tradition seems to point to 
the site at Seneca Indian Park as one of the Neuter 
villages destroyed by the Senecas; but as a matter of 
fact, a study of the village sites of western New York and 
especially those in the valley of Buffalo Creek established 
definitely three facts. First, none of the sites in the Buf- 
falo Creek Valley can be attributed to the Neuter Nation. 
Second, there is one site near the valley which can only 
be ascribed to the Neuters. Third, there is no evidence 
in or near the valley of any battle. 

To establish these facts, it has been necessary to make 
c. detailed and intensive study of the archaeology of 
village sites which are of undoubted Neutral origin, from 
which to obtain some standards for comparison. The 
village sites selected for this work have been the post- 
European group at Brantford, Ontario; the post-Euro- 
pean group at Waterdown, Ontario; a site at Saint 
David's of post-European time, and several pre-European 
sites on the Grand river, and in the town of Bertie. A 
careful study of the artifacts derived from these sites 


elicited a number of facts regarding the culture which 
they show. 

First, in general character the culture of the Neuters, 
as shown by their archaeology, was identical with that of 
the New York Iroquois and all other nations of Iroquoian 
family. They used almost exclusively the small, tri- 
angular arrow-points, for almost never are there points 
of notched or stemmed pattern found in undoubted Neu- 
ter refuse or graves. They made fine clay pottery which 
they decorated with the triangular or chevron type of 
ornament common to all of the northern Iroquoian na- 
tions. They made excellent clay pipes which, in shape 
and form, were identical with those of other members of 
the Iroquois family. They used wood, bark, bone and 
antler abundantly for their tools and utensils. They were 
sedentary people depending upon their farms rather than 
hunting for a livelihood and this is evidenced by the deep 
refuse beds and ash beds so characteristic of all of the 
Iroquois nations. 

Second, certain differences occur between their culture 
and that of the other Iroquoian nations, which distinguish 
this as Neutral rather than Seneca or Erie. Like the 
other nations they used shell as material in making beads, 
pendants and similar adornments. But, unlike the others, 
they used large quantities of the shell of Strombus, the 
great conch-shell, which they imported from the Gulf of 
Mexico. Most Neutral sites will yield either articles 
made from this shell, or entire shells. 

Many of their village sites, both pre-European and x>ost- 
European, yield small flint blades like a flint scraper in 
shape, whose edges have been finely serrated. These are 
unknown on nearly all the sites of the other Iroquoian 

Although all Iroquoian sites yield small, short bone 
tubes, seemingly hollow bird bones, cut into sections an 


inch or more in length, most, probably all, Neutral sites 
yield large numbers of long bone tubes often five inches 
long and of a diameter up to three-fourths of an inch. 
Many of these are decorated with incised designs. The 
sites also yield antlers each perforated at a prong with 
a hole a half inch or thereabouts in diameter. These 
seem to be unknown on sites of the other Iorquois. 

If we take as Neutral characteristics these four details, 
namely, conch-shell and its derivations, the serrated scrap- 
er-like saw, the large bone tubes and the perforated ant- 
lers, and by them judge the village sites of the Buffalo 
Creek valley, we find that not one possesses these marks, 
and we can safely assume that these are not of Neutral 
origin. On the other hand, sites in East Hamburg on 
the Yates farm, and the Ellis farm, previously mentioned, 
do show some or all these marks and they can safely 
be said to be of Neutral origin. 

Beyond the borders of the reservation to the north 
there are certain other sites which show every character- 
istic of Neuter culture. Of these, the nearest is on the 
Niagara escarpment on the Tuscarora Keservation on the 
farm of Thomas Williams. This is locally known as 
Kienuka, meaning simply a fort. Connected with this is 
a tradition which has many curious aspects. It is sup- 
posed to have been the village in which lived the great 
"Peace Queen," and through her house which occupied 
the middle of that village ran the main road from the 
Seneca country westward across the Niagara River. 
Along this passed the war parties bound for the Huron 
and the Neuter country, and it was her function to main- 
tain neutrality between the parties of warriors thus 
bound. According to the story, she maintained this neu- 
tral attitude for many years, but eventually she favored 
a party from the west who were at that time fighting 
against the Senecas. The Senecas, in revenge, destroyed 


her and her village. This seems to be a curious com- 
bination in one tradition of the neutrality maintained 
by the Neuter Nation, connected in this one village with 
the personage known as the Great Peace Queen. This 
woman appears again in the Seneca tradition of the 
origin of the Iroquoian Confederacy, for she was associat- 
ed with the two founders of the Confederacy from the 

Another undoubted Neuter village beyond the confines 
of the reservation was on the northern extremity of Grand 
Island. Both these villages are of rather late post-Euro- 
pean times. 

Of the numerous inhabitants of the territory included 
in the Buffalo Creek reservation, it is probable that be- 
fore the coming of the Senecas, most belonged to the 
nation known to the French as the Ouenrorohnons or 
Wenroes. and in all probability all the pre-European 
sites on the reservation may be ascribed to this people. 
Historically, very little indeed is known of these Wenroes. 
No Europeans are known to have visited them, and their 
occupancy of western New York terminated in 1639 be- 
fore even second-hand information regarding their vil- 
lages here had been received by Europeans. They were 
first mentioned by Father Joseph de la Koche Dallion, a 
Recollect, who first of Europeans attempted a mission to 
the Neuter Nation. He visited the Neutral villages in 
1626 and penetrated eastward seemingly as far as the 
Niagara River. There in a Neutral village he met men 
of this Wenro nation, who invited him to visit them, but 
immediately thereafter attempted to split his head, and 
stole his blanket and writing desk, his breviary and a 
bag of small articles. 

After Father Dallion's somewhat disheartening experi- 
ence, no mention was made of the Wenroes until 1635, 
when Father Brebeuf made a list of the Iroquois nations 


which seemed to him to offer a field for missionary effort. 
This list appears to have been derived from information 
given him by the Hurons. In the list is the name of this 
nation which he calls the Ahouenrochrhonons. 

Events of which we know nothing, but which have to 
do with the severance of a loose alliance between the 
Neuters and these Wenroes, made them the first victims 
of the growing power of the Iroquois Confederacy. War 
with these ferocious and inimical kindred tribes cul- 
minated in the migration of the entire nation of Wenroes 
westward across the Niagara to the country of the Hur- 
ons and the Neuters. In 1639 the Jesuit missionaries 
chronicled the arrival in the Huron towns of miserable 
refugees, the remnants of this nation. Father Jerome 
Lalemant, writing from the mission in the Huron town 
of Ossossane, wrote : "The Wenrorohnons formed in the 
past one of the associate nations of the Neutre Nation 
and were located on its boundaries toward the Hiroquois, 
the common enemies of all these peoples. As long as this 
nation of the Wenroes was on good terms with the people 
of the Neuter Nation it was sufficiently strong to with- 
stand its enemies, to continue its existence and maintain 
itself against their raids and invasions. But the people 
of the Neutre Nation having through I know not what 
dissatisfaction, withdrawn and severed their relations 
with them, these have remained a prey to their enemies 
and they could not have remained much longer without 
being entirely exterminated, if they had not resolved to 
retreat and take refuge in the protection and alliance of 
some other nation." After the usage of Iroquoian diplo- 
macy, ambassadors of the Wenro nation appeared in the 
Huron council and in the name of their nation begged 
that it be adopted by the Huron Confederacy and that it 
might be allowed to migrate thither. This request was 
most welcome to the Hurons, for the strength of this new 


ally might be expected to offset in part the growing 
strength of their enemy kindred, the New York Iroquois, 
who were threatening to overwhelm the Huron Nation. 
After the deliberation necessary to a request of this na- 
ture, the Huron chiefs asquiesced and with their assent 
the Wenro ambassadors returned to their anxiously 
waiting people. 

Upon receipt of this favorable reply the people of the 
villages abandoned their bark homes in the clearings 
along our creeks, converged by forest paths to some ren- 
dezvous, thence through the Neuter country across the 
Niagara and along the southern shore of Lake Ontario 
to its head. Here they were met by sympathetic Hurons 
who guided and accompanied them to the Huron town 
of Ossossane. 

Of the nation thus seated in its new home, after its 
arduous journey of eighty leagues, there remained but 
600 persons, most of whom were women and children. 
Their long inarch, combined with a terrible epidemic sick- 
ness which had broken out amongst them, had reduced 
them to such a pitiable condition that in the last stages 
of their journey the Hurons aided them with their bur- 
dens, assisted the weak and the suffering, and upon their 
arrival, gave up to them the best their villages afforded. 
The priests, also, busily ministered to them so effectively 
that these poor Wenro expatriates adopted the teaching 
of the priests, and many converts to the faith resulted. 
Of the sixty converts who received baptism at Ossossane 
that year, by far the most were of this nation. After a 
period of rest and recuperation, the people were dis- 
tributed amongst the Huron towns, most remaining in 
Ossossane. A considerable number went to the Neuters 
and were assigned the village of Khioetoa, where later 
the priests established the mission, St. Michel. Of the 
character of these Wenroes, of their manner of life, the 


priests recorded very little. They excelled in drawing 
an arrow from the body and in curing the wound. They 
had some intercourse with Europeans, for Father Bres- 
sani, in speaking of the persecution of the priests by the 
Hurons, and of the opinions of the Hurons that the priests 
were sorcerers and that the epidemics which had swept the 
country were due to them, says that these opinions were 
corroborated by the "Oeronronnons who had formerly 
traded with the English, Dutch, and other heretical 
Europeans." These had told the Hurons that the priests 
were wicked people who had been compelled to leave their 
own land and that they had come to the Hurons to ruin 

These meager historical facts do not suffice satisfactor- 
ily to locate this nation in the Buffalo Creek Valley. 
Even the few facts given are confusing and contradictory. 
It is only by studying these few facts in connection with 
the archaeologic remains of this area and comparing 
them with those of other territories that the location of 
this nation can be definitely assigned. 

The descriptions by the Jesuit priests yield some few 
definite facts : First : The Wenro Nation formed one of 
the associate nations of the Neutral Nation. From this, 
one may infer that the nation was removed at a distance 
from the Neuter Nation, but that it had at some time 
been an integral part of it. Father Lalemant says dis- 
tinctly that they are "A nation of the Neutral language' 5 
and formed one of the nations allied with the Neuter Na- 
tion. Second: It was located on the boundaries of the 
Neutral Nation toward the Iroquois. This is a very defi- 
nite statement regardless of where the boundaries of the 
Neutral country lay. Toward the Iroquois from the Neu- 
ters was toward the east only. Third : Father Lale- 
mant stated quite definitely the distance which these peo- 
ple had to travel to reach the country. He spoke of the 


very "painful voyage" of more than eighty leagues or 240 
miles which they had to perform before reaching Ossos- 
sane, a village in the Huron country. The distance from 
the Huron village to the villages at Oakfield or at Elma 
scaled off in straight lines from the Georgian Bay to Ham- 
ilton, thence straight east across the Niagara River, is 
approximately 200 miles. 

From these three facts one may infer that this nation 
lay to the eastward of the Niagara, somewhere about 
where Elma or Oakfield now are and that it was in close 
touch with the Neuters. 

Two historical facts offer discrepancies. In the first 
list of Iroquoian nations in 1635, these Wenroes are 
listed after the Erie Nation. The other nations are listed 
more or less in order from east to west. In 1641 Father 
Lalemant wrote of them that they dwelt beyond the Erie 
of Cat Nation. 

Basing his theory only on these two facts, George Done- 
hoo, in a private letter to the writer, located these Wen- 
roes on the western branch of the Susquehanna River in 
Pennsylvania. This theory is, I believe, indefensible. In 
the first place, this mention was made in general, paren- 
thetically, in connection with a different subject. Father 
Brebeuf s list was compiled from information derived 
from Hurons and not from personal knowledge and it 
was evidently both incomplete and inaccurate. But 
more important still is the fact that so far as known, 
there is no village site on the upper course of the western 
branch of the Susquehanna which might be ascribed to 
Wenro origin, and as the Wenroes were a sedentary peo- 
ple, any long occupancy of any site must inevitably leave 
marks characteristic of an Indian village. 

On the other hand, in the valley of the Buffalo Creek, 
there do exist village sites which can only be ascribed 
to these Wenroes. They are the sites on Buffam Street 


in South Buffalo, on the Eaton farm in West Seneca and 
three sites grouped at East Elma. Besides these, there 
are at least two other sites, one at Shelby and one at 
Qakfield, which cannot be ascribed to any other people. 

These are all pre-European sites or at least sites in 
which only a few evidences of European intercourse can 
be found. They are certainly of Iroquoian origin, for 
every characteristic is Iroquoian. They are certainly not 
Neuter, for they show none of the characteristics noted 
as being distinctively Neuter. Neither are they Seneca, 
for they have none of the marks which distinguish the 
early Seneca sites. They fit Lalemant's descriptions in 
that they are at about the distance noted, eighty leagues 
from the Huron country. 

Without being absolutely certain, then, that the Buf- 
falo Creek Valley was inhabited in early days by these 
Wenroes, every piece of evidence seems to favor this 
theory. It seems probable that they were offshoots of 
the Neuters, the advance bands in their northeastern ex- 
tension and being too weak to stand against their for- 
midable enemies were finally obliged, first, to pause in 
their eastward movement, and, finally, to abandon their 
advanced villages in a retrograde movement. These vil- 
lages with their cornfields about them formed clearings 
in the wilderness which seem thereafter to have been 
occupied intermittently by their Seneca conquerors who 
eventually reoccupied them. They were undoubtedly the 
nucleus of the Buffalo Creek Reservation. 

There has been a disposition on the part of a few col- 
lectors to consider these pre-historic village sites along 
Buffalo Creek as of Erie origin. There is absolutely no 
reason for this identification. The Erie Nation lay south 
of Lake Erie. Its most eastern village was at Ripley. 
Other villages are to be found along the shore of Lake 
Erie from Willoughby, Ohio, to Sandusky. The culture 


of these villages is Iroquoian, with enough individuality 
to mark it as Erian. These characteristics are not simi- 
lar to those of the Buffalo Creek villages. 

The post-European sites in the valley are without doubt 
of Seneca origin. All their characteristics are Senecan. 
They seem to have been colonies of Senecas which in the 
seventeeth century went out from the home villages to 
occupy the lands abandoned by the conquered peoples to 
the west of them. This expansion seems a natural conse- 
quence of their home conditions. 



By the middle of the 17th century the Iroquois had so 
far advanced in their domination of the neighboring na- 
tions that the region about the foot of Lake Erie had 
been entirely conquered and its inhabitants killed, scat- 
tered or assimilated by the nations of the Confederacy. 
The Wenroes had fled in a body to the unsafe refuge of 
the Huron Confederacy. The Neuters had been overcome 
and their scattered remnants were either banded together 
with other refugee victims of the Iroquois, or had been 
colonized amongst the villages of their conquerors. The 
country of the Erie Nation was over-run and the sur- 
vivors of the fierce war which followed were merged with 
the Seneca Nation. Thus, by 1655 the Iroquois Confed- 
erates had overwhelmed their neighboring kindred nations 
and had allowed the wilderness to swallow up their 
meager and isolated clearings. 

The country thus desolated seems to have attracted 
settlers from the Seneca Nation almost immediately. It 
was natural that this should be so. The forests provided 
them with peltry, the only medium of trade with the now 
indispensable European trader, and to obtain this peltry 
hunting parties were constrained to leave their relatively 
populous and exhausted home territory and search out 
other and richer sources of supply. This necessitated 
long absences from their home villages ; and because they 
were inherently a village people, it also made inevitable 
the establishment of colonies, far-flung, tiny villages to 
be used as bases for the hunting parties. 

It was but natural also that in selecting sites for their 


villages they should have utilized the already existing 
clearings made by their predecessors rather than to un- 
dertake the long and difficult work of clearing new sites. 
Therefore they established themselves upon the sites of 
Neuter or Wenro villages or on nearby and previously 
cleared lands. 

As early as 1669, only seventeen years after the ex- 
pulsion of the Neuters, a Seneca town had sprung up in 
their country, near the head of Lake Ontario, known and 
described by La Salle as Otinawatawa. In his later ex- 
ploration he met a large party of Senecas from a village 
at or near Lewiston or Youngstown. At some time 
equally early a small village of Senecas existed on a ter- 
race of Cazenovia Creek on the Hart farm in West Sen- 
eca ; and seemingly at about the same time another small 
village sprang up in the wilderness on a similar terrace 
farther up the creek at South Wales. A somewhat larger 
band of colonists selected for a site a terrace on Cattar- 
augus Creek on the present Silverheels farm. The archae- 
ology of these is so nearly identical what that of the 
great towns of Canagora and Totiakton in the home land 
of the Senecas that there is no reason to doubt that these 
were contemporaneous, and that these villages were in- 
habited by colonists from these great towns at some time 
between 1660 and 1690. What seems to have been a 
somewhat later village of Senecas crowned the terrace 
of Buffalo Creek at the foot of the present Fenton 
Street, Buffalo, yet even this can hardly have been later 
than 1700. 

During the years of the French domination of the Ni- 
agara Frontier, Seneca colonists settled themselves in 
several villages there. One served as a home for the 
porters who were hired by the French to convey goods 
over the portage around the Falls. This was on the river 
bank above Lewiston just at the foot of the rapids where 


a small stream has cut a deep gully down to the water's 
edge. Two other villages were noted by Pouchot on his 
map of 1759, as being on the main path between the Ni- 
agara and the Genesee, probably in the Tonawanda val- 
ley. Another was noted on the Cattaraugus. Subse- 
quent events seem to show that some of these persisted 
after the English conquest. The Lewiston village would 
probably have been destroyed when the "Magazin Royal"' 
which was its reason for being, was burned in 1759. The 
Cattaraugus village seems to have been the home of a 
party of Senecas who in 1763 fought the crew of the Eng- 
lish bark Beaver which was wrecked on the shoals at the 
mouth of "Catfish Creek" — either Cattaraugus or Eigh- 
teen-Mile Creek. The survivors had reached the beach 
and had erected a palisade for protection. They were 
attacked by twenty-five or thirty Senecas who finally were 
driven off. 

Because of this long though desultory occupancy of 
the region about the foot of Lake Erie it seemed inevita- 
ble that when the Iroquois were forced in 1779 to re- 
linquish their long-occupied homes in middle New York 
they would immediately cast upon the valleys of the Buf- 
falo, Tonawanda and Cattaraugus creeks as places suit- 
able for new homes. These valleys were familiar to many 
of them and the clearings and villages already existing 
presented themselves logically as nuclei for new settle- 
ments. And, of all the Iroquois, it was most natural 
that the Seneca Nation should re-occupy these villages. 



The Seneca Indians who were chief in the conquest of 
the region about the Niagara Frontier and who still re- 
tain lands here are members of the Iroquoian family of 
Indians, which because of their intelligence, ferocity and 
statecraft, were at one time the most powerful to be 
found anywhere in North America. Of this great family 
the most important member in many ways was the Sen- 
eca Nation. 

The Iroquoian family in its prime included the Five 
Iroquois Nations of New York, the Huron Confederacy of 
tribes, the Neuter Nation, the Andastes, the Eries, the 
Wenroes and the Tionontadis in the north ; and the Cher- 
okee Confederacy, the Tuscaroras and the Nanticokes in 
the south. All these nations spoke dialects of a common 
language, and were charaterized by a culture which was 
similar, even amongst the most remote members. 

The region occupied by this family was of great extent, 
and, with a few breaks, was continuous. When the Euro- 
peans met them their territory extended from the lower 
reaches of the St. Lawrence westward to Lake Huron, and 
southward following the valley of the Susquehanna to 
Chesapeake Bay. Beyond the territory of the Virginia 
Algonkians lay another region inhabited by Iroquoian 
peoples, reaching from North Carolina west and south to 
Georgia. Contiguous to their territory on the east were 
sedentary Algonkian nations. On the north lay the 
great wastes of Canadian forest through which roamed 
miserable Algonkian nomads. Westwardly lay vast re- 
gions which supported many tribes of several families. At 



the extreme south was the Muskogee family. In the two 
centuries following their first meeting with Europeans 
on the St. Lawrence they extended their territory until 
it reached from the remotest wilds of the north to Geor- 
gia, and from the Atlantic to the Mississippi. Fierce, ar- 
rogant and intractable always, its members dominated 
or exterminated their neighbors, and grimly have they 
held to their own. 



Diagram showing the probable movements by which the pre-his- 
toric Iroquoian nations entered their historic seate. 


Of all the members of this powerful family, the Five 
Nations of New York exerted the most influence. When 
they first became known to the Europeans they were 
banded together in a confederacy known as the Ho-de-no- 
sau-nee, literally the "People of the Long House," whose 
eastern door was in the land of the Mohawks, and whose 
western door was guarded by the Senecas. In the center 
of the symbolical cabin was the council-fire, kindled by 
the Onondaga Nation, on each side of which reposed the 
younger members of the family, the Oneidas and the 
Cayuga s. 

This Confederacy was no loose or temporary union. On 
the contrary its members were firmly knit together by 
every bond of consanguinity, clan affiliations and per- 
sonal and national advantage; and further, it was based 
upon a code of laws common to, and binding upon, all 
its members. This code was known amongst its members 
as the "Great Peace," and tradition has it that this 
"Great Peace" and the resulting confederacy were the 
work of a Mohawk, Hayonthwatha (Hiawatha), and a 
Huron, Dekanawideh, aided by a Neuter woman, the 
"Peace Woman," and later by an Onondaga, Atotarho. 
The formation of the confederacy antedated the advent 
of Europeans, though probably by less than a century, 
and it has persisted until the present day, for even as this 
is being written the Senecas on Cattaraugus Creek are 
preparing an elaborate welcome for delegates from the 

The condition most powerfully influencing Hiawatha 
in his efforts to form this Confederacy was an incessant 
intertribal warfare; and his code of the "Great Peace" 
expressly bound the five confederated nations to per- 
petual peace amongst themselves, and to such warfare 
conducted against those not joining the Confederacy as 
would ensure peace to the confederates. This policy, car- 


ried out faithfully and with pitiless severity by the war- 
like confederates, resulted in the extermination, first of 
their own kindred nations who had refused to enter the 
League, then of more remote and alien tribes. 

Of the five original confederated nations, the Senecas 
from the first were the fiercest, most powerful and most 
intractable. They were last to join the Confederacy and 
then only after important concessions. They were sym- 
bolically the "Great Black Door through which came all 
good and evil news." Only they could bring before the 
council of nations any business needing attention. They 
guarded the western door of the Long House and so were 
entitled to a war chief of the Confederacy. Remote al- 
most to inaccessibility from the influx of Europeans, 
these they treated mainly with haughtiness and ar- 
rogance. In the incessant forays against enemies, the 
Senecas were always conspicuous. 

The name "Seneca," as applied to this western member 
of the Iroquois Confederacy, was originally a misnomer, 
yet it has been the name used for this nation by English- 
speaking people since their first intercourse with them 
and has been adopted by the nation as their official desig- 
nation. The reason for this appellation is interesting. 

The name "Seneca" was the term applied by the Algon- 
kian nations seated on Hudson River to all the nations of 
the Iroquois Confederacy except the most eastern mem- 
ber. This latter, known to themselves as the Agniehron- 
nons, "People of the Flint," were called by their Algon- 
kian neighbors, Maquas or Bears, probably from one of 
their conspicuous clans. Thus all the confederated Iro- 
quois were divided by the Algonkians into two nations, 
the Maquas, (Mahaquas, Mohawks) and the Senecas. 
The first Dutch traders on the Hudson River received 
these two names from the Algonkians there, as thus ap- 
plied, and used it in their intercourse with both nations. 


In 1614 (or 1613) one of these traders, one Kleynties, 
following the policy of his employers, the Dutch West 
India Company, set out from Fort Nassau on the Hudson 
to explore to the west and southwest. His guides led 
him to the headwaters of the Susquehanna, which he 
followed southward. At some point on this river he was 
captured by Minquas in whose company he finally reached 
the seaboard at Delaware Bay. There he was ransomed 
by Captain Hendrickson, who was just then exploring 
the east coast. The information derived from his travels 
was used on two maps, made for the West India Com- 
pany for a report to the States General on the explora- 

On the map he located the Maquas on their river and 
showed quite accurately almost the whole length of the 
Susquehanna. West of the Maquas and north of Lake 
Otsego he located the "Senecas," using this name first of 

It was not until 1634, twenty years later, that these 
"Senecas" of the Algonkians were properly designated. 
In that year Arent Van Curler pushed beyond the Maquas 
and visited a people west of them. These he called "Sin- 
nekins," to whom he also applied their proper Iroquoian 
appellation, Enneyuttehage. These were the people 
whom we call Oneidas, who were seated exactly where 
the "Senecas" of Kleynties were located on his map. In 
the Oneida villages Van Curler also met other Iroquois 
"Sinnekins" whom he distinguished by their proper Iro- 
quoian name, Onnondagas. 

After Van Curler's segregation of the two terms Onei- 
da and Onondaga from the general term "Sinnekin," the 
Dutch use of the name became restricted to the two more 
remote nations of the Confederacy. Eventually the 
Goyouguens became known by their proper Iroquoian 
name, which has come to us as "Cayuga," leaving only 


the most remote nation still denoted by the Algonkian 
term ."Seneca." This persisted until the English took 
over the Dutch colony and they continued the use of 
the term. 

The Iroquoian appellation of the nation thus labeled 
with the alien name of Seneca, was "Djiionondowanen," 
meaning "the people of the great mountain." The Seneca 
traditions of their origin include their explanation of this 
term. "The tradition of the Seneca Indians, in regard to 
their origin, is that they broke out of the earth from a 
large mountain at the head of Canandaigua Lake, and 
that mountain they still venerate as the place of their 
birth. Thence they derived their name, 'Ge-nun-de-wah' or 
'Great Hill,' and are called 'the Great Hill People,' which 
is the true definition of the word 'Seneca.' ' : 

The reference seems, however, to be not so much to a 
hill at the head of Canandaigua Lake, as to the fact that 
the people were hill people, mountaineers, and this sense is 
preserved in the language of the Delawares, an Algon- 
kian people, who knew them as "Maechiachtinni," mean- 
ing "great mountain people." j^ seems reasonable to 
suppose that both these names referred to their early 
custom of locating their towns on the summits of 
high hills. 

When the Senecas first came into contact with Euro- 
peans, they lived in a few towns in the delectable region 
between Canandaigua Lake and the Genesee River, and 
their occupancy of this was of long duration, so much so 
that they had a tradition that they originated there. 

This tradition has reached us through a medium which 
may be considered authoritative, for it was recorded as 
it was told by Mary Jemison, a white woman, who since 
childhood had lived amongst the Senecas. Her version 
of the tradition follows : 

The tradition of the Seneca Indians in regard to their origin 


is that they broke out of the earth from a large mountain at 
the head of Canandaigua Lake; and that mountain they still 
venerate as the place of their birth. Thence they derive their 
name, "Ge-nun-de-wah," or "Great Hill," and are called "The 
Great Hill People," which is the true definition of the word 

The great hill at the head of Canandaigua Lake, from whence 
they sprung, is called Genundewah, and has for a long time past 
been the place where the Indians of that nation have met in coun- 
cil to hold great talks and to offer up prayers to the Great Spirit 
on account of its having been their birth-place, and, also, in 
consequence of the destruction of ( a serpent at that place in 
ancient time in a most miraculous manner, which threatened the 
destruction of the whole of the Senecas and barely spared enough 
to commence replenishing the earth. 

The Indians say that the fort on the big hill or Ge-nun-de-wah, 
near the head of Canandaigua Lake, was surrounded by a mon- 
strous serpent whose head and tail came together at the gate. A 
long time it lay there, confounding the people with its breath. 
At length they attempted to make their escape; some with their 
hominy-blocks, and others with different implements of house- 
hold furniture; and in marching out of the fort walked down 
the throat of the serpent. Two orphan children who had escaped 
this general destruction by being left on this side of the fort 
were informed by an oracle of the means by which they could 
get rid of their formidable enemy, which was, to take a small 
how and a poisoned arrow, made of a kind of willow, and with 
that shoot the serpent under its scales. This they did, and the 
arrow proved effectual; for, on penterating the skin the serpent 
became sick and extending itself, rolled down the hill destroy- 
ing all the timber that was in its way, disgorging itself, and 
bieaking wind greatly as it went. At every motion a human 
head was discharged and rolled down the hill into the lake 
where they lie at this day in a petrified state, having the hard- 
ness and appearance of stones; and the Pagan Indians of the 
Senecas believe that all the little snakes were made of the blood 
of the great serpent after it rolled into the lake. 

To this day the Indians visit that sacred place to mourn the 
loss of their friends and to celebrate some rites that are peculiar 
to themselves. To the knowledge of white people there has 
been no timber on the great hill since it was first discovered by 
them, though it lay apparently in a state of nature for a great 


number of years without cultivation. Stones in the shape of 
Indians' heads may he seen lying in the lake in great plenty, 
which are said to be the same that were deposited there at the 
death of the serpent. 

The Senecas have a tradition that previous to and for some 
time after their origin at Genundewah the country, especially 
about the lakes, was thickly inhabited by a race of civil, enter- 
prising and industrious people who were totally destroyed by 
the great serpent that afterwards surrounded the hill fort, with 
the assistance of others of the same species; and that they 
(the iSenecas) went into possession of the improvements that 
were left. 

In those days the Indians throughout the whole country — as 
the Senecas say — spoke one language; but having become con- 
siderably numerous, the before-mentioned great serpent, by an 
unknown influence, confounded their language so that they 
could not understand each other; which was the cause of their 
division into nations — as the Mohawks, Oneidas, etc. At that 
time, however, the Senecas retained the original language and 
continued to occupy their mother hill on which they fortified 
themselves against their enemies, and lived peaceably until 
having offended the serpent, they were cut off as I have before 

There are three very distinct traditions here. First, 
there is a tradition to account for the name, localized at 
Canandaigua Lake. Second, there is the serpent story. 
This is not confined to the Seneca branch of the Iro- 
quoian family. It occurs also in almost identical form 
amongst the Wyandottes of Kansas. Third, there is the 
story that the Senecas were preceded by other people. 
This refers to their irruption into central New York 
from which they ousted an Algonkian people identical 
with or similar to the Delawares. 

Although it is entirely possible that there is some truth 
in the tradition of their origin and it may refer to the 
merging here of two bands into one nation, there is no 
doubt that the Senecas were not autochthonous in that 
region, but migrated to it from some point to the west- 
ward. A very careful and intensive study of the sites 


of their villages beginning with those described by French 
visitors in the 17th century, and tracing them backward 
in time into their Stone Age, make it certain that they 
entered the Genesee Valley at a point near Wellsville, 
and that a series of sites, which can only be ascribed to 
early Senecas, can be traced along the crests of hills as 
far west as Cassadaga. As far as this point, all the 
characteristics of the site are those common to the Sen- 
ecas of the Genesee Valley. Their migration eastward 
along the route marked by these sites seems to have been 
through hostile country, for every site is fortified and is 
placed on the crest of the highest hill in its neighborhood. 

Basing opinion upon the carefully studied archaeol- 
ogy of the Senecas, their earliest history may be said to 
begin when a band of Iroquoian people separated from 
their main stock at some point south of Lake Erie. This 
band may be thought of as pushing eastward into terri- 
tory of hostile Algonkian people who occupied the Alle- 
gheny Valley. As a protection from these enemies they 
chose for homes the tops of high hills, and fortified them- 
selves with palisades. Eventually this migration brought 
them athwart the Genesee Valley down which they pro- 
gressed. Still they chose hill tops for their towns, and 
moved slowly northward into the region between Hem- 
lock Lake and Canandaigua Lake. At about this time 
they entered the Confederacy, and shortly after they be- 
gan to receive a few articles of European origin. Their 
last Stone Age villages are at Allen's Hill, Richmond 
Mills and Bristol. Their first post-European site is on 
the Tram farm, south of Lima. 

Owing to the remoteness of the Seneca villages, no 
white persons visited them for nearly a generation after 
they first met Europeans. Not until 1657 did a white 
man penetrate to the Seneca country. In that year 
Chaumonot reconnoitered the country preliminary to the 


establishment there of a mission, but only after a lapse 
of eleven years did the pioneer missionary, Father Fre- 
min, reach his station. This mission continued for six- 
teen years, with slight success, in the face of the most 
discouraging reception. Intractable in all things, the 
Senecas were doubly so in religious matters and never 
were receptive to Christian endeavor. 

In 1669 the Senecas met for the first time Eobert 
Cavelier de la Salle, who came to their villages in search 
of a guide to the Ohio River. Ten years later he made 
them a second visit, this time to beg permission to build 
a boat in the Niagara and a fort at the mouth of the river. 
It is characteristic of the Senecas that they refused the 
guide and were far from gracious in permitting the 

The Senecas were always hostile to the French, al- 
though there were times when it seemed politic to favor 
them. Once their hostility threatened to bring calamity. 
In 1683 they seized on some traders' goods, the private 
property of the then governor of New France, La Barre, 
who was far from being above doing a little illicit trad- 
ing for himself. Furious at their temerity, he made ex- 
tensive preparations to punish them. The Senecas were 
highly incensed and bent on war, but the expedition failed 
miserably and after a humiliating experience in council 
the French governor withdrew to Quebec. 

Far more serious were the consequences of a punitive 
expedition launched against them in 1687 by Governor de 
Denonville. No sooner had he reached his province than 
he made preparations to punish the Senecas for their 
continued hostility toward the Canadians and their In- 
dian allies, and through a show of force to demonstrate 
to them the desirability of allying themselves with 
France. So secretly did he prepare his blow that not 
until his army was actually disembarking in the Seneca 


country did the Senecas know of his intent. In an effort 
to check his army, the Senecas ambushed the French 
forces a few miles from their largest town but they were 
overpowered and driven off. The French burned all their 
towns, destroyed their standing corn, then nearly ripe, 
and withdrew, leaving behind a desolated country and an 
infuriated people. 

This terrible calamity was the direct cause of another 
migration. For the two generations preceding, the vil- 
lages had been drifting slowly northward down the Bris- 
tol Valley and the Honeoye outlet. Now they turned 
back, the two eastern communities, seemingly, to the 
eastward, where eventually they made settlements at 
Canandaigua, Geneva and the region between Seneca and 
Canandaigua Lakes; and the two western communities 
to the west, settling along the Genesee River. 

For nearly a century after Denonville's hand fell upon 
the Seneca Nation, the Senecas lived, for them, a fairly 
peaceful life. To be sure, war parties were out much of 
the time and their arms were carried far away to remote 
tribes. Their relations with the English continued as 
they had always been, friendly, and with the French as 
a whole, as they had always been, hostile. During these 
three generations, the eastern villages extended south- 
ward as far as Elmira, and at the same time the western 
branch extended up the Genesee Valley as far as Cane- 
adea, and thence over the divide into the Allegheny Val- 
ley. At about this time or even before, colonies had es- 
tablished themselves in the desolated country of the Neu- 
ters and Wenroes, on Buffalo and Tonawanda Creeks, 
and also on Cattaraugus Creek. 

Meanwhile events were pending which unknown to the 
Senecas threatened their national existence. France, 
their ancient foe, had finally been divested of her posses- 
sions by the English, who had been from the beginning 


on friendly terms with the Iroquois. When, after the 
French wars, the American colonists separated themselves 
from the Government of Great Britain, the Iroquois 
mainly adhered to their ancient allegiance and threw in 
their forces on the side of England. Mainly, for the 
Oneidas and Tuscaroras, the latter members of the Con- 
federacy by adoption, remained partly at least, neutral 
in a quarrel which was of no interest to them, and for a 
time it seemed that the Long House was to be divided. 
The Senecas, especially, actively took part in the war 
and did yeoman service for their allies. 

The policy of the English Government was to engage 
these Indians in forays against the outlying frontier 
towns of the middle colonies, in an effort to divert Amer- 
ican forces from service against the English armies. As 
a result of this policy, war parties of Senecas and others, 
under English leaders and supplemented by English 
troops, harried the frontiers and desolated the outlying 
villages and farmsteads. Alarm and terror gave place on 
the frontiers to exasperation and fury. Congress in 1779 
decided to punish these raiders, and if possible to over- 
whelm them so that there could be no repetition of the 
horrors of border warfare. Three punitive expeditions 
were planned and carried out. One under Colonel Brod- 
head proceeded up the Allegheny River and destroyed 
the Seneca towns located there. General John Sullivan 
crossed overland from the Delaware River to the Sus- 
quehanna and proceeded up this river to the forks, where 
he met a third force under Clinton. This left Albany and 
proceeded to the headwaters of the Susquehanna, thence 
down that stream to the rendezvous with Sullivan, de- 
stroying as they came the towns of the hostile Tusca- 
roras and others in the upper valley. The united forces 
proceeded up the Chemung, defeated a large party of 
English and Indians in a well-chosen ambush below El- 


mira, and burned the Seneca towns at and near Elmira. 
Thence they drove straight into the heart of the unknown 
Seneca country. Northward and westward they marched 
steadily, destroying town after town, and giving ample 
time to the task of ravaging the wide fields of corn which 
surrounded them. With little opposition they reached 
the Genesee river, where was Chenussio, the great town 
of the Senecas. Having destroyed this, the colonials 
withdrew, taking on their way the hitherto untouched 
towns of the Cayugas, and leaving behind a desolated 
land and a homeless and starving people. This triumphal 
withdrawal marks the beginning of the history of the 
Buffalo Creek Reservation. 

The effect of General Sullivan's expedition into the 
Seneca country was far-reaching. It had been planned 
to secure one result, the prevention of further border 
warfare, such as had terrorized the frontiers since the 
beginning of the war. This it only partly achieved, for al- 
though no large or concerted action took place thereafter 
against the frontiers, forays were of frequent occurrence. 
One of its objects had not been attained. Fort Niagara, 
then the English base for war parties, headquarters of 
those English officers having in charge the warfare upon 
the frontiers of New York and Pennsylvania, was to have 
been attacked and captured. The lateness of the season, 
the remoteness of the post and the difficulties of trans- 
portation, had prevented the colonists from investing it. 

Upon the Senecas and indeed upon the whole Confed- 
eracy it had a most startling effect. The Senecas especially 
had always considered themselves unconquerable. Gen- 
erations of active war-fare, almost uniformly successful 
operations against foes, both red and white, had made 
them arrogant, haughty and over-confident of their abil- 
ities. The remoteness and inaccessibility of their towns 
made for the utmost security. Their allies, the English, 


had always supported them consistently and had supplied 
them in abundance with the munitions of war. Only 
once had their territory been invaded, and this invasion 
had been redly avenged. Besides,, the English had as- 
sured them that this colonial force could never win its 
way into their lands. Yet slowly and deliberately it 
had won its way, their towns lay in ashes, their orchards 
were hacked down, the crops upon which they must de- 
pend were utterly ruined, and the people faced starvation. 
They were as a "nation destroyed." Gone was their ar- 
rogance, gone their supreme self-confidence. Amazement 
gave way to terror, this to blind panic, to be followed by 
sullen but resigned anger. Their confidence in the English 
was lost, moreover, never to be regained, and in its place 
was a strong and growing respect for those who had 
been powerful enough to overthrow them. That this re- 
spect was not superficial or forced is shown by the fact 
that George Washington, "The Destroyer of Towns," is 
the only white man allowed by the Seneca "New Re- 
ligion" to approach the Indian Heaven. 

A very important result of this campaign was that it 
gave the Iroquois the status of a conquered nation, and 
most of the land changes following the Revolution were 
consequent upon their being a conquered nation. 

As the colonials penetrated deeper and deeper into the 
Seneca country they found their villages deserted, for the 
inhabitants fled in panic before them. Many of the non- 
combatants sought out inaccessible hiding-places in the 
forests about them. Mary Jemison describes the panic- 
striken flight of Senecas from the Genesee towns and 
their refuge in the Tonawanda Valley at Varysburg. 
Many of the warriors repaired to Fort Niagara, their 
headquarters. Immediately after the colonials had with- 
drawn, and as soon as safety seemed assured, all these 
refugees returned to their villages, only to find ruin and 


desolation. Of all the populous Seneca towns, but four 
remained. Much more serious was the probable food 
shortage, for although the crops about these four villages 
still remained, and although numerous crops in the lower 
Genesee Valley had remained undisturbed, there still 
was insufficient food to maintain the population until the 
next harvest. Nor could they as in times past depend 
upon the food of their confederates. All suffered alike. 

Some of the Senecas elected to remain in their ruined 
villages. Many, however, flocked to Fort Niagara, where 
they were joined by refugees from the other nations. Here 
they passed a winter most terrible in its severity, living 
upon such scanty game as their hunters could secure in 
the snow-packed forests, on chance-found offal or carrion, 
and on the provisions doled out by the English command- 
ant, Colonel Bolton, and by Colonel Johnson, the Indian 
agent. Immediately following the campaign Colonel Bol- 
ton reported that he was supplying 5036 with provisions. 
This influx of refugees gave the commandant no little 
concern. The lateness of the season made it impossible 
to receive additional supplies from Montreal or Quebec. 
Their own supply was limited. Yet this homeless, starv- 
ing, dispirited multitude must be fed and cared for. 
Various plans of relief were tried during the winter. The 
refugees were urged to go to Montreal where they could 
easily be cared for. Those whose homes in the valleys 
of the Genesee, the Cattaraugus, and the upper Allegheny 
had escaped the careful search of the colonists, were urged 
to return and garner any of their crops still remaining, 
thus in a two-fold way to relieve the congestion at the 
Fort. The warriors were organized into war parties to 
operate against the border towns, thus drawing away 
from the Fort numerous hungry mouths. 

These plans, any of which would have relieved the 
serious conditions at the Fort, were but fairly successful. 



The terrorized refugees flatly refused to go to Montreal, 
and so thoroughly was their spirit broken that few 
could be induced to return to their abandoned homes. 
So severe was the winter and so deep the snow that war 
parties could not operate until late in the season. As a 
consequence the Fort was the base of supplies for a dis- 
organized mob of refugees, 3,000 in number, who during 
that terrible winter dotted the plain about the Fort with 
their flimsy, nondescript cabins, and roamed the snow- 
covered wastes in search of anything which might ap- 
pease their hunger. 

As soon as the winter was broken up these starving 
bands scattered in search of localities likely to produce 
food for their subsistence. Many followed Joseph Brant, 
the Mohawk leader, to the Grand River in Canada. The 
Tuscaroras cast upon the crest of the "Mountain Ridge" 
above Lewiston as a likely abode. Many prominent Sen- 
ecas, amongst them Sayenqueraghta, their war chief, and 
Rowland Montour, a prominent half-breed, selected lands 
in the fertile bottoms of Buffalo Creek, and to them 
eventually came a large band made up of Cayugas and 
Onondagas, refugees all. 

These miserable settlers in the basswood thickets of 
the Buffalo Creek Valley did not come as invading pio- 
neers breaking out new holdings in a strange region. They 
were rightful owners well established in their claims, 
coming into their own upon familiar and long-existing 
farm lands. That Buffalo Creek was well known to them 
seems certain. There is little doubt that there were 
families, if not villages, even then amongst the basswoods 
of Buffalo Creek. 



The name Buffalo Creek applied to our stream first 
appeared on a map at a comparatively late period. Seem- 
ingly its first appearance was on a map, a copy of which 
in the "Documentary History of New York" 1 is in- 
cluded with papers of Sir William Johnson. The map 
delineates with a good deal of accuracy the entire course 
of the Niagara River, at the upper end of which in its 
proper place is our stream with the name Buffalo Creek. 
It is entitled "Map of the Niagara River or the Straits 
between Lakes Erie and Ontario by Geo. Dember, 60th 
regt." No date is given, but it seems to have been made 
shortly after the capture of Fort Niagara, and therefore 
might be of the year 1760 or thereabouts. 

The name Buffalo appeared in print in the narrative of 
the captivity of the Gilbert Family, published in 1780. 
In 1784 a treaty was signed at Fort Stanwix definitely 
fixing the line beyond which the Iroquois relinquished 
all land claims. In this treaty, both the Iroquois name 
Tehosororon and the English name, Buffalo Creek, were 
applied to the stream, the mouth of which served as one 
point in the boundary. That this was a well-established 
name at that time seems to be shown both by this treaty 
and by a letter written by General Irvine to General 
Washington, in which the name Buffalo is used without 
further explanation, as though the name were familiar 
to both writer and receiver. 

That the name Buffalo, as applied not only to the creek 
but to the vicinity, was thoroughly well known by 1800, 

l Doc. Hist. New York II, 792 (octavo ed.). See Col. Bouquet corr. 


is shown by the attempt on the part of Joseph Ellicott to 
change it. His plans contemplated the establishment of 
a village at the mouth of the creek which he named New 
Amsterdam, but this name persisted for less than ten 
years. Congress, in 1805, erected a collection district on 
Buffalo Creek, and the collector was to reside at "Buffalo 
Creek." Even Ellicott, himself, as early as 1807, referred 
to his new village as New Amsterdam, alias Buffalo 
Creek; and a year later, when the New York Legislature 
erected Niagara County, it named as a county seat, "Buf- 
falo or New Amsterdam." In 1810 the town of Buffalo 
was formed; and no reference being made to the name 
New Amsterdam, it can be assumed that officially (as it 
seems to have been unofficially), the name Buffalo had 
supplanted it permanently. 

The name Buffalo or Buffalo Creek might easily be con- 
sidered to be a translation of the Indian name of the 
locality or to be a derivative from such a translation. 
This cannot be said for Buffalo, for the Indians did not 
apply this name either to the creek or to the vicinity. To 
them it was u the place of basswoods." In a letter writ- 
ten at Cattaraugus Reservation April 30, 1855, Mr. Asher 
Wright says : "The Indian name of the creek has no 
connection with the English. It indicates that at some 
time it was remarkable for the basswood trees along its 
banks. 'Oo-sah' is the Seneca name for basswood, and 
they called the creek and the tract near its mouth 'Tiyoos- 
yo-wa,' that is, 'At the place which abounds with bass- 
woods.' This, at length, became shortened to 'Dosyowa,' 
the present name for the creek, city and reservation." 
The name varied in its pronunciation in the dialects of 
the Six Nations, yet always it retained the reference to 
this locality as a place where there were many bass- 
wood trees. 

That this name was the well known and accepted ap- 


pellation for the creek, is evidenced, by the initial desig- 
nation of it in the Fort Stanwix Treaty, already alluded 
to, as "Te-hos-or-or-on," which is a variant of the Seneca 
name "Dyosowa." 

It is of interest to note in this connection that the Ton- 
awanda Creek was also known to the French by a similar 
name, their term being the riviere au bois Manes. Under 
this name, it appears in Chabert's correspondence and on 
Pouchot's map of 1759. 

It might easily be expected that the English name Buf- 
falo, was the translation of an earlier French name. The 
French, however, like the Indians did not know the stream 
as Buffalo Creek. To them it was Riviere aux Chevaux, 
"The River where the Horses are." This name was used 
by de Lery in 1754 when he chronicled his expedition to 
the Ohio River by way of the Niagara and Lake Erie. 
He had proceeded up the Niagara River to a camping 
place "below the Little Rapids," where he was detained 
by a heavy rain storm. On Sunday, June 2d, he made 
an attempt to proceed, but was caught by a strong west- 
erly wind. "When I was at the crossing of the Riviere 
aux Chevaux the wind increased and compelled me to en- 
camp at nine o'clock in the morning." 

In April, 1758, the Marquis de Vaudreuil, governor of 
Canada, gave to Daniel de Joncaire, a monopoly of 
transportation over the Niagara Portage. In compensa- 
tion for this exclusive privilege, Joncaire was to erect 
certain buildings. In the governor's instructions, he was 
to "apply himself to cultivate lands at the river aux 
Chevaux, at the entrance to Lake Erie where the pas- 
turage is excellent." The only locality to which this ref- 
erence can possibly refer is Buffalo Creek. 

Although the French name for our river contained no 
reference to the buffalo, there was a stream definitely 
known to the French as the Buffalo River. This was a 


stream emptying into Lake Ontario, probably the pres 
ent Oak Orchard Creek which had been called by Char- 
levoix, as early as 1721, the Riviere aux Boeufs. On 
Pouchot's map, it appears as Grand R. aux Beufs, and 
on a map made by Beaurain in 1777, this stream still ap- 
pears as Buffalo River. 

Failing to explain the English name Buffalo, as a 
translation of some pre-existing Indian or French name, 
one finds the simplest explanation in the contained refer- 
ence to the occurence here of the American bison, popu- 
larly named the buffalo. For this, there is ample preced- 
ent in the appearance of the name as a locality name over 
much of the country in the Mississippi valley. The Cen- 
tury Atlas lists eighty-two localities bearing names refer- 
ring to the buffalo, these extending over territory from 
middle Pennsylvania to Nevada, and from Georgia to 

Simple though it be to explain the name by connecting 
it with the occurence here of the bison, it is far from 
simple to show that this explanation is a correct one, 
for it is not at all certain that buffalo ever lived or even 
wandered here. Certainly no white visitor ever recorded 
having seen one here or ever having heard of one fre- 
quenting this locality, although Charlevoix, who passed 
through the Niagara Region, mentions and describes these 
animals which he first saw farther west. The Senecas had 
no remembrance or tradition that the buffalo frequented 
this creek, although some of the older people, a century 
ago, spoke of having seen the bones of animals which 
they thought to be buffalo, lying upon the ground in the 
immediate vicinity. The absence of any record or tradi- 
tion is evidence, though not strong evidence, that buffalo 
were not frequenters of this creek. 

A somewhat stronger evidence exists in those village 
sites on the reservation which were inhabited during pre- 


European times. One of the most conspicuous charac- 
teristics of these sites is the deep deposits of black earth 
which mark the location of the village refuse heaps. 
Upon these refuse heaps went all the garbage and waste 
from the houses of the village, the ashes and charcoal of 
their fires, all articles which were broken or lost and 
with these, bones of the animals which had been con- 
sumed as food. In the years intervening since these beds 
were laid down, all perishable matter has decomposed 
and there remains only the resulting black, ashy earth 
intermingled with which are such articles as are by their 
nature nearly indestructible, and with these are great 
quantities of animal bones. Amongst these bones we 
might expect to find those of all the animals brought to 
the village for food, for eventually most of them would 
find their final reposing-place in the refuse pile. Should 
the buffalo have been abundant, they would certainly 
have been killed for food and in the natural course of 
events, some of their bones must have inevitably reached 
these village middens. An absence of these bones from 
the refuse, would be the strongest possible evidence that 
the buffalo did not exist here when those villages were 

The writer has carefully examined refuse heaps on 
every village site in the territory comprised in the Buf- 
falo Creek Reservation. From them, he has taken liter- 
ally bushels of animal bones representing every food 
and fur animal known to have inhabited western New 
York, from the elk and larger deer to the squirrel, the 
frog and the fish ; but neither on the pre-European Wenro 
sites, the earliest post-European Neuter sites, or the later 
Seneca sites, has there ever been found a single bone or a 
single fragment of a bone which can be attributed to the 
buffalo. This absence is a very strong evidence that it 
did not constitute a food animal of the villages of those 


three periods, which it must indubitably have done had 
it been found here. 

Because of the lack of any historic or traditional evi- 
dence that buffalo lived or visited here, and because the 
refuse heaps of the Indians who lived here during the 
past 300 years show an entire absence of evidence of the 
buffalo, it can safely be said that these animals did not 
either live or visit here. That the creek received its 
name because of an abundance here of the buffalo has, 
therefore, absolutely nothing to substantiate it. 

That the origin of the name has always been doubtful, 
is shown by the efforts of the early settlers to explain it. 
One of these is the story repeated by the Eeverend Asher 
Wright. According to this story, a party of travelers 
from the east tarried at the creek and thinking that be- 
cause they were so far west they must be in buffalo coun- 
try, they requested their landlord to provide buffalo 
meat. The landlord, to satisfy them, sent out hunters 
who presently returned with newly-dressed meat. This 
was served to the travelers who pronounced it excellent. 
Later it transpired that the hunters had killed a colt in- 
stead of a buffalo and because of the joke, the name was 
applied to the creek. 

This story fails utterly to explain the name, for long 
before there was a landlord at Buffalo Creek or travelers 
who might be so unsophisticated that they could be so 
easily fooled, the name Buffalo Creek had already been 
applied and was familiar to many. 

Probably the true explanation of the name is that of 
the Seneca Indians. This is given by Nathaniel T. Strong 
of Irving, in a letter dated July 10, 1863. After speak- 
ing of the name, he says: "The Indian account is sub- 
stantially this: that many years ago De-gi-yah-go, in 
English, Buffalo (a Seneca Indian of the Wolf Clan), 
built a bark cabin on the banks of the Buffalo Creek and 


lived there for many years until his death. His occupa- 
tion was that of a fisherman. A fisherman in ancient 
times, with the Senecas, was an important person from 
the fact that the Indians in the fishing season almost 
wholly subsisted on fish and De-gi-yah-go was the chief 
fisherman of the nation. The theory then, is that when 
the white pioneers came to that creek, they doubtless en- 
tered into the bark cabin of De-gi-yah-go and learned 
from him his name. And the pioneers translated and 
gave the name to Buffalo Creek, after the Seneca fisher- 
man whose bark cabin stood upon its banks." 

In this story there is nothing at all improbable. That 
there were Senecas living on the Buffalo Creek very 
early, is certain. That the creek might have been named 
after one of these Senecas who was prominent, is not 
only possible but probable. Both Smoke's Creek and 
Scajaquacla Creek were named in this way, one either 
from a very prominent Seneca chief known to the whites 
as Smoke, or from a Delaware chief "Captain Smoke," 
who lived in a village on the banks of this stream; the 
other from an Indian known to the whites as Skenjockety. 



Of the beginnings of the new settlements on Buffalo 
Creek we know little. No record is available of the 
numbers of refugees selecting this valley, or of the places 
where they began their clearings. A few meager details 
may be gleaned from the narrative of the Gilbert family, 
members of which were brought captive here by families 
into which they had been adopted. The movements of 
these families may, however, be considered typical of the 

Amongst the Senecas who moved to Buffalo Creek was 
the family of Sayenqueraghta, the war chief of the Con- 
federacy. His family, taking with it two child captives, 
moved first to the Five-Mile Meadows, now Stella Ni- 
agara, on the eastern bank of the Niagara above Youngs- 
town, where they had a cabin. After a short stay here, 
and several visits to Fort Niagara and Fort Schlosser, 
at the head of the portage road above the Falls, they 
moved by canoe up the river to Fort Erie. After a brief 
stay here the family paddled across the river and up 
"Buffaloe Creek" for a distance of about four miles, and 
joined Sayenqueraghta and his wife who had preceded 
them. Evidently these had already selected a suitable 
location, for almost immediately the women of the party 
began clearing land for planting. While the ground was 
being prepared the men built a log cabin. The summer 
seems to have been spent tending the crops, with several 
visits to Fort Erie and Fort Niagara. The war chief, 
because of his rank and prominence, was well treated at 
these posts, so much so that while returning from one of 


these visits at Fort Erie he was so overcome by the wine 
which he had drunk that he nearly overset his canoe, 
and narrowly escaped drowning. 

Another captive, Elizabeth Peart, had been adopted 
into a Seneca family which settled on Buffalo Creek. 
Two days after her adoption her family moved to Fort 
Schlosser, from which they made a leisurely journey in 
a bark canoe to Buffalo Creek where they selected land. 
As soon as this had been done they returned to Fort Ni- 
agara where they purchased provisions, and probably 
seeds and tools. This done they hurried back to Buffalo 
Creek for the corn-planting. The family cleared and 
broke land, and evidently built a cabin. 

During the ensuing summer both these families seem 
to have been dependent for supplies upon the English at 
Fort Niagara, and this was probably true of the others, 
in some degree at least. Sayenqueraghta's influence en- 
abled him to secure supplies sufficient for the needs of 
his family. Others would probably have subsisted upon 
the scanty fare supplied by their hunters, eked out by 
such provisions as they might be able to get at the Fort. 

Judging by the harvest garnered by Sayenqueraghta's 
family the season and soil were favorable. They gather- 
ed seventy -five bushels of corn, besides potatoes and 
pumpkins. This is the first recorded harvest from the 
fertile fields along our creek. 

The following spring, 1781, the families left their plan- 
tations and made a camp six miles up the lake in a 
maple grove. Here they stayed for two months, making 
maple sugar. A great pigeon roost later in the season 
supplied them with squabs and pigeons for present use, 
and when smoked, for the following winter. 

These experiences of the only two families of whom we 
have any record were probably identical with those of 
all the others. They came, selected their land, and 


hacked down such trees as encumbered their ground. The 
men built cabins of the logs thus provided and secured 
game and fish enough for their subsistence. The women, 
meanwhile, cleared the land of its underbrush, and with 
primitive tools, or with hoes received from Fort Niagara, 
planted their seed corn amongst the stumps. The long 
summer months while waiting for their harvest they 
spent in the daily routine of primitive life, varied by visits 
to the forts. 

For nearly two decades after the Seneca refugees 
pushed their canoes up the languid current of Buffalo 
Creek and in the unkempt clearings along its banks 
reared their miserable cabins and garnered their meager 
crops of corn, their little cluster of cabins hidden away 
in the wilderness was the scene of activities far-reaching 
and important. This period coincided with the formative 
period of the United States. The Revolution ended of- 
ficially in 1783, and the new republic was born in 1789. 
States were settling their disputed claims upon a vast 
wilderness. Ambitious land companies casually bought 
and sold lands the size of European kingdoms, and rest- 
less whites were pushing ever westward from their in- 
creasingly crowded eastern settlements. 

Remote and immured though they were, the settlements 
on Buffalo Creek were far from remaining unaffected by 
these rapidly -moving events. Visitors came among them ; 
inquisitive tourists bound for the English posts on the 
Upper Lakes; British officers; envoys and delegations 
from the new republic; land agents; missionaries; sur- 
veyors, all toiled through the sodden forests or up the 
turbulent river, tarried for a brief while at Buffalo 
Creek, then passed on. From these cabins went emis- 
saries to the distant southwestern Indians; delegations 
to Philadelphia, specially invited by his excellency, the 
President; grave and stately barbarians, gathering to 


take council about lands; painted warriors, filing away 
on the dim trail to the west to aid their brethern on the 

The first visitors were captives, dragged from their 
cabin homes on the frontiers, adopted into Seneca fam- 
ilies and with them settling on Buffalo Creek. Of these 
none have received more notoriety than members of the 
Gilbert family who were brought here as captives at the 
very beginning of the settlements. Although their ad- 
ventures differed little from those of hundreds of other 
captives, they were published in detail and so attracted a 
great deal of attention even at that time. 

The seizure of the family and their forced journey to 
Niagara were incidents common to the border warfare 
of the time. Benjamin Gilbert, a Quaker, had established 
a grist and saw mill on Mahoning Creek which empties 
into Lehigh Biver a few miles from Mauch Chunk. At 
the time this was on the frontier of Pennsylvania, and 
was known to be in constant danger from war parties. 
A portion of the Susquehanna Valley at Wyoming had 
already been raided and other raids were frequent. Prob- 
ably because he considered himself secure through the 
known fact that he was a Quaker, Mr. Gilbert remained 
at his mill in spite of alarms. 

On April 25, 1780, a party of eleven Indians, one of 
those sent out from Fort Niagara to relieve the congestion 
there, appeared at the mill. Five of this party were Sene- 
cas, and in command were two half-breed Senecas, Bow- 
land and John Montour. Because resistance seemed use- 
less, or because Mr. Gilbert had religious scruples against 
armed resistance, the entire family gave themselves up. The 
Indians tied them securely and after looting and burning 
their home, marched them off on their long journey to 
Fort Niagara. The party of prisoners numbered fifteen 
and comprised the immediate family of Mr. Gilbert with 


his sons' wives and families, a neighbor's girl and a hired 
man. Of this party only five were brought to Buffalo 
Creek, Elizabeth Peart, wife of Benjamin Peart and her 
nine months' old baby; Rebecca Gilbert, sixteen years 
old ; a little boy, Benjamin Gilbert, probably her cousin ; 
and Abner Gilbert. 

This relatively large party was hurried along the forest 
trails to Fort Niagara, enduring on the way all the hard- 
ships incident to captivity, hunger, utter fatigue, cold, 
blows and the constant danger of massacre by their cap- 
tors, and finally the gauntlet. After seventeen days they 
reached the Fort and comparative safety. Here the party 
was dispersed. Eebecca was fortunate enough to be 
adopted at once by the daughter of Sayenqueraghta, who 
had married Eowland Montour. Some members of the 
family were sent down to Quebec and safety. Others 
were sent to the Genesee villages of Nundow and Cane- 
adea. Elizabeth Peart was adopted by a Seneca family 
which eventually went to Buffalo Creek. The boy Benja- 
min was adopted into the family of Rowland Montour 
with his cousin Rebecca. Abner was adopted into the 
family of one of his captors, a Cayuga. 

The family which adopted Elizabeth took her with 
them to Buffalo Creek, where they broke ground for corn. 
Scarcity of provisions made it necessary for the whole 
party to return to Fort Niagara. Here they separated 
Elizabeth and her infant child and sent the baby to a 
family in Canada. When they returned to their planta- 
tion on Buffalo Creek, Elizabeth became ill. At first her 
family showed her some attention, but her sickness con- 
tinuing, they built her a hut on the edge of their corn- 
field and left her there to look after it. Here she was 
cheered by a visit from a white man, a captive like her- 
self, who brought the news that her baby had been re- 
leased and was then safe with some white people. She 


remained isolated here until autumn, when, harvest being 
over, she was taken in once more by her Seneca family. 

She remained with them at Buffalo Creek only part of 
the winter of 1780-1781. Another captive had brought 
her the news that her husband was at the Genesee River 
and that he was ill, but late in the winter her family 
went to Fort Niagara for a supply of provisions and took 
her with them. Here she met her husband who had been 
brought from the Genesee, and was re-united with her 
child, and ultimately they were released without her hav- 
ing returned to Buffalo Creek. 

The girl, Bebecca Gilbert, sixteen years old, and Benja- 
min Gilbert her cousin, somewhat younger, were adopted 
into the family of Rowland Montour, a half-breed son-in- 
law of Sayenqueraghta. Almost immediately after their 
arrival, in May, 1780, the whole family moved to Buf- 
falo Creek. Here the two children fared better than 
Elizabeth Peart. Rebecca was well clothed in "short 
clothes, leggings and a gold-laced hat." She was as- 
signed part of the cooking which she was able to do 
after the "English method." Benjamin was considered 
to be the successor of Sayenqueraghta and "was entire- 
ly freed from restraint," and as a token of his imporance 
he wore a "silver medal pendant from his neck." 

On several occasions during the summer of 1780 the 
children were taken to Fort Erie and Fort Niagara. On 
one of these visits the English made efforts to ransom 
them, but their Seneca family refused to release them 
and they were brought back to Buffalo Creek. Here they 
passed a season of misfortune. Both became sick with 
malaria, for which their Indian mother treated them with 
various Indian medicines. While they were sick they 
received news of the death of Rebecca's father, who died 
on the way to Quebec. Shortly afterward they were once 
more bereaved; this time by the death of their Indian 


father, Rowland Montour, who died of a wound incurred 
in a raid. 

During the winter of 1780-81 the English made several 
efforts to have the children released but to no avail, for 
their adopted family would not give them up. Finally 
the family was made to understand that General Haldi- 
mand had issued mandatory orders that every white 
prisoner be released, and they finally acquiesced. 

The release was not immediate, for in the early spring 
of 1781 the family took the children to a maple-sugar 
grove where for two months they helped make maple 
sugar. After their return to Buffalo Creek, news was 
received of a pigeon roost about fifty miles away and 
part of the family repaired thither, taking Benjamin. 
Finally, the time set for their release having approached, 
the two children made ready for their departure, and 
probably with few regrets embarked in the canoe which 
bore them for the last time from the fragrant basswoocls 
of Buffalo Creek. 

Abner Gilbert, another member of the family, had 
been adopted by a Cayuga who took him across the river. 
Here they cleared land near the Falls, and planted corn. 
The next spring, 1781, he was taken to some place "near 
Buffalo Creek," where he helped clear land for corn, 
squashes and potatoes. Here he spent a whole season in 
a "dronish Indian life." He was visited by Captain 
Powell from Fort Niagara and by his half brother 
Thomas Peart, who had been released. These had brought 
hoes and a stock of provisions for distribution amongst 
the Senecas. Soon after this Abner was released. 

Besides these four captives who were constrained to 
make their home here, there were other visitors who fol- 
lowd the windings of the creek, either on business bent 
or under restraint. Two captives, we know, visited 
Elizabeth Peart here. One of the Pearts passed this way 


on his journey to the Genesee Valley. Thomas Peart, 
possibly the same, visited his half-brother near here. 
Meanwhile officers from the forts seem to have visited 
here occasionally. 

For four years after the first settlements were made 
in 1780, nothing was recorded as having happened at 
Buffalo Creek. It seems to have been a period of more 
or less quiet growth, when the Senecas and their col- 
leagues, the Cayugas and Onondagas, after various shift- 
ing^ about, began to settle down in several communities, 
of which that at Buffalo Creek was the most important. 

During these four years the American War had ended, 
and peace was declared in 1783. At once disputes had 
arisen amongst the colonies regarding their claims to 
lands beyond their actual borders, and these claims were 
to have a very decided effect upon the fortunes of the 
Seneca settlers along Buffalo Creek. 



When in 1628 Charles II chartered the colony of Mas- 
sachusetts he granted to it an immense tract of land at 
that time almost entirely unexplored and unknown. The 
original grant of James to the "Councell" at Plymouth 
comprised "all that parte of America lyeing and being 
in bredth from forty degrees of northerly latitude from 
the equinoctiall lyne to the forty eight degrees of the 
saide latitude inclusively, and in length of and within all 
the bredth aforesaid throughout the maine landes from 
sea to sea." . . . This "Councell established at Ply- 
mouth in the county of Devon for the plantinge, ruling, 
ordering and government of Newe England in America," 
deeded on March 19, 1628, to John Endicott and others 
all that part of America lying between a line three 
miles north of the Merrimac River or to the northward 
of any and every part of it, and a line three miles south 
of the southern part of Massachusetts Bay, "and all 
landes and hereditaments whatsoever lying within the 
lymytts aforesaide, north and south in latitude and 
bredth aforesaide, throughout the maine landes there 
from the Atlantick and western sea and ocean on the 
east parte; to the south sea on the west parte. . . " 
The tract thus granted lay between 41° 40' and 44° 15' 
or approximately between the present Pennsylvania line 
and the head of the St. Lawrence River; and extended 
beyond Lake Erie, to include the southern half of Michi- 
gan and Wisconsin. 

The portion of New York thus claimed by Massachu- 
setts may be said roughly to comprise all south of St. 


Lawrence County and west of a line laid down by Guy 
Johnson in 1771 under orders from the then Governor of 
New York, as being the western boundary of New York. 
New York also claimed this same tract on its western 
boundary because of a grant made in 1664 by Charles II 
in favor of James, Duke of York. More particularly, 
however, it claimed it because it belonged to the Six 
Nations, who were always claimed by New York as de- 

Besides these two conflicting paper claims upon the 
lands of the present western New York there was the 
claim of the Six Nations based upon their actual posses- 
sion of the tract in question and their proved ability to 
hold it by force of arms. Both New York and Massa- 
chusetts recognized this prior claim of ownership. 

From the very beginning the Dutch in the New Nether- 
lands had always recognized the claims of the Indians to 
land which they occupied, and had uniformly purchased 
from those Indians in actual or apparent possession all 
lands which they acquired, every settler being at liberty 
to buy directly from the Indian owners. After the trans- 
fer of New Netherlands to England this procedure was 
so changed that to acquire Indians lands prospective 
buyers must procure from the Governor of the province 
a license authorizing them to treat with the Indians in 
their effort to acquire title. That the recognition of the 
possessory rights of the Indians by the New York gov- 
ernment was a settled policy is shown by the instructions 
to the Earl of Bellomont in 1697 by which he was to 
purchase "great tracts of lands for His Maj'ty from the 

After the American Revolution this policy was con- 
tinued in the State Constitution by the clause: "Be it 
ordained, That no purchase or contracts for the sale of 
lands made since the fourteenth day of October, in the 


year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and seven- 
ty five, or which may hereafter be made with any of the 
said Indians, within the limits of this State, shall be 
binding on the said Indians, or deemed valid, unless 
made under the authority and with the consent of the 
Legislature of this State." An act was passed in 1788 
giving power to enforce this article and to punish in- 
fractions of it. 

In settling their conflicting claims New York and 
Massachusetts therefore, could not ignore the claims of 
the Six Nations. These were considered by the United 
States as conquered but sovereign nations, and their 
claims were recognized by both states as valid. Title to 
these lands could only be acquired by purchase under 
authority of one or the other state. The extent of these 
lands was unknown at the time of the Eevolution. Until 
the end of the eighteenth century there existed no defi- 
nite boundary between the lands of the colony of New 
York and those of the Six Nations. In 1701 in a treaty 
with Lieutenant Governor Nanf an the Five Nations sur- 
rendered to the King of Great Britain all their hunting 
lands which they had acquired by conquest and which 
they defined in detail. This deed was ratified by three 
of the nations in 1726, the Tuscaroras having come in. 
The land thus surrendered in trust was a tract sixty 
miles wide from the Onondaga country along Lake On- 
tario, Niagara Kiver and Lake Erie to Canahogue Creek 
on Lake Erie. 

A conference was held in 1768 between Sir William 
Johnson and the Six Nations at which a boundary be- 
tween them and the English colonies was fixed. This 
line began at the junction of the Canada and Wood 
Creeks near Fort Stanwix. Thence it ran southward to 
the head of Tionaderha Creek (Unadilla) ; thence to 
the mouth of this and across to the Mohawk branch of 


the Delaware. It followed down the Delaware to the 
Popaston branch; thence westward to the Susquehanna 
which it touched at Owega. It then followed the Susque- 
hanna to Awandoe Creek, then across to the west branch 
of the Susquehanna, thence west across to the Allegheny 
River with it touched at Kittaning. 1 

Eventually the various claimants amongst the States, 
following the recommendation of Maryland, had ceded 
nearly all the lands claimed by them west of Pennsyl- 
vania to the Federal Government, which took immediate 
steps to acquire title to them. The Iroquois Confederacy 
being considered a conquered nation, ambassadors 
were summoned to meet in council and sign a treaty 
ceding to the United States all their lands in the west. 

As a result of this conference at Fort Stanwix in 1784 
a treaty was signed in which a definite boundary was 
established beyond which the Six Nations relinquished 
all claim. The boundaries are designated in article 3 of 
the treaty as follows : "A line shall be drawn beginning 
at the mouth of a creek about four miles east of Niagara 
called Oyonwayea, or Johnston's landing place upon the 
lake named by the Indians Oswego, and by us Ontario; 
from thence southerly in a direction always four miles 
east of the carrying path between Lakes Erie and On- 
tario, to the mouth of Tehoseroron, or Buffalo Creek 
on Lake Erie; thence south to the north boundary of 
the State of Pennsylvania; thence west to the end of 
the said north boundary; thence south along the west 
boundary of the said state to the river Ohio; the said 
line from the mouth of Oyonwayea to the Ohio shall be 
the western boundary of the lands of the Six Nations...." 

The region between this line and the line laid down 
by Sir William Johnson was thus recognized by the 
United States as belonging to the Six Nations. Five 

l Col. Docs. VI, 800; VIII, 136, 548. Bur. Etb. 1896-1897, 581. 


years later at Fort Harmar the Six Nations renewed 
and confirmed this treaty with an amendment that these 
nations be allowed possession of all lands east, north and 
south of this line. At the same time the United States 
confirmed the Six Nations in possession of all lands in- 
habited by them, not previously ceded, and these lands 
were then ceded to New York State. 

Meanwhile New York and Massachusetts had settled 
their conflicting claims to lands west of Johnson's line 
by a compromise. By an agreement made in 1786 at 
Hartford, New York acquired sovereignty and jurisdic- 
tion over them. Massachusetts was given the right to 
sell the lands, but as these were still the property of the 
Indians, this right consisted really of the right of "pre- 
emption," which was the right to purchase first from 
the Indian owners. 

The western boundary of the lands over which New 
York was to have sovereignty and to which Massachu- 
setts was to retain the first right to buy from the Indians 
was designated as follows : 

Along the line between the possessions of Great Britain 
and the United States in Lake Ontario, "thence westerly 
and southerly along the said boundary line to a meridian 
which will pass one mile due east from the northern 
termination of the strait or waters between Lake On- 
tario and Lake Erie; thence south along the said meri- 
dian to the south shore of Lake Ontario; thence on the 
eastern side of the said strait by a line always one mile 
distant from and parallel to the said strait to Lake Erie ; 
thence due west to the boundary line between the United 
States and the King of Great Britain; thence along the 
said boundary line until it meets with the line of ces- 
sion from the State of New York to the United States; 
thence along the said line of cession to the northwest 
corner of the State of Pennsylvania. . . " 


It will be noted that this western boundary line is not 
coincident with the western boundary of the lands of the 
Six Nations as established at the Fort Stanwix treaty. 
The western line of the Indian lands at the northern end 
of the Niagara was to be four miles east of the river. The 
western line of the State of New York was established 
one mile east of the river. The western boundary of the 
Indian lands was a line drawn south from the mouth 
of Buffalo Creek. The Massachusetts compromise gave to 
New York all of that portion of the present New York 
between the meridian of Buffalo and the northwest cor- 
ner of Pennsylvania. 

The right of "pre-emption" upon which was based all 
the later land purchases was definitely and explicitly 
granted to Massachusetts in the tenth article of the com- 
promise as follows : 

"Tenthly. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts may 
grant the right of pre-emption of the whole or any part 
of the said lands and territories to any person or per- 
sons who by virtue of such grant shall have good right to 
extinguish by purchase the claims of the native In- 
dians . " 

At the present time this pre-emption right still con- 
stitues "a lien or preference in case of sale" upon the 
Cattaraugus and Allegheny Reservations. The title to all 
the lands of the Six Nations in New York was eventually 
acquired by purchase, excepting these lands on the Cat- 
taraugus and the Allegheny, the Tonawanda and at Oil 
Spring. The pre-emption right to the Tonawanda lands 
was extinguished by the United States, but it still hangs 
like a shadow over the other two reservations, being 
vested in the heirs of a Mr. Appleby, who until a few 
years ago was the sole remaining trustee of the Ogden 
Land Company. 


The lien is a peculiar one. "The title to these reserva- 
tions is in the nation, and the members are therefore at 
common law, 'tenants in common.' Each owns his un- 
divided share absolutely, independent of the United 
States or the State of New York. The individuals, how- 
ever, only hold a fee equivalent to the ownership of the 
land they improve, with power to sell or devise amongst 
their own people, but not to strangers. It is a good title. 
The nation itself can not disturb it. Within the Six Na- 
tions each head of a family or a single adult has the 
right to enter upon unoccupied land, build upon it, and 
improve it, thereby acquiring title, with authority to sell 
to another Indian or devise the same by will; but all 
these transactions must be between Indians." 1 

Immediately after the compromise prospective pur- 
chasers appeared for the Indian lands in New York. Of 
these the most prominent were Nathaniel Gorham and 
Oliver Phelps. These formed a company comprising most 
of the other applicants and as agents for this com- 
pany they purchased from Massachusetts all the Indian 
lands owned in New York by that commonwealth for 
one million dollars to be payable in three years in Massa- 
chusetts paper money. The value of this script was low 
at that time but before the expiration of the three years 
it had so appreciated in value that the company was un- 
able to pay in full. 

The purchase of Phelps and Gorham was of the pre- 
emption right only, the right to purchase the lands in 
question from their Indian owners. Massachusetts could 
give no title to the lands, for this was considered still in 
the Iroquois. It conveyed "the right of pre-emption and 
all the title and interest of the said Commonwealth in 
and unto all that tract of land lying in the State of New 
York, the right of pre-emption whereof the State of 

l Donaldson, Census for 1890 for Indians, p. 449. 


New York ceded, granted and confirmed to the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts . " 

It remained to acquire title to the lands from these 
Indians, and to do this they called a meeting at Buffalo 
Creek in 1788. 

To secure the good will of the Senecas, Mr. Phelps de- 
cided to send to Buffalo Creek a man who had already the 
confidence of this nation. This was a minister, the Kev- 
erend Samuel Kirkland, who had in many ways identi- 
fied himself with the best interests of the Six Nations, 
and who was favorably known amongst them. He had 
already been as far west as the Seneca town at the pres- 
ent Geneva. He had been appointed Commissioner by 
Massachusetts to represent it at the sale, and he was 
now to visit the almost unknown settlements at Buffalo 

Guided by two Senecas he passed through the once 
populous country bordering the Genesee. Crossing this, 
he followed the well-trodden path which led westward. 
On his way he noted as curiosities an earthen embank- 
ment, the remains of an Indian fort which he described 
minutely, and a hidden lake, the abode of a fire-breathing 
monster, whom his Seneca guides appeased by sacrifices. 
The embankment was that still visible at Oakfield. The 
demon-haunted lake is Devil's Lake, a tiny pond below 
the escarpment just north of Indian Falls. 

He reached Buffalo Creek in June, 1788, and found 
here a varied gathering of many nations. Amongst them 
he found acquaintances with whom he at once conferred, 
not only about the proposed land sale, but about the 
prospects for missionary work. The Board of Commis- 
sioners at Boston had taken this opportunity to acquire 
through him an intimate knowledge of conditions amongst 
the Senecas, and of the feeling towards missionary en- 


deavor. He found the Senecas unresponsive towards 
his advances and averse to any missionary work. 

Shortly after his arrival, Mr. Phelps reached the set- 
tlement and the council met to perfect the sale of the 
lands which he desired. During the council the Indians 
constantly appealed to Mr. Kirkland for aid in making 
a decision, and so powerful was his influence that Mr. 
Phelps was enabled to acquire title to all the lands east 
of the Genesee River, and a tract at the Falls on the west 
side of the Genesee, for $5,000, and a rental of $500 per 
year, to be paid forever. As tokens of appreciation of 
his services, Mr. Kirkland received large tracts of land 
as gifts from both Mr. Phelps and the Indians. The first 
payment for this tract was made August 1, 1789, when 
chiefs of the Six Nations met Mr. Phelps at Canandaigua. 
The Senecas were represented by Jack Berry. 

This purchase thus harmoniously consummated, bade 
fair to be overturned, and that through no fault of either 
seller or buyer. Phelps and Gorham had stipulated in the 
purchase of the pre-emption right that the purchase 
money should be paid "in the public paper of the Com- 
monwealth." At the time of purchase this had depreciat- 
ed in value, but when payment became due, it had appre- 
ciated so rapidly that the purchasers were unable to 
meet their obligations and it was only through a compro- 
mise that they were able to secure any benefits from 
their work. 

For two years after this sale the delimitations of the 
lands claimed by the various nations in New York were 
the subject of several conferences. Almost immediately 
after the return of Mr. Kirkland to Albany he was com- 
missioned in September, 1788, to return to Buffalo 
Creek and invite the Senecas to a conference at Albany 
the following January. He reached Fort Erie in October 
where he met Skendyoughwatti (Owen Blacksnake) and 


a week later he attended a council called by Farmer's 
Brother at Buffalo Creek. Here he presented a wampum 
belt inviting the Senecas to attend the conference. 

The following April, at a council held at Buffalo Creek, 
the boundary between the Senecas and the Cayugas was 
placed at the east line of the Phelps purchase. A month 
later Peter Otsiquette arrived at Buffalo Creek with a 
message to the Onondagas and Cayugas inviting them to 
meet Governor Clinton at Fort Stanwix in June to fix a 
boundary between their lands. 



In the peaceful and harmonious conference at Buffalo 
Creek there was at least one person who was interested 
in activities which led to a wide-spread war. This was 
Joseph Brant, who while at the conference confided to 
Mr. Kirkland a far-reaching plan for a great alliance of 
Indian nations, with a view of stopping the westward 
progress of the whites. 

The treaty of 1783 which ended the Revolution gave 
the United States possession of a vast tract of land 
east of the Mississippi River. This was nominal only, 
for even before the end of the war various claimants were 
already quarreling about its ownership. Nearly all the 
original colonies claimed that the lands granted them 
by their charters reached at least as far as the Mississippi 
River, and maps of the period showed this trans-montane 
territory cut into narrow strips, each the width of a sea- 
board colony, which headed in the Atlantic Ocean and 
swept boldly back across uncharted areas to the Missis- 
sippi. Besides these claims, Virginia claimed all the 
lands northwest of the Ohio River, basing its claim upon 
the indubitable fact that her troops had conquered it. 

Besides these vague and shadowy claims the western 
lands were claimed by the Indian tribes who were domi- 
ciled there. North of the Ohio these were Miamis, Wy- 
andots, Ottawas, Shawnees, Delawares, and others, 
whose villages dotted the wide prairies and forests. But 
all these tribes were dominated by the Iroquois of New 
York, who by sheer prowess of war had overcome these 


In addition to these numerous and insistent claimants, 
the British, although they had just ceded the lands to the 
United States, were loath to give them up and still re- 
tained posts there. They leagued themselves with the 
Indians, whose trade they desired, in an effort to keep 
them in possession of the lands. 

Immediately after the end of the Revolution it became 
apparent to the people of the United States that these 
conflicting claims must eventually lead to disputes 
amongst the Sates of such a serious nature that the ex- 
istence of the new republic might be threatened. Con- 
cessions by the states and wise legislation by Congress 
led to the passage of the Ordinance of 1787 by which the 
states relinquished to the Nation their claims to most of 
the lands west of the Allegheny Mountains. This simpli- 
fied the problem by confining the claims to the United 
States and the Indians only. 

The people themselves had not waited for the settle- 
ment of the disputes about ownership. While the negotia- 
tions were still going on which resulted in the passage of 
the Ordinance of 1787, emigrants began to pour westward 
into the fertile valleys of the Ohio and its tributaries. 
By flat-boat and pack-horse, by wagon-train and ox-team, 
they pushed into the wilderness of what is now the south- 
ern part of Ohio. Here they came at once into contact 
with the actual occupants of the lands, the Indians, who 
watched with alarm and hatred the influx of white in- 
truders. Clashes were inevitable. Young warriors, eager 
for glory, found their opportunity in the unsuspecting 
emigrant trains and lonely log cabins of the whites upon 
which they pounced like hawks. Boats loaded with set- 
tlers and their impedimenta were lured to the shore 
where warriors lay in ambush. Men were shot and 
scalped in their fields, women at their cabin doors, and 
children carried away into captivity. The horrors of 


Indian war hung like the wings of death over the streams 
and woodlands of the Ohio Valley. 

In 1787 and 1788 the leaders of the Indians began to 
appreciate the seriousness to them of this influx of white 
settlers into their lands and the futility of attempting to 
check it by desultory raids. Of these leaders one of the 
most prominent was Joseph Brant. He was a war chief 
of the Mohawks, brother of Molly Brant the Indian wife 
of Sir William Johnson. He had received a good English 
education and was withal a man of really great ideas. 
During the Revolution he had led his Mohawks and others 
of the Confederacy on numerous raids against the border 
settlements, and after its close he had followed the Eng- 
lish to Canada where his tribesmen were allotted lands 
on the Grand River. He remained a pensioner of the 
English Government and was always prominent in the 
border activities of the English. 

In 1788 when the Rev. Mr. Kirkland visited Buffalo 
Creek as a Commissioner of Massachusetts to superintend 
the sale of the Seneca lands to Mr. Phelps, he met Brant, 
with whom he had been acquainted, and had a long con- 
versation with him about the activities of the Indians in 
the West. Brant informed him then that twenty emis- 
saries of the Iroquois had been for nearly a year and a 
half, and even then were, travelling amongst the Indian 
tribes of the Ohio country in an attempt to unite them 
into a great confederacy which might be powerful enough 
to withstand the increasing pressure of the whites. 

Brant and the other leaders of this movement were 
aided rather openly by the English. These still retained 
possession of Detroit, Niagara and other frontier posts 
in the territory ceded to the United States, and the In- 
dians still continued to use these posts as headquarters 
and bases of supply. From them went bands of war- 
riors armed with English guns and encouraged by the 


English commandants to harry the newly-established 
settlements on the Ohio. It was no mere indifference 
which prompted this attitude. Frequently it was active 
hostility, at the best thinly veiled, and sometimes 
quite open. 

Contrasted with the active hostility of the English and 
Indians was the deprecatory and even cringing course 
adopted by Congress. Undoubtedly the country during 
the seven long years of the Revolution had become sated 
with warefare, and the country viewed with dismay and 
apprehension the more or less unauthorized invasion by its 
ruder members, of a territory which though nominally a 
part of the United States was still a hostile country, and 
particularly as this invasion seemed liable to bring on a 
recurrence of hostilities. Mainly its policy was to leave 
it alone and allow the stark backwoodsmen to work out 
their own safety in their own way, and they disregarded 
the continued tales of atrocities perpetrated on their 
own people in this border war. 

When George Washington was elected President of the 
new Republic it seemed that this policy might be changed. 
Yet for a time a half-hearted defence was all that was at- 
tempted. In 1790 the Indians of the Ohio country, em- 
boldened by a lack of adequate defence, had cut off bands 
of militia, captured supply trains after pitched battles, 
and besieged the settlers in their palisaded stations. In- 
dians hitherto friendly had treacherously and without 
cause ravaged the upper Allegheny Valley, where they 
had always been upon the friendliest terms with the set- 
tlers. General Harmar had led a punitive force against 
the Miamis and after several skirmishes had burned some 
of their towns. But he was almost immediately forced to 
retire to the comparative safety of his fort at the mouth 
of the Muskingum. 

If the policy of the United States toward the Ohio In- 


dians was half-hearted, toward the Iroquois it was dis- 
tinctly conciliatory. There was no doubt that warriors 
from Buffalo Creek and the Genesee were taking part in 
the outrages in Ohio, yet everything was done, not to pun- 
ish them but to persuade them to remain friendly; and 
failing this, to keep them neutral. Yet so strong was 
the. influence of Brant and the English, and so sullen the 
anger of the Iroquois towards their conquerors, that for 
a time it appeared that every effort must fail. 

Although not officially involved, the Senecas on Buffalo 
Creek played an active part in the struggle. It was the 
policy of President Washington to secure the neutrality 
of the Senecas, and if possible, to induce them to act as 
intermediaries to bring about a peace. To secure these 
results, Colonel Thomas Proctor was sent in April, 1791, 
to convey to the Senecas the request of the President that 
they remain neutral and to urge them to send an em- 
bassy of peace to the Miamis. 

Colonel Proctor first visited the village at Squaky Hill 
(Mount Morris), where he learned that contrary to his 
expectations no council had been called at Buffalo Creek. 
He then set out for Cornplanter's village on the Allegheny 
Kiver. Arrived there he found that the preceding winter 
a Delaware party had treacherously raided the towns 
along the Allegheny and in revenge the whites had turned 
upon the Senecas of Cornplanter's village and Corn- 
planter and others had been obliged to take refuge in 
Fort Franklin for safety. Proctor went to the fort, met 
the chiefs there and delivered his message, at the same 
time urging them to join him in a visit to the Miamis, 
there to use their influence to prevent the depredations 
by Seneca warriors against the frontier. The chiefs re- 
fused, believing that this was a matter which could only 
be settled in council at Buffalo Creek. 

Accompanied by Cornplanter, Colonel Proctor arrived 


at Buffalo Creek on April 27th, and on the following 
day opened a council which had been hastily summoned. 
He read a letter from President Washington, one from 
the Secretary of War and a deed signed by the President 
restoring certain lands. At a meeting next day he an- 
nounced his errand, and read a letter from the Secretary 
of War relative to the war on the Ohio frontier. Horatio 
Jones acted as interpreter. 

In answer Ked Jacket said the matter was so important 
that they would consider it, and would convene at Fort 
Niagara where Colonel Proctor should meet them. Be- 
lieving correctly that the Senecas were dominated by the 
English, and that any decision made at the Fort must 
be made adversely, Proctor refused to meet them there. 
After a good deal of negotiation the council was finally 
convened on May 4th, "at the storehouse on Lake Erie." 
Colonel Proctor was not invited to attend, but he was 
invited to dine there with the English officers from the 

It was not until May 15th that an answer was given. 
Meanwhile opinion amongst the Indians was adverse to 
any action tending to end the war, or even to their re- 
maining neutral. The women, however, were in favor of 
a peace and it was from them that the final decision 
emanated. It was voiced by Red Jacket, the chosen 
speaker of the women. He announced that they had de- 
cided to remain neutral, and that a number of chiefs 
named by them should accompany him to the Miamis. 

With such a satisfactory termination to his efforts 
Colonel Proctor set about seeking transportation for his 
delegation. He had planned and expected to charter a 
vessel from the English commandant at Fort Niagara. 
In this he could traverse Lake Erie as far as Sandusky 
on the Maumee River and thence by a short journey 
overland he could easily reach his destination. He wrote 


the commandant for permission to use a vessel, but the 
permission was not granted. The delegation was un- 
willing to make the journey afoot, and so, his plans being 
totally disarranged, he unwillingly withdrew. 

But this was not the end of the matter. In June, 
1791, Timothy Pickering called a council at the Painted 
Post on the Chemung River. His object was to conciliate 
the Iroquois, assure them of the friendship of the United 
States and of their desire to remain at peace, and if 
possible to range them on the side of the United States. 
At this council it was arranged that certain chiefs were 
to visit the President and confer with him. In December 
the Secretary of War directed Mr. Kirkland to send 
runners to these chiefs inviting them to attend and a 
month later he directed him to endeavor to ascertain the 
result of this. 

An invitation from the President ! Can not you visual- 
ize the scene on our Creek ? The long log council-house ; 
the sluggish icy stream slipping past beneath its leaning 
basswoods; the wide crowded room with its benches in 
the middle; the huddled groups at the sides, men at one 
end, women at the other; the runner, worn and travel- 
stained; an interpreter — Parrish, is it? — reading the 
screed as he would a message wampum ; the grave scrutiny 
of the chiefs. 

In answer to the invitation a delegation filed away 
from Buffalo Creek on the long trails to Philadelphia, 
where they were urged to use their influence to bring 
about a peace between the Ohio Indians and the United 
States. This they agreed to do, but so loath were they that 
it was not until September, 1792, after a visit from Gen- 
eral Chapin, the Indian Agent, that a delegation made 
the promised overtures. They proceeded to the hostile 
Indians, who received them cordially. They laid before 
them the desirability of a peace with the encroaching 


whites, and so effective were their representations that 
the hostile Indians requested the Six Nations to inform 
the President that they would treat with him at the 
rapids of the Miami the following Spring and that they 
would cease fighting until that time. 

In November the delegation returned to Buffalo Creek, 
where they made a report of their visit and its results to 
Israel Chapin, son of General Chapin, the Indian Agent 
to the Six Nations. This report was sent to Philadel- 
phia by Jasper Parrish, the interpreter. 

In pursuance of this invitation to confer Congress ap- 
propriated one hundred thousand dollars to defray the 
expense of negotiating with the hostiles. The President 
appointed General Benjamin Lincoln, Mr. Beverly Ran- 
dolph and Mr. Timothy Pickering, Commissioners to 
treat with them. General Lincoln journeyed by way of 
Buffalo Creek where he arrived on June 11, 1793. He 
met the Senecas here in council and urged them to meet 
with the Commissioners and to use their influence to 
bring about a peace. He lodged in a cabin on Buffalo 
Creek for an evening, and witnessed an Indian dance, 
and on the following day after a breakfast of parched 
corn raised on our creek flats he departed for Niagara 
where he was to meet the others. 

After a delay at Fort Niagara, the Commissioners ar- 
rived at the mouth of the Detroit River, where they re- 
mained until August 17th. A great conference of In- 
dians was being held on the Miami River, but the Indians 
would not allow the Commissioners to attend. They noti- 
fied them, however, by runner, of the business of the 
meeting and at the end of their deliberations informed 
them that the Indians had decided that the boundary 
between them and the whites should be the Ohio River. 
The Commissioners replied by letter that they could not 
agree to this, and immediately departed for home. 


While at the council at Buffalo Creek an English offi- 
cer present made a sketch of the council showing an In- 
dian orator addressing the Commissioners. This orator 
was a Mohawk, Flying Sky. 

While all this diplomacy was being carried on with 
the Iroquois, the wretched military activities on the 
Ohio had culminated in an almost fatal disaster. Gen- 
eral St. Clair had been put in command of an army which 
was intended to protect the settlers of Ohio. A cam- 
paign to punish and overawe the tribesmen was de- 
termined upon. Mismanagement and a lack of apprecia- 
tion of the seriousness of the situation marked the cam- 
paign from the first. General St. Clair was a soldier 
trained in war as carried on by European armies, but 
he was untrained in forest warfare, and in spite of re- 
peated warnings and admonitions by Washington him- 
self and others, he made no effort to adapt himself to 
this new mode. His army was made up of untrained re- 
cruits taken from the towns, with a stiffening of a few 
regulars, and all were utterly unfamiliar with wilder- 
ness ways. As a result, after a long march in the winter 
of 1791 the army was surprised by an overwhelming force 
of Indians and disastrously routed. All that saved it 
from total annihilation was the attraction of St. Clair's 
well-stocked camp, for looting this proved more attractive 
to the Indian victors than pursuing and slaughtering 
fleeing Americans. 

The effect of this disaster upon the Indians was im- 
mediate. The boasts of the victorious bands were sub- 
stantiated by huge quantities of loot taken from St. 
Clair's camp. Scalps there were in plenty, and glory for 
every warrior. The tribes which had been wavering in 
their decision at once joined the victors. Many of the 
Senecas of Buffalo Creek had undoubtedly taken part in 


the battle and the whole body seemed determined to cast 
in their lot against the United States. 

The disaster had its effect upon the English allies of 
the Indians also. Their hostility became more and more 
open until it culminated in February of 1794 when Lord 
Dorchester, Governor of Canada, in a speech to some 
Indian chiefs, told them that he would not be surprised 
to see the United States and England at war within the 
year, and intimated that the Indians might expect aid 
from the English in establishing a line of demarkation 
between them and the United States. Copies of this 
speech were widely distributed amongst the Indians. In 
April of 1794, Lieutenant Colonel John Butler addressed 
a meeting of chiefs "near Buffalo," probably at Buffalo 
Creek, and delivered the speech to them, at the same 
time warning them to prepare for it by calling in all 
their people who might be scattered about the country. 



Seemingly in accordance with the policy of the United 
States of securing and holding the friendship of the Six 
Nations or at least their neutrality in the war with the 
Ohio Indians, a great council was convened in 1794 at 
Canandaigua. Timothy Pickering, United States Agent, 
presided, and his intent was, by means of a treaty, to re- 
move as far as possible all cause of dissatisfaction and 
secure official action expressing the friendship of the Six 
Nations and the United States. A combination of con- 
ditions enabled him to fulfill his purpose most happily. 

A large number of Indians presented themselves at 
the rendzevous — 1800, it is said. Some of the leading 
chiefs, of whom Brant was one, had refused to attend, 
and it was pretty generally understood that this was 
due to the influence of English officers at Fort Niagara. 
The policy of the British Government seems to have 
been to prevent any action which might ally the Iroquois 
with the United States, and these agents were active in 
their efforts to induce the Six Nations to refuse all over- 
tures of peace. It was well known also that the con- 
tinued successes of the Ohio Indians against the United 
States troops, especially the defeat of St. Clair's force, 
had decided the Senecas, at least, to espouse actively the 
cause of the Ohio Indians, and to take up the hatchet once 
more against the border settlements of New York and 
Pennsylvania. The settlers, especially those just arrived 
in the Phelps and Gorham tract, were apprehensive and 


This determination, due partly to English influence, 
but more undoubtedly to the belief that the United States 
was too weak to subdue such a powerful coalition of In- 
dians, was abruptly changed. General Wayne, who suc- 
ceeded General St. Clair in command in Ohio, met the 
hostile tribesmen, and in a fierce fought battle at Fallen 
Timbers on the Maumee Kiver, under the walls of an 
English fort there, decisively crushed them. The news 
of this defeat reached the Senecas almost immediately, 
evidently either by warriors actually engaged in the bat- 
tle, or by runners who were in touch with the Indian 
forces. At any rate, the news reached them before it 
reached the whites. Mr. O. H. Turner states that Mr. 
William Ewing, who had been sent by Mr. Chapin, the 
Indian Agent, to bring Brant to Canandaigua, had just 
reached Fort Erie when General Simcoe, Governor of 
Canada, called a council there of Senecas from Buffalo 
Creek. They were told of Wayne's victory at Fallen 
Timbers, and immediately after, Red Jacket assured Mr. 
Ewing that the Senecas would attend at Canandaigua. 

The English agents did not, however, cease their ef- 
forts to influence the Senecas. When these appeared in 
council they were accompanied by William Johnston, 
who acted as interxireter. Johnston was an officer in the 
English army, who then and later had immense influence 
over the Buffalo Creek Senecas. So evident were his 
designs that Mr. Pickering flatly refused to admit him to 
any meeting and took such a firm stand that Johnston 
was finally excluded. 

Immediately after this an Indian runner brought to 
Mr. Pickering the news of Wayne's victory, which he at 
once communicated to the council. The news of their 
overthrow, coming at this psychological moment, coupled 
with Mr. Pickering's firm stand in regard to Johnston, 
engendered in the chiefs present a much more respectful 


attitude, and in conjunction with Mr. Pickering's con- 
ciliatory and tactful manner, served to bring about a 
harmonious and friendly discussion. 

As a result, a treaty was signed by the chiefs. Peace 
and friendship were expressly stipulated. The United 
States guaranteed them the right to occupy and own 
their lands until they themselves chose to sell them. 
New limits were set to the Seneca lands by which their 
territory was enlarged. By the Fort Stanwix treaty in 
1784 their western boundary in New York was to be a 
line drawn from the mouth of Buffalo Creek due south 
to the Pennsylvania line. The new boundary delineated 
in the Canandaigua treaty was as follows : 

The land of the Seneka Nation is bounded as follows: Begin- 
ning on Lake Ontario, at the northwest corner of the land they 
sold to Oliver Phelps, the line runs westerly along the lake as 
far as O-yong-wong-yeh Creek at Johnson's Landing Place, about 
four miles eastward from the fort at Niagara; thence southerly 
up that creek to its main fork; then straight to the main fork 
of iSteadman's Creek, which empties into the river Niagara about 
Fort Schosser and then onward from that fork, continuing the 
same straight course to that river (this line from the mouth of 
O-yong-wong-yeh Creek to the river Niagara, above Fort Schos- 
ser, being the eastern boundary of a strip of land extending from 
the same line to Niagara river which the Seneka Nation ceded 
to the King of Great Britain, at a treaty held about thirty years 
ago, with Sir William Johnson) : then the line runs along the 
river Niagara to Lake Brie; then along Lake Erie to the north- 
east corner of a triangular piece of land which the United States 
conveyed to the iState of Pennsylvania as by the President's 
patent dated the third day of March 1792; then due south to the 
northern boundary of that State; then due east to the southwest 
corner of the land sold by the Seneka Nation to Oliver Phelps; 
and then north and northerly along Phelp's line to the place of 
beginning on Lake Ontario. 

Besides the delimitation of their lands the Six Nations 
were allowed "in consideration of the peace and friend- 
ship hereby established," goods to the value of $10,000, 
and an annuity of $3,000 added to that which they had 
previously been receiving. 



The lands of the Senecas, thus finally delimited, com- 
prised all that portion of New York State west of the 
Genesee Kiver and a line drawn from the confluence of 
the Canaseraga and Genesee, due south to the Pennsyl- 
vania line. Two tracts were not included in this. One 
was the Mill tract on the western side of the Genesee 
River at Rochester, the other the tract four miles wide 
on the eastern bank of the Niagara, granted to Sir Wil- 
liam Johnson. All this domain was to "remain theirs 
until they should choose to sell the same to the people of 
the United States who have the right to purchase." 

The Lands of the Senecas defined in the Treaties of 1784 and 1794. 

This treaty was so eminently satisfactory to the Sen- 
ecas, the desire of the United States to be just, so evi- 
dent, and Mr. Pickering's manner so conciliatory, that 
from that time the allegiance of these tribesmen was 
transferred from their long-time allies, the English, to the 
United States ; and it has never since wavered. 



It will be remembered that when Massachusetts had re- 
ceived in its compromise with New York the pre-emptive 
right to the lands of western New York, it had immediate- 
ly sold this right to Messrs. Phelps and Gorham, repre- 
senting a company. Mr. Phelps had soon after met the 
Indian owners of the land at Buffalo Creek and had there 
purchased from them all that portion east of the Genesee 
River and a line drawn from the confluence of the Can- 
aseraga and Genesee, due south to the Pennsylvania line. 
When the time of payment to Massachusetts was due 
Phelps and Gorham were unable to make their payments, 
and Massachusetts brought suit against them. 

Before any action was taken another purchaser for the 
lands appeared. This was Mr. Robert Morris, of Phila- 
delphia. In the bargaining which followed, Phelps and 
Gorham retained that portion of the land east of the 
Genesee, the Indian claim to which they had already ex- 
tinguished. The remaining portion they re-conveyed to 
Massachusetts, which in 1791, in consideration of $225,- 
000, conveyed the pre-emptive right to Mr. Morris. This 
tract, comprising all western New York, was conveyed to 
Mr. Morris in five deeds; and of these five parcels, he 
sold in 1793, four, comprising 3,600,000 acres to Herman 
LeRoy and others, trustees for a party of capitalists in 
Amsterdam, Holland, reserving one parcel next the 
Phelps tract for himself. It was stipulated that Mr. 
Morris should extinguish the Indian claim to the tract 
thus purchased. 



The task of purchasing these lands from their Seneca 
owners was assigned to Mr. Thomas Morris, son of 
Robert Morris. The lands conveyed in the five parcels 
comprised all the lands which in the Canandaigua Con- 
ference the following year were allotted to the Seneca 
Nation, and it was with the chiefs of this nation that Mr. 
Morris must negotiate. During the following three years 
he personally visited the leading Seneca chiefs, and 
finally persuaded them to meet in council at Big Tree's 
village near the present Geneseo, to consider the sale of 
their lands. 

The Land Purchases in Western New York, showing the Reser- 
vation at Buffalo Creek. 

The conference was convened in September, 1797. Be- 
sides the Morrises, there were present Mr. Jeremiah 
Wadsworth, United States Commissioner, and Mr. Wil- 
liam Shepherd, Commissioner representing Massachusetts. 

From the beginning the sachems and chiefs opposed 


the sale of their lands. So unanimous was this opposi- 
tion that Red Jacket finally kicked out the council-fire 
and dissolved the council. Morris however, not entirely 
hopeless, then negotiated with the women and the war- 
riors, and through their efforts the council-fire was re- 
kindled and the conference continued. As a result, the 
Senecas sold their entire holdings in New York to Rob- 
ert Morris, exempting, however, from the sale certain 
tracts for their own use. These tracts were called reser- 
vations, one being the Buffalo Creek Reservation. 

The land exempted by the Senecas was divided into 
parcels, each surrounding, or adjacent to, certain exist- 
ing villages of the Senecas, and each was to accommodate 
the inhabitants of these villages. Part of these reserved 
lands lay in the Genesee Valley where many of the Sen- 
ecas were still domiciled. Others were established in 
Western New York where, as has already been shown, 
numerous settlements existed. 

The Genesee reservations were strung like beads along 
the Genesee River. At the present village of Avon, the 
village of Canawaugus was allotted two square miles. 
Little Beard's town, Chenussio, at the present village of 
Moscow, received two square miles. At Squawky Hill, 
the present Mount Morris, two square miles were laid off 
in a rectangle which had a mile frontage on the Genesee. 
A well-defined but unmeasured parcel was laid out at 
Gardeau; and the village of Oaneadea, which straggled 
along the east side of the Genesee nearly from the pres- 
ent Caneadea, to the present village of Houghton, was 
allowed a frontage on the river of eight miles with a 
depth of two miles. 

Much larger tracts were exempted in western New 
York. To accommodate the villages at the Cattaraugus 
Creek, a tract was reserved along the shore of Lake Erie 
from the mouth of Eighteen Mile Creek (Koghquauga) 


to the mouth of the Canadaway Creek above Dunkirk, 
with a depth of a mile, and besides, there were two pro- 
longations ; one twelve miles long and a mile wide up the 
Cattaraugus; the other, one mile long and a mile wide 
up Canadaway Creek. The villages at the great bend of 
the Allegheny River received a tract of forty-two square 
miles, and two hundred square miles were to be allotted 
partly at Buffalo Creek, partly at Tonawanda Creek. Be- 
sides these which were definitely mentioned in the con- 
tract, there were two parcels which the Senecas later 
claimed to have been exempted, but which did not appear 
in the deed. These parcels, which later were to cause 
some dispute, were the tracts surrounding the Tuscarora 
village above Lewiston, and a small tract containing a 
certain well-known oil spring near the present village of 

After the deed had been recorded, the discovery was 
made that no provision had been made for the Tuscaroras 
who, at that time, were well established in a village on 
the Mountain Ridge about half way between Lewiston 
and Pekin. They expostulated with the Senecas, whose 
relation to them in the National Council of the Confed- 
eracy was as father to an adopted son. Realizing the 
omission, the Senecas executed a deed, March 30, 1808, 
by Cornplanter, Farmer's Brother, Halftown, Red Jacket 
and others, giving the Tuscaroras a square mile of land 
surrounding their village. This deed, now recorded in 
the County Clerk's office of Niagara County, recites that 
this tract has been reserved at the sale of lands. No such 
exemption occurs in the deed, but to avoid any trouble, 
the Holland Land Company ratified this grant and added 
two square miles in addition. 

For many years, a spring which oozed from the side of 
a steep hill a short distance northwest of the present 
village of Cuba, had been widely known amongst the 


Indians because of the medicinal quality of the petroleum 
which covered the waters. After the sale of their land 
the Senecas continued to resort there, and always con- 
sidered it their property. Eventually, buildings were 
erected there by a white man named Paterson. Action 
was brought to eject him, and this was finally decided in 
favor of the Senecas. This decision was due to a deposi- 
tion made by an aged Seneca named Blacksnake, who pro- 
duced a map which he claimed had been given to the 
Seneca sachems by Joseph Ellicott, defining the reserva- 
tions, amongst which marked in red, was the Oil Spring. 
This map is now on file in the office of the County Clerk 
of Cattaraugus County. 

There is no doubt that all these reservations were thus 
located because of pre-existent Seneca villages there. The 
villages in the Genesee Valley had been occupied for the 
best part of a century and were well known and seeming- 
ly of long duration. The Allegheny Valley was dotted 
with Seneca villages from at least as far up as the 
Tunaengwant Creek, where stood the village of that name 
mentioned by Mary Jemison as existing there before the 
Revolution. Below this, there were villages in New York 
as far as the state line, and beyond this, numerous colonies 
stretched from Buccaloons, near the mouth of the Little 
Brokenstraw Creek, to a point well below Pittsburgh. 
These villages as far north as Buccaloons, had been de- 
stroyed in 1777 by Colonel Broadhead, who had coopera- 
ed with General Sullivan in the destruction of the 
Seneca towns. The reservation of the Allegheny covered 
as many of these villages as existed inside New York 
State. Pennsylvania had already granted to Cornplanter 
a small reservation just south of the line surrounding his 
village there. 

The Tuscarora Reservation is identical with the terri- 
tory occupied by old Neuter villages, the most eastern 


of which is now marked by a site locally known as 
Kienuka, on the Williams Farm near the Dickersonville 
road. There had been, evidently, clearings along the 
brow of the escarpment at this point from the days of 
the Neuters ; and when the Tuscaroras, after the terrible 
winter of 1779, cast about for a new place of settlement, 
they selected the land immediately about this ancient 
village site and this served as the nucleus of the land later 
reserved for them. 

The valley of the Tonawanda seems to have been in- 
habited by Seneca Indians for a long time previous to the 
Revolution. Pouchot's map shows a village at the bend 
of the Tonawanda Creek, but of this early occupation, 
nothing at all is now known. 

As has already been said, the valley of Buffalo Creek 
had been the seat of a numerous population at least since 
late pre-historic times and evidently the clearings made 
by the villages of the Wenros were reoccupied, at times 
at least, by the Senecas, who certainly made some perma- 
nent villages there. Nearly all these villages were included 
in the tract allotted as the Buffalo Creek Reservation. 
One village, however, that at South Wales, was so far 
removed from the others that it was not included in the 



Of all the tracts reserved from the Morris purchase, that 
on the Buffalo Creek was the largest. Unlike the reserva- 
tions on the Genesee, no definite boundaries had been set 
in the deed of 1797 limiting it, and even the size was in- 
definite, the extent of this and the Tonawanda Reserva- 
tion having been included in one item of two hundred 
square miles. 

In October, 1798, it was laid out by Mr. Augustus 
Porter, under the direction of Joseph Ellicott, while sur- 
veying the Holland Land Company's tract ; and it appears 
on Ellicott's map of 1802. Eight years later, its boun- 
baries were noted in a deed (No. 1, of deeds, Erie County 
Clerk's office, page 68) given by the Holland Company, 
conveying to David Ogden, the lands of the reservation 
as follows : 

Boundaries of the Buffalo Creek Reservation: On the north in 
part by lands now or late belonging to William Willink, Nicholas 
Van Staphorst, Peter Van Eghen, Hendrik Vollenhoven and Rutger 
Jan iSchimmelpenninck, designated on said map as township No. 
11 of the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th ranges, and in part by land now 
or late belonging to William Welling (sic), Jan. Willink, William 
Willink, the younger, Jan. Willink, the younger; on the east in 
part by the said township No. 11 of the 5th range and township 
No. 10 of the 4th range, also now or late belonging to William 
Willink, Nicholous Van Staphorst, Peter Van Eghen, Hendrik 
Vallenhouen, Rutger Van iSchimmelpenninck; on the north (sic) 
by township No. 9 of the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th ranges, and in part 
by lands now or late belonging to said William Willink, Jan. 
Willink, William Willink, the younger, and Jan. Willink, the 
younger, and westerly by in part by a small strip of land lying 
between the premises hereby intended to be described, and Lake 
Erie; and northeasterly by the above mentioned township No. 



11 of the 8th range containing eighty-three thousand and five 
hundred and fifty-seven (83557) acres, he the same more or less. 

The east line of the Reservation thus described is in 
the east boundary of Erie County , lying between Marilla 
and Bennington, Wyoming County, and in a small part 
of Alden. 



The Buffalo Creek Reservation, showing original boundaries and 
the purchase of 1826. — From Burr's N. Y. Atlas, 1841. 

The south line is in the southern boundaries of Elma 
and Marilla, and in the Benzing road at Webster's Cor- 
ners, at East Hamburg, and in the southern boundaries 
of lots 33, 34, 37, 38, 41, 10, 1 in West Seneca. 

The north line is in the northern boundary of the south- 
ern tiers of lots of Alden, the southern tiers of lots of 
Lancaster and Cheektowaga, to a point in lot 15, in 
Cheektowaga, thence south to William Street, and west 
on William Street to Lewis Street, where it bends to the 

This differs from the boundaries originally intended 
in that the northern line, which was to have been run 
due west so that the line of the New Yor,k reservation 
should be within the tract thus reserved, was bent at an 
angle to the southwest, so as to leave the mouth of the 


creek outside of the reservation. This change was due 
to the perspicacity of Joseph Ellicott, who foresaw the 
future importance of Buffalo Eiver as a port and the 
necessity of having its control in the hands of the whites. 
To secure the consent of the Senecas to this change, he 
engaged the services of Captain Johnston, heretofore men- 
tioned, who had great influence with the Senecas. He 
had received from the Senecas a grant of land two miles 
square at the mouth of the river and had built thereon 
a house. Through his efforts the Senecas consented to 
change the boundary, and this change is noted in the 
deed of 1810, bounding the tract. The westerly boundary 
is "In part by a small strip of land lying between the 
premises hereby intended to be described and Lake Erie." 
This small strip was the somewhat triangular parcel 
lying between the lake, the New York State Reservation 
and the Buffalo Creek Reservation. A small strip indeed, 
but it was the most important of the lands thus deeded. 

In its changed form, the Buffalo Creek Reservation ap- 
pears on a modern map of western New York as a broad 
strip running east and west entirely across Erie County. 
Its eastern line is mainly in the line between Wyoming 
and Erie counties, between the townships of Marilla and 
Bennington. A short portion is in the town of Alden in 
the western line of lots 9 and 10. 

Its southern line is in the southern boundaries of the 
towns of Marilla and Elma and in the northern line of 
lots 72, 64, 8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 running through Webster's 
Corners and keeping on the Benzing road to East Ham- 
burg and north lines of lots 48, 56, 8, 16 and 24 of Ham- 
burg. It strikes the lake shore at Bay View. 

The western boundary was the water line of Lake Erie 
from Bay View to a point on the beach just west of a 
bridge over the ship canal at the foot of Louisiana Street. 
This is the eastern end of the south line of lot 50, and 


also of the line of the old First ward of Buffalo. From 
this point, the reservation line runs in this line of lot 50 
to the creek, thence keeping, seemingly, to the left or 
south bank, it follows the creek bank to a point in lot 65, 
whence it crossed the creek. From this point, it lies in 
the line of the old First ward to the foot of Porter street. 
From Porter Street, the line is the east line of the old 
First ward to the corner of Eagle Street and Fillmore 
Avenue, thence to a point on William Street near the 
corner of Metcalf Street. 

This line is indicated in the "Village of Black Rock, 
Street Record, 14," in the authorization of a survey of a 
road to Hamburg Street, "on the Indian reservation line 
north forty-six degrees, eighty-one chains to angle in 
Indian reservation line, thence east ninety-nine chains to 
town of Amherst, four rods wide, two rods on each side 
of the Indian reservation line, this declared to be a public 

In 1835, this road was surveyed and established from 
Buffalo Creek, four rods wide on the Indian reservation 
line, north forty-five degrees, forty-six and nine-tenths 
chains to Elk Street, thence forty-three chains to Seneca 
Street, thence eighty-one chains to William Street, thence 
east ninety-nine chains to the town line of Amherst. 

Later this line was centered in "Ferry Street" which 
included the section of the highway authorized above, 
from Elk Street to William Street at the angle of the 
reservation line. In 1856 the Buffalo City records show 
that a road laid out in 1835 along the Indian reservation 
line from Abbott Road to Buffalo Creek was declared a 
public highway, called Ferry Street. This appears to be 
occupied now by the Erie Railway. From the Abbott 
Road the line now seems to be in the Erie Railway's 
tracks as far as a curve at Fitzgerald Street, which was 
originally intended to be laid out from Elk Street to the 


City Line or to Ferry Street parallel to Hamburg Street. 
At Fitzgerald Street the line seems to be in or near a 
spur of the Erie Railway running into the furnaces of the 
Buffalo Union Iron Works. 

The northern line of the reservation seems to be in Wil- 
liam Street as far as the junction of this street and a road 
at lot 15 in Cheektowaga. The line then turns to the 
northeast corner of lot 64 thence due east to the north- 
east corner of lot 23 in Alden, the place of beginning. 

Of the tracts thus reserved by the Senecas to accom- 
modate their people, that at Buffalo Creek was by far 
the largest and most important, and it is probable that 
the main body of Senecas were here resident at that 
time. No records are available of the number living here 
at the time of its exemption, and it was not until 1817 
that even an approximate estimate of the number was 
made. In that year the Rev. Timothy Alden visited the 
Reservation and reported that there was "about seven 
hundred Senecas, sixteen Munsees, some Onondagas and 
Cayugas and some Squakies." The identity of these 
"Squakies" is unknown or at least problematical. They 
seem to have been part or all of a band which at one 
time lived at Mount Morris, at "Squaky Hill." At- 
tempts have been made to identify them with a captive 
colony of Sacs or Sauks from Michigan. Attempts have 
also been made to identify them with the "Squawkihows" 
of one of the Iroquois traditions, and to identify these 
with "Kah-Kwahs," but as the identity of these latter is 
also unknown this identification fails. 

By Munsees Mr. Alden must have meant Delaware 
Indians, of whom the Munsees (Minsis) were one branch. 
He was very familiar with most of the tribes of the east- 
ern United States and was probably entirely correct in 
noting this band of Delawares on Buffalo Creek. It is 
possible that these were part of a band under "Captain 


Smoke" which fled from the Ohio country in 1791 and 
sought refuge at Buffalo Creek. Colonel Proctor men- 
tions a council here when he visited Buffalo Creek in 
May of that year, called to allot lands to this band. 
Their decision was, however, to locate them on the Cat- 
taraugus, and a Delaware village certainly was located 
there, near the present Thomas School, in 1802. 

On the other hand, another band of refugees, also al- 
lotted lands on Buffalo Creek at that council are unac- 
counted for on Mr. Alden's list. This was a band of Mis- 
sissaugas (Chipeways), the families of Connondoghta 
and Bear Oil, which had fled from Coiryatt, Ohio. This 
band seems identical with one which lived for a time on 
a sandy knoll crowning a high bluff in a bend of Conne- 
aut Elver, just opposite the present Conneaut. There was 
an embankment there, and there still exist traces of In- 
dian occupancy. Local tradition ascribes this site to a 
band of Mississaugas. In 1789 there was an Indian vil- 
lage there called by the French "Villejoye." 

There seems to have been a small band of Stockbridge 
Indians, Mahicans from the Hudson, located on the 
Keservation. The only knowledge of these is the fact that 
the east part of Ebenezer is said by Mr. Marshall to have 
been called Sha-ga-na-ga-geh, "The place of the Stock- 

The Onondagas seem to have formed a relatively large 
group, and to have comprised a large part of the Onon- 
daga Nation. Colonel Proctor visited their village in 
1791 and noted that it consisted of twenty-eight good 
cabins. Their chief was Big Sky, or Clear Sky. 

This diverse population was loosely grouped about 
certain centers. Although the entire reservation was 
dotted with scattered cabins and clearings, at certain 
places these were clustered into groups large enough to 
be considered villages. Mainly these centered about the 


homes of prominent persons and many took their Eng- 
lish names from these persons. Thus, the village at 
Gardenville was Jack Berry's town, just as two villages 
on the Genesee were Big Tree's and Little Beard's vil- 
lages, and just as a century before the villages in which 
Father Fremin lived was called by him Ononkenritouai, 
after the chief who lived there. 

Of these clusters of houses, villages, so called, the most 
prominent seems to have been that which surrounded 
the home of Ked Jacket. This group straggled along the 
paths which are now Seneca Street and Indian Church 
Koad, mainly centered about the present Seneca Indian 
Park. Here, at least in later years, was their cemetery 
and here were built their mission house, school and 
church. All these occupied the sightly elevation upon 
which still stood the embankment marking an ancient 
Wenro fortified town. Through this group ran the main 
path from the Lake to the upper valley of Cazenovia 
Creek, which met at this point a path which led from 
Jack Berry's town and the upper valley of Buffalo Creek. 

The group called Jack Berry's town centered about the 
home of a half-breed of that name, or in Seneca Do-eh- 
saw, who had come from Little Beard's town on the 
Genesee and reared his home on the bank of Buffalo Creek 
at what is now Gardenville. 

On Buffalo Creek above Berry's town there were several 
clusters of cabins. One of these at what is now Blossom 
was called Dyo-nah-da-eeh, "hemlock elevation." Another 
was at the present Elma village, and another at East 
Elma. At this latter place lived chief Big Kettle, who 
had removed hither from Squaky Hill, and several other 
prominent men. A nearly forgotten cemetery near East 
Elma is the last resting-place of many of these. 

On Cazenovia Creek there was one group, at the ford, 
now the bridge, connecting Potter Road and Seneca 


Street, a mile west of Ebenezer. This in 1791 was Big 
Sky's village of Onondagas, which straggled along the 
paths, from what is now the "Red Bridge" on Potter 
Road to the ford. On the east bank of the creek stood 
the council house of the Six Nations, and on a terrace 
on the opposite side of the creek was their cemetery. 

The Cayugas who in 1779 had joined the Senecas in 
their flight from their ruined homes seem to have estab- 
lished themselves in a straggling village on Cayuga 
Creek at the extreme northern edge of the Reservation, 
at the corner of William Street and Cayuga Road. 

Besides these clusters there were innumerable cabins 
scattered along the creeks, mostly on the terraces or 
higher lands above flood level. A few of these were 
homes of prominent people. Thus, chief Pollard lived on 
a terrace, on or near the site of the ancient village on 
the farm of Mr. Hart on the Potter Road, and chief Sil- 
verheels lived on what was later the Twichell farm on 
Abbott Road, near Cazenovia Park. 




During the century which had elapsed since Governor 
Denonville had burned the long bark houses in the Sen- 
eca villages of Canagora and Totiakton material changes 
had taken place in Seneca architecture. The long com- 
munal house, built of bark and capable of housing many 
families, was giving place to small houses designed for 
one family only, and many of these were well built of 
hewn logs or even mill-sawed lumber after the pattern of 
the better class of pioneer structures. 

Just when or how this change was accomplished is un- 
known, but that it was gradual is certain. Probably the 
increasing familiarity of the Senecas with the English 
and Dutch in the Hudson River settlements, and the es- 
tablishment in the Seneca country at Geneva of an Eng- 
lish trading-post with a few European houses, had their 
gradual influence upon the thought of the three genera- 
tions of Senecas which bridged the century between 1687 
and 1780. It is certain that communal bark houses 
were in use as late as 1779 in the Allegheny Valley 
where they were found and described by Colonel Brod- 
head. He reported that in some towns he found houses 
large enough to accommodate three or four families but 
that the greatest part of the Indian houses were of 
square or round logs and framework. 

In the Genesee country the better houses seem to have 
been the rule. General Sullivan's army found many of 
the villages made up of log houses. At "Chemoung," a 
town 15 miles up the "Cayouga" branch of the Susque- 


hanna River, they found "forty houses built chiefly with 
split and hewn timbers covered with bark and some other 
rough materials without chimneys or floors." 

A curious survival of the long house was to be seen in 
the council house of the Tonawanda band of Senecas as 
late as 1818. In that year the Rev. Timothy Alden at- 
tended a meeting there and considered the building inter- 
esting enough to describe: 

The council house is fifty feet long and twenty wide. On each 
side of it longitudinally is a platform a little more than one foot 
high and four feet wide, covered with furs which furnish a con- 
venient place for sitting, lounging and sleeping. . . . Over 
the platform is a kind of gallery, five or six feet from the floor, 
which is loaded with peltry, corn, implements of hunting and a 
variety of other articles. At each end of the building is a door, 
and near each door within, was a council fire, which would have 
been comfortable for the coldest weather in winter, but at this 
time, when the mercury in Fahrenheit's themometer must have 
ranged from eighty to ninety degrees, was very oppressive. 
Over each fire several large kettles of soup were hanging and 
boiling. The smoke was conveyed away through apertures in 
the roof and did not annoy. 

This description would have fitted almost exactly a long 
house inhabited by Senecas a century before. 

Contrasted with this rather primitive type of house, 
the council-house of the Senecas on the Buffalo Creek at 
that time was quite modern. Mr. Alden described it as 
being 42 feet long and 18 feet wide, well made of hewn 
logs, shingled and glazed, and provided with seats and a 
good chimney. 

During the last years of the Buffalo Creek Reserva- 
tion many of the Seneca houses were of framed construc- 
tion, evidently equal in all respects to those of the whites 
near by. Several of these are noted on the survey of im- 
provements made by Mr. Sperry in 1844 as being near the 
Indian Church. 

The change from the communal long house to the log 


or frame house inhabited by a single family must have 
had a strong effect upon the life of the Senecas. In the 
old days a long house might have contained twenty or 
more families, each domiciled in one or more cubicles 
formed by building two partitions of bark from the outer 
wall of the house inward to the corridor which ran from 
end to end of the house. Each cubicle was open at the 
side next to the corridor, and was furnished with low 
platforms raised above the floor and stored with furs. 
On these the family slept. Overhead was a rack or low 
open loft for the storage of corn, peltry and all spare 
articles. On the earthen floor in the corridor were fires 
for cooking or heat. Smoke was supposed to go out of 
holes in the roof. 

Each house was built by, and was inhabited by, women 
of one clan and their children of the same clan, with 
their husbands who belonged to some other clan. These 
were presided over by some matron of the house; and 
everything in it or entering it was, theoretically and 
even in actual practice, in common, excepting possibly a 
few personal articles. All the women of the house united 
in cultivating their fields and doing the simple house- 
work necessary. 

Life in the single family house must have presented 
great contrasts to this. The single house was made of 
logs which were too heavy for women to handle, there- 
fore the men were constrained to build the cabins. The 
idea of clan relationship would suffer by the change. In- 
stead of a long house with many persons of one clan with 
very few outsiders, there was the single house with one 
family of two clans. Life thus became based upon the 
family idea rather than the clan idea. 

The old idea of a village was a small group of long 
communal houses surrounded by wide cultivated fields. 
Of this type were such villages as Totiakton of 1677, 


which had 120 houses, some being 50 or 60 feet long with 
12 or 13 fires in each. After the adoption of the single 
house each family was inclined to separate from the 
others, clear a space for its field and there build a house. 
Villages of the type of Totiakton were thus impossible. 
This led the way to individual ownership rather than 
communal life. 

The old idea of the fire on the floor and a hole in the 
roof survived, as was seen by Mr. Alden in the Tonawanda 
Council House, yet at the same time the Buffalo Creek 
Council House had its fires in fire-places at the ends 
with chimneys. A survival of the old type is to be seen 
in the cooking house attached to one of the council 
houses on the Grand River in Canada and to that at 
Newtown on the Cattaraugus. In both these a hole in 
the roof allows the smoke to escape from the fire beneath. 

The adoption of the frame house brought the necessity 
of saw-mills, and several of these were established at an 
early period. Of these the Hemstreet mill at East Elma 
was a type. This supplied not only the better class of 
Indians with lumber, but took their timber at a fair 
price, sawed it and sold it to the settlers off the Reser- 

The Senecas had always been farmers, and their farm 
products constituted their main source of food, supple- 
mented by such animal food as could be secured by their 
hunters in the nearby forests and waters. At their new 
settlements on the Buffalo Creek their farms continued 
to be the chief source of their food. 

In the narrative of the Gilbert family mention was 
made of how the Seneca refugees to Buffalo Creek began 
their farming operations. The women of the family 
cleared their land of underbrush while the men hacked 
or burned down the forest trees which shaded the 
ground. Amongst the stumps in the virgin soil thus 


prepared the women planted corn, squashes, beans, 
pumpkins and potatoes. The women of the family then 
undertook the work of caring for the crop. In the new 
soil which was not yet infested by weeds this would 
have been no great task. So slight a task was it that 
Elizabeth Peart was assigned the task of caring for a 
crop of corn during the entire summer, although she was 
seriously ill much of the time. All the work of breaking 
the ground, planting and tilling the crops would prob- 
ably have been done with hoes. In the old days these 
would have been blades of flat bones, of antler or 
stone, fastened by thongs, adze fashion, upon wooden 
handles. These had long since been supplanted by light 
iron or steel blades helved like our old-fashioned "Ger- 
man hoes." These were imported by the Senecas as early 
at least as 1700, for on the village sites of that period and 
later they are rather abundant. The refugees on Buf- 
falo Creek would hardly have brought hoes with them 
from their Genesee homes, and so must have been de- 
pendent for these upon the English at Fort Niagara. In 
1781 Abner Gilbert mentioned that he accompanied an 
officer to Buffalo Creek where he distributed hoes to the 
settlers. Yet there is little doubt that many of the wom- 
en resorted to the ancient home-made tools. 

The corn crop was gathered by the women. This would 
have been done in their accustomed manner, by walking 
through the ripened crop, pulling the ears from the stalks 
and throwing them into baskets slung over their shoul- 
ders. These ears would then have been braided together 
and suspended from the rafters of their home. Later they 
would be shelled and the corn parched or pounded into 
meal or hulled for hominy. 

The beans and squash or pumpkins would have been 
planted amongst the corn and cultivated with it. The 
crop of "potatoes" mentioned in the Gilbert narrative is 


the first and, I think, the only one ever mentioned in 
connection with the Senecas of this period. Whether 
they were our white potatoes, or wild tubers, "artichokes," 
(helianthus tuberosa) is a question, but judging from 
the context, they probably were our white potatoes. 

The Gilberts mentioned especially the journey which 
their whole family made to a maple grove up the lake. 
Here they stayed for several weeks making maple sugar. 

The vegetable products would have been supplemented 
by such animal food as their hunters and fishermen 
could provide. In the unexhausted forests and streams 
about them, the hunters could and probably did find an 
abundant supply of fresh food, far more than their 
families were accustomed to in their Genesee Valley 
homes. Fish and wild fowl especially must have been 
abundant in their season. Wild pigeons, passenger pig- 
eons seemingly, were a source of abundant food. The 
Gilbert children were detained for some time after their 
release was ordered because news had been received of a 
great pigeon roost fifty miles away which the men of 
their family promptly visited. In 1791 Colonel Proctor 
was feasted at the Onondaga village of Big Sky, at the 
ford of Cazenovia Creek, on Potter Road. The principal 
food consisted of young pigeons, some boiled, some 
stewed. "Their method of dishing them up was that a 
hank of six were tied with a deer's sinew round their 
necks, their bills pointing outward; they were plucked, 
but of their pin feathers, there were plenty remained; 
the inside was taken out, but it appeared from the soup 
made of them that water had not touched them before." 
He spoke of pigeon roosts near the village, and mentioned 
seeing a basket full of squabs in one house. Of these he 
said : "These they commonly take when just prepared to 
leave the nest and as fat as is possible for them to be 


made; when after they are plucked and cleaned a little, 
they are preserved by smoke and laid by for use." 

Deer and bear seem to have been fairly abundant. Mr. 
Orlando Allen in the later days of the Reservation, on a 
ride to the Onondaga village, surprised a buck in an open 
glade just beyond the Indian church. He was so engrossed 
in feeding that he failed to hear the horse's approach 
and Mr. Allen was able to gallop alongside him and strike 
him with his whip. Immediately afterwards he en- 
countered an Indian hunter armed with bow and arrows, 
who upon hearing of the buck, promptly set off on his 
track. Mr. Allen mentions the appearance of a swarm 
of black squirrels and says that Indian boys killed hun- 
dreds of them with bows and arrows. 

A century and a half of contact with Europeans had 
almost entirely abolished the ancient methods of fashion- 
ing clothing from peltry, and had made the Senecas de- 
pendent upon the weavers of Europe for the materials 
wherewith to make their clothes. 

In the primitive times antedating the advent of the 
European traders, the Senecas probably used clothing 
as the Neuters certainly did, only for warmth but not at 
all for the sake of decency, and seldom for adornment. 
Consequently in hot weather they wore a minimum of 
clothing. For warmth in winter a robe of fur sufficed 
the men, supplemented by a pair of moccasins and leg- 
gings. These latter were worn at all seasons for protec- 
tion. No description of a Seneca woman's ancient cos- 
tume is available. Undoubtedly however, their clothing 
was of fur or of skin, prepared after the Indian fashion, 
and of a mode similar to that of later days. Certainly 
the women were clever workers in fur and skin, and 
there is no doubt that their clothing would have been 
ornamented by pleasing designs applied in colored moose- 
hair or porcupine quills. 


In making clothing from skins, the Indian women used 
chert blades for cutting them into shape, and awls and 
flat needles made of bone with sinew thread, for sewing 

More efficient tools for dressmaking were imported very 
early, and in the early lists of trade articles appear large 
invoices of awl blades, needles and shears. These are still 
often found in refuse earth or graves of the early sites. 

From the very beginning of their intercourse with Eur- 
opeans the Senecas bought cloth, mainly duffles, strouds, 
osnabrigs, and later even laces and broadcloth. These 
goods were taken to their villages, there to be made up 
into clothing. 

After the introduction of cloth, the Seneca women 
made their clothes from this, seemingly following the 
patterns of their previous skin garments, and these 
modes seem to have persisted until the Reservation days. 

The clothing of this period is best illustrated by the 
articles of clothing collected by Mr. Lewis H. Morgan 
and deposited in the State Museum, and pictured in use 
by Mr. and Mrs. Mountpleasant. Distinctive features of 
the costumes of both men and and women were the 
leggings. These have persisted amongst the older women 
until the present day. 

Along with the cloth imported to be made up into 
garments the traders brought in made-up garments. 
These were mainly knitted stockings and caps, and heavy 
blankets. These latter took the place of the fur robes as 
outer garments. 

There exist several minute descriptions of the dress of 
the Senecas on the Reservation. At the conference of 
1791, Young King appeared in the full uniform of an 
English colonel. Colonel Proctor speaks of the fine ap- 
pearance of the Onondaga women, some of whom were 
dressed in silken strouds ornamented with silver trap- 


pings. He estimated the value of one suit at about thirty 
pounds sterling. 

Intercourse with Europeans had wrought a very ma- 
terial change in the adornments of the persons and cloth- 
ing of the Senecas. Before the advent of the traders, 
their ornaments were few and extremely primitive. 
Judging only from the contents of their refuse heaps, 
their ornaments consisted only of a few beads and pen- 
dants rudely fashioned from bone, from the teeth of 
animals and from stone. None of these were colored, and 
for color they must have been confined to a few simple 
dyes applied to the skins from which they made their 
clothing. It is no wonder, therefore, that they eagerly 
bought the really beautiful, highly-colored glass beads, 
the shining kettles of yellow brass and the beautifully 
colored blankets and fabrics imported by the traders. 
Glass beads are almost the first European articles to ap- 
pears on Seneca sites. Brass kettles seem at first to 
have been too precious and beautiful to be used over 
the fire, and were cut up into pendants of various kinds. 

In their use of color in their clothing and ornaments 
the Senecas evinced a natural good taste. In choosing 
and combining colors they seem always to have achieved 
a harmony pleasing to Europeans. Their use of beads in 
working out motives of design on cloth or skin was 
noted for the harmony of color, the adaptation of the 
materials to their ultimate use, and the choice of excel- 
lent designs. These combined with clever workmanship 
to render even their humblest and most homely article a 
work of art, and a delight to the eye. 

At about the same time that the Senecas began to im- 
port glass beads, they began also to receive shell wampum 
from the coastal Algonkian tribes. This wampum is a 
tiny cylindrical bead a quarter of an inch long and an 
eighth of an inch or less thick, made of the shell of the 


ocean clam. It was of two colors, white and purple. 
This wampum did not appear amongst the Senecas until 
after the advent of Europeans, but thereafter it became 
very abundant. As a personal adornment it was strung 
either alone or with glass beads, in making necklaces or 
hair oranments; or it was sewed on bands of skin or 
woven in bands made of sinew or bark thread and used 
for fillets, belts, baldrics or garters. Similar strings 
and belts were used as media of exchange, and very 
commonly as records or reminders of speeches, messages, 
and treaties. Wampum still exists on the Seneca reser- 
vations and is used ceremonially in various ways. 

The best description of personal adornments was 
written by a very discerning observer, a Miss Ann Powell 
who in 1789, visited a council of the Six Nations at 
Buffalo Creek. She spoke of a "young squaw" who was 
weaving "a sort of worsted garter intermixed with 
beads." She thought that she was a lady of distinction 
"for her ears were bored in four different places, with 
ear-rings in them all." She particularly noted Captain 
David who reminded her of "some of Homer's finest 
heroes :" 

His person is tall and fine as it is possible to conceive, his 
features handsome and regular, with a countenance of much 
softness, his complexion was disagreeably dark, and I really be- 
lieve he washes his face, for it appeared perfectly clean without 
paint; his hair was all shaved off except a little on the top of 
his head to fasten his ornaments to; his head and ears painted 
a glowing red; round his head was fastened a fillet of highly 
polished silver; from the left temple hung two straps of black 
velvet covered with silver beads and brooches. On the top of 
his head was fixed a Foxtail feather, which bowed to the wind, 
as did a black one in each ear; a pair of immense earrings 
which hung below his shoulders completed his head-dress, which 
I assure you was not unbecoming, though I must confess some- 
what fantastical. 

His dress was a shirt of colored calico, the neck and shoulders 


covered so thick with silver brooches as to have the appearance 
of a net, his sleeves much like those the ladies wore when I 
left England, fastened about the arm, with a broad bracelet of 
highly polished silver, and engraved with the arms of England. 
Four smaller bracelets of the same kind about his wrists and 
arms; around his waist was a large scarf of a very dark colored 
stuff, lined with scarlet, which hung to his feet. One part he 
generally drew over his left arm which had a very graceful ef- 
fect when he moved. His legs were covered with blue cloth made 
to fit neatly, with an ornamental garter bound below the knee. 
I know not what kind of a being your imagination will represent 
to you, but I sincerely declare to you, that altogether Captain 
David made the finest appearance I ever saw in my life. 

Another chief affected her differently. "One old man 
diverted me extremely; he was dressed in a scarlet coat, 
richly embroidered, that must have been made half a 
century, with waist-coat of the same, that reached half- 
way down his thighs, no shirt or breeches, but blue cloth 




Almost nothing is known about the religion of the Sen- 
ecas before they accepted Christianity or the New Religion 
expounded by Handsome Lake. The Jesuit missionaries, 
who of all observers were best fitted to describe religion 
and its rites, had previously made a study of the re- 
ligion of the Hurons and other kindred nations and 
seemingly were no longer interested. After the fruitless 
efforts of the Jesuits no one interested in religion came 
into contact with them until they had been well estab- 
lished on Buffalo Creek, and until after they had already 
been affected by the teaching of Handsome Lake. Yet 
there is no doubt that they had originally a religion with 
many elaborate rites, and it is equally certain that Hand- 
some Lake retained in his, New Religion many of the be- 
liefs and observances of a long existing primitive re- 
ligion. Certainly some of the rites now practiced by the 
"Pagans" at their festivals are survivals of these ancient 
rites, and in most cases identical with them. 

A few observers mentioned or described certain rites 
which came under their notice on Buffalo Creek which 
seem to have been survivals of their ancient religion. Mr. 
Jabez Hyde who lived and worked amongst them as a 
missionary in 1820 has a little to say about some of these 
which he had observed. 

According to Mr. Hyde the Senecas customarily ack- 
nowledged a Supreme Being in their every-day life. They 
greeted each other ordinarily with "I thank God our 
preserver I see you alive and in health." All councils 
opened and closed with thanks to the Creator. Thanks 


were offered him at the termination of a successful hunt. 
Mr. Hyde seemed positive that they were not idolators 
but that they thought of the Supreme Being as existing 
in four persons. ''Whether they have reference to the 
'Nau-wen ne-u' or his creating or governing the four ele- 
ments or something else I could never satisfy myself." 
They addressed these four existences without any name 
as "the Great incomprehensible God," "the Creator and 
Governor of all things." They had annually a feast of 
first fruits, a feast of in-gathering, a yearly sacrifice, and 
a spring feast. Besides these there were numerous peace 
offerings by individuals. "They build altars of stone be- 
fore a tent covered with blankets and burn Indian tobac- 
co within the tent with fire taken from the altar." This 
tent was made of blankets spread over a framework. In- 
side was a stone hearth on which was a fire. Such tents 
and hearths were frequent. It is possible that he con- 
fused these with the small sweat bath houses, which were 
used by the Senecas. 

Most of these observations were verified by other vis- 
itors. General Dearborn attended a Green Corn Dance 
at the Onondaga village and described it in detail. Es- 
sentially it was, as it still is, a formal thanksgiving for 
the ingathering of harvest. There were dances by men 
and dances by women, with feasting on corn and beans. 
This differed in detail only from the Green Corn Dance 
which is still celebrated by the "Pagans" on the Catta- 
raugus Beservation in that it lacked the plum-stone 
gambling. This was authorized by Handsome Lake and 
is now a part of the Green Corn ceremonials. 

Mr. Buckingham, in 1813, witnessed in Rochester a 
"White Dog Dance," the yearly sacrifice such as was 
noted by Mr. Hyde in 1820. It included dances and a 
feast identical in every particular with those now held 
every mid-winter on the Cattaraugus Reservation, and 


also the sacrifice of the white dog, the distinguishing 
rite of this ceremony. 

They believed in evil spirits and that death and sick- 
ness were caused by evil persons who could control these 
evil spirits. The influence of these evil spirits and their 
human controls could be counteracted by conjurors. 

As late as 1821 a case of witchcraft on Buffalo Creek 
culminated in the trial and execution of the alleged 
witch. A Seneca had fallen ill and because of some pe- 
culiarities of his sickness his neighbors concluded that it 
was caused by witchcraft, and, casting about for the 
cause, their suspicions rested upon the woman who had 
nursed the patient. After his death she fled to Canada, 
but was followed and apprehended there by chiefs from 
Buffalo Creek. She was tried and found guilty, persuaded 
to return to the Buffalo Creek Reservation and here she 
was killed by a chief "So-on-on-gise," Tommy Jemmy, 
who cut the throat of the prisoner. This case created 
some excitement in Buffalo. Tommy Jemmy was arrested 
for murder by the civil officers in Buffalo and after due 
process of law was indicted for murder. He was de- 
fended by Red Jacket, and eventually was freed, the 
killing having palpably been no murder, but a judicial 
execution after due trial. 

The "conjurors" noted by Mr. Hyde as being able to 
counteract the influence of evil spirits and persons were 
evidently identical with the "jugglers" or "sorcerers" 
mentioned by the Jesuits, and with the "medicine men" 
mentioned frequently by later whites. There seems to 
be no English word which will exactly designate these 
"conjurors," who were undoubtedly members of the secret 
societies common amongst the Senecas from earliest times 
until today. 

From the beginning, the Senecas had exhibited towards 
the whites a feeling of hostility and intolerance which 


was manifested most markedly in their attitude towards 
Christianity. Of all the eastern nations they were the 
least receptive and least resiDonsive towards the mis- 
sionaries and their teachings. 

Missionary effort began comparatively late amongst 
them. It was not until 1657 that the first missionary, 
Father Ckaumonot, was assigned to their country and 
during his stay amongst them his efforts were directed, 
not to the Senecas, but to a village of captive Hurons 
and Wenroes located there, many of whom had already 
embraced Christianity in their own country. He stayed 
a very short time and he had no successor for eleven 
years, until Father Fremin was assigned there in 1668. 
The year following, Father Fremin was joined by Father 
Julian Gamier, but two years later he was recalled and 
Father Gamier was aided by Father Raffeix. Because 
of increased work due to epidemics in the Seneca towns 
Father Pierron was sent to the largest Seneca town, 
Canagora. These missionaries made little progress in 
their work of converting the Senecas and seemingly only 
through fear of the French did the Senecas either accept 
or tolerate the priests in their towns. When in 1684 Gov- 
ernor LaBarre planned his stroke against the Senecas 
these were so infuriated that the missionaries were 
obliged to abandon their stations and flee to Canada. 

After this fruitless attempt at proselytizing, no mis- 
sionary work seems to have been done amongst the Sen- 
ecas for a century, until long after their removal to Buf- 
falo Creek. In 1788 the Rev. Samuel Kirkland, although 
on the friendliest terms with the Seneca leaders, was 
told flatly that no missionaries were welcome in their 
villages. This feeling of aloofness was intensified in a 
very few years by the teachings of one of their own nation, 
the great Handsome Lake. 



The two decades following the expulsion of the Senecas 
from their homes in the Genesee Valley formed a period 
of the deepest depression for the nation. Their ancient 
order of government had been violently overturned 
through the scattering of the nations of the Confederacy. 
Their home lands had been devastated, and their sullen 
anger still burned against the invaders. Piece by piece 
their lands had been stripped from them. Association 
with the lowest of the whites had induced drunkenness 
and licentiousness, and, with them, distressing ailments. 
These and actual want, due to their inability to obtain a 
livelihood either in their ancient manner or in that bor- 
rowed from the whites, had weakened the nation physical- 
ly and morally. Family life was of the most casual na- 
ture. Their primitive religious rites were falling into 
disuse and the efforts of the missionaries to substitute 
for these the Christian religion had been of little avail. 
The political, social and religious fabric had been violent- 
ly rent and the Seneca Nation was as "a nation de- 

In the midst of this time of trouble arose one who was 
to be a Messiah, a Moses, who was to guide them, if not 
to a promised land, at least to better things. This guide 
was Handsome Lake. As the direct result of the condi- 
tions about him, he delivered a message to his people 
which gave them a new hold upon life, a new confidence 
and a new hope. 

Handsome Lake was a Seneca, born in the Turtle Clan, 
but seemingly by adoption, a member also of the Wolf 


Clan. Through his mother, he was half-brother to the 
great Chief Cornplanter, but unlike him, so far as is 
known, he had no white blood. He was of the Hoyane, 
"the noble or ruling families," in which was hereditary 
the most prominent Seneca name, Ska-nya-dah-ri-yoh 1 
meaning the beautiful or handsome lake. This name had 
been given by Dekanahwideh at the time of the forma- 
tion of the Confederacy to that Seneca chief who had 
first received from Dekanahwideh the peace message and 
who had first acceded to his proposal of a great peace. 

Prominent though his family was, Handsome Lake 
himself was in a most miserable condition, when in 1800 
there came to him the message which he was to transmit 
to his people. After a long life of debauchery, he had 
come to live in the village of his brother, Cornplanter, on 
the Allegheny River. For four years he had lain on a 
couch in the cabin of his married daughter, unable to 
move and sick almost to death of a wasting disease. As 
he lay, he meditated upon his past life and he was filled 
with remorse: 2 

Now as he lies in sickness he meditates and longs that he 
might rise again and walk upon the earth. 1S0 he implores the 
Great Ruler to give him strength that he may walk upon this 
earth again. And then he thinks how evil and loathsome he is 
before the Great Ruler. He thinks how he has been evil ever 
since he had been able to work. But, notwithstanding, he asks 
that he may again walk. 

Now it comes to his mind that perchance evil has arisen be- 
cause of strong drink and he resolves to use it nevermore. Now 
he continually thinks of this every day and every hour. Yea, 
he continually thinks of this. Then a time comes and he craves 
drink again for he thinks that he can not recover his strength 
without it. 

Now at this time the daughter of the sick man and her hus- 
band are sitting outside the house in the shed and the sick man 
is within alone. The door is ajar. Now the daughter and her 

1 The Constitution of the Five Nations, p 87. 

2 Parker, "The Code of Handsome Lake." 


husband are cleaning 'beans for the planting. Suddenly they 
hear the sick man exclaim, "Niio!" Then they hear him rising 
in his bed and they think how he is but yellow skin and dried 
bones from four years of sickness in bed. Then the daughter 
looks up and sees her father coming out of doors. He totters, 
and she rises quickly to catch him, but he falls dying. Now 
they lift him up and carry him back within the house and dress 
him for burial. 

Cornplanter had been notified immediately of his 
brother Handsome Lake's death and he came with nu- 
merous neighbors to mourn over the body. Upon ex- 
amination, he found on the body a small spot of warmth 
which seemed to indicate that life still remained. Ac- 
cordingly he, with others, watched over the body. Slowly 
the warmth spread until at noon of the following day, 
after a period of unconsciousness of nearly twenty-four 
hours, the supposed dead man arose and spoke: 

Now then he speaks again saying, "Never have I seen such 
wondrous visions! Now at first I heard some one speaking. 
Some one spoke and said, 'Come out a while' and said this three 
times. Now since I saw no one speaking I thought that in my 
sickness I myself was speaking but I thought again and found 
that it was not my voice. 1S0 I called out boldly, iNiio!' and 
arose and went out and there standing in the clear swept space 
I saw three men clothed in fine clean raiment. Their cheeks 
were painted red and it seemed that they had been painted the 
day before. Only a few feathers were in their honnets. All 
three were alike and all seemed middle-aged. Never before 
have I seen such handsome commanding men and they had in 
one hand bows and arrows as canes. Now in their other hands 
were huckleberry hushes and the berries were of every color. 

Then said the beings, addressing me, ''He who created the 
world at the beginning employed us to come to earth. Our visit 
now is not the only one we have made. He commanded us say- 
ing 'Go once more down upon the earth and (this time) visit 
him who thinks of me. He is grateful for my creations, more- 
over he wishes to rise from sickness and walk (in health) upon 
the earth. Go you and help him to recover.' " 

Having said these things, the three beings gave him of 


the berries which they carried, with which to cure his 
infirmities and then disclosed to him a message from the 
Great Kuler which he was ordered to transmit to his 

For sixteen years he preached this message to his peo- 
ple on the Allegheny, the Cattaraugus, the Buffalo Creek, 
and the Tonawanda. He was derided and scorned, yet 
in spite of opposition, so forcefully did he move his 
people that drunkenness declined, the home virtues re- 
vived, the social organization was resumed and the Sen- 
ecas recrystalized into a nation. Of the sixteen years, 
ten were spent in Cornplater's village and two at Cold 
Spring on the Allegheny, where so much opposition de- 
veloped that he moved with a few followers to the Tona- 
wanda. There he preached to constantly increasing 
numbers of followers. Yet he became discouraged and 
at the end was averse to proclaiming his message. At the 
end of four years, he announced a vision in which the 
messengers called him to carry their message to Onon- 

Now it happened that the four messengers appeared to him 
when the invitation was extended, they the four speakers and 
messengers of the Great 'Spirit of the worlds. 

Now the first words that they spoke were these, "They have 
stretched out their hands pleading for you to come and they 
are your own people at Onondaga." 

'So now it was that Cranio 'daiio' was bidden the third time 
to sing his song and this the messengers said would be the last. 

Now then he said, "There is nothing to incumber me from ful- 
filling my call." 

That this "last" meant to him that his death was to 
follow is evident, for he says: 

"Thus it happened in the past and it is the truth. 

" 'I must now take up my final journey to the new 
world,' he thought, and he was greatly troubled and 
longed for the home of his childhood and pined to return." 


Reluctantly then he obeyed his call. With a large fol- 
lowing he walked to Onondaga, which he reached in 
great bodily and mental distress. He delivered a short 
message to the people of Onondaga and then retired to a 
small cabin in sight of the Council House, where a few 
days later surrounded by a few of his own people, he died. 
He was buried under the old council-house at Onondaga, 
where his grave is now marked by a handsome granite 

The message of Handsome Lake is called by the Sen- 
ecas, the Gaiwiio. It comprises the original message to 
Handsome Lake supplemented by numerous others which 
he received in visions and a few explanatory interpreta- 
tions by later preachers. It was transmitted verbally 
by Handsome Lake to his followers. Edward Cornplan- 
ter's account is: 

"The 'Gaiwiio' came from Hodianokdoo Hediohe, the Great 
Ruler, to the Hadioyageeono, the four messengers. From them 
it was transmitted to Ganio 'daiio', Handsome Lake who taught 
it to Syandyogwadi (Owen Blacksnake) and to his own grand- 
son, Sosheowa (James Johnson). Blacksnake taught it to Henry 
Stevens (Ganishando), who taught it to Sosondawa, Edward 
Cornplanter. ISo I know that I have the true words and I 
preach them," adds Cornplanter.s 

Cornplanter's version of the "Great Message" is pub- 
lished by the University of the State of New York, in 
Museum Bulletin 163, edited by Mr. Arthur C. Parker, 
the state archaeologist. Its present form is that de- 
termined upon by a council of its preachers when a uni- 
form form was desired. After conference, Chief John 
Jacket of Cattaraugus, was delegated to determine upon 
a form to be used by all. He wrote out in Seneca a form 
which at a later assembly was memorized by all the 
preachers. Cornplanter's version is probably a correct 
rendering of this form. 

3 Parker, "The Code of Handsome Lake.' 


The great message is made up of three rather distinct 
parts. There is a moral code containing definite rales for 
right conduct, and punishments for those who infringe 
them. There are numerous examples to show the power 
of the prophet, and messages received in fortuitous visions, 
calculated to increase his following. It contains also, 
short descriptions of certain events in the life of Hand- 
some Lake. 

The moral code recognizes a great ruler, Hodianokdoo 
Hediohe, and the existence of certain messengers between 
this personage and the Senecas. There are numerous 
references to an evil being, called in one place "Segoe- 
watha, the Tormentor." 

It recognizes the immortality of the soul and it pro- 
phesies a happy home after death to those of right living, 
and an abode of torment to transgressors. 

In the rules of conduct, Handsome Lake emphasized 
most emphatically those relating to the imitation of, or 
intercourse with, white people. He warned his people 
against drunkenness, not once, but over and over, and he 
pictured the misery resulting from drink, and the pun- 
ishment to be expected by drunkards. This teaching 
was the first successful temperance crusade in the United 
States. Fiddling and card-playing were to be punished 
severely. The fiddler was to play in the hereafter with 
a red-hot iron bow across the cords of his naked arm. 
The card-player was to play forever with red- hot iron 
cards. Church-goers were to be punished by an imprison- 
ment in a red-hot church. Yet he encouraged the Senecas 
to imitate the whites by building houses, cultivating 
ground and raising horses and cattle. 

He denounced witch-craft and the use of charms; yet 
he forbade the punishment of witches. Rather, he urged 
them to cease their sins and confess them either publicly 
or privately, to the Great Ruler. But for those who con- 


tinued in their sins, he pictured punishment by an eter- 
nal bath in a boiling caldron. 

Family life he attempted to restore by numerous 
rules. Men and women were to marry and live together 
happily. Adultery was to be punished by horrid tortures. 
Men were forbidden to beat or desert their wives. Abor- 
tion was severely condemned. Children were in all cases 
to be kindly treated. Hospitality and charity were 
praised as virtues but he was especially severe against 
scolding, gossiping, and all forms of boastfulness and the 
stirring up of strife. 

He authorized certain ceremonial dances but encour- 
aged the acknowledgement of gratitude to the Great 
Kuler rather than practicing these ceremonial dances. 

This teaching was singularly well adapted to the 
Senecas of his time. The whole message was delivered in 
the vernacular by one of their own people, who combined 
in himself the prestige inherent by reason of the promi- 
nence of his family, and by the startling phenomenon at- 
tending his own regeneration. His philosophy was that 
of the Senecas and was based upon well-known habits of 
mind and of body. His message came at a time of gloom 
when the nation was ready to receive any word of hope, 
and it was a protest against the dominance of the white 
people which was being felt more and more, and which 
the Senecas despaired of being able to withstand. So, 
although he met with the open scorn and active opposi- 
tion which is usual to every reformer, his influence in- 
creased during his life and it has persisted for a century 
after his death. The influence of his teaching upon the 
Senecas was second only to that of Christianity, and as 
a result of these two forces, the nation today is divided 
rather sharply into two parties, the Christian party and 
the Pagan party. This Pagan party comprises those who 
are followers of the teachings of Handsome Lake, and 


their rituals, ceremonies and conduct of living are based 
upon his message. Yet with this are bound up a great 
number of survivals of those ancient beliefs and cere- 
monies which constituted the religious ideas of the Stone 
Age Senecas. 



In 1800 the first serious attempts were made to Chris- 
tianize the Senecas on Buffalo Creek. In October of that 
year the Rev. Elkanah Holmes reached Buffalo Creek 
which he called the Seneca Castle. He visited Farmer's 
Brother, whom he asked to call a council to consider 
his desire to preach there. The council met in the council- 
house, about a hundred Senecas being present. Red 
Jacket, "the second sachem," made the usual introductory 
speech of welcome. Mr. Holmes then delivered to the 
gathering a message from the Directors of the Mission- 
ary Society, and one from the Oneidas and "Muh he 
con nuks," and concluded by saying that he was ready 
to preach to them if they were willing. After a half 
hour's consideration Red Jacket replied thanking him 
for his address and signifying their willingness to hear 
him preach on the following day. 

The following day a very heavy rainstorm prevented 
Mr. Holmes from keeping his appointment with the ex- 
pectant audience, but on the day after he set out from 
Buffalo where he had lodged for the "Seneca Castle." 
The creek was badly flooded and twice he had to cross 
its swollen stream in a canoe, with his horse swimming 
behind him, only to find when he had reached his desti- 
nation that the chiefs had been unable to gather the 
people and so had been forced to ask him to postpone 
once more. 

The next day, October 20, 1800, he went once more to 
the "Castle" where he found a large audience awaiting 
him. Red Jacket again introduced him, first giving the 


customary thanks to the "Great Good Spirit" for the op- 
portunity of hearing him, and adjuring the listeners 
to give close attention. Mr. Holmes then preached the 
doctrine of Christ. At the close of his address Ked Jacket 
made a very clever speech, in which he expressed him- 
self satisfied with the good intent of the missionary, al- 
though he also expressed surprise that the white people 
had not themselves followed the teachings of Christ. 
He assured the missionary that the Senecas would not 
have been guilty of putting to death such a good teacher. 
His long and flowery harangue gave the missionary the 
impression that he was unfavorable toward receiving 

The next day Mr. Holmes held a meeting in Palmer's 
tavern in Buffalo, which was attended by Farmer's 
Brother. At the close of the meeting he made a long 
speech in which he spoke in a very discouraging man- 
ner of the attempts which had been made to educate his 
grandson after the white man's fashion. The boy had 
been sent to Philadelphia where he was to have remained 
for five years, learning the ways of white men. His 
grandfather visited him there at the end of two years 
when the boy was about thirteen years old, and he was 
shocked to find him gambling in a tavern in company 
with lewd women. He considered this an example of 
what might be expected should the Senecas decide to re- 
ceive missionaries. 

The next year Mr. Holmes succeeded in obtaining 
from the New York Missionary Society an appropriation 
of about $190 with which to found a school on Buffalo 
Creek. He returned here and began a school building 
which was never finished, although actual instruction 
was begun by a Mr. Palmer. In 1803 Mr. Holmes was 
made a permanent missionary in charge of the Senecas 
and Tuscaroras. He made his headquarters with the 


Tuscaroras whom he found rather amenable to mission- 
ary effort, but visited the Senecas occasionally. 

While on one of these parochial visits to Buffalo 
Creek he was visited by two other missionaries, the Rev. 
Lemuel Covell and Elder Obed Warren, who were on 
their way to Canada. They found Elder Holmes await- 
ing an answer from the Senecas to his proposal to build 
a school and church on the Reservation. They were in 
council at that time, but it was not until the end of the 
third day that their decision was made. Red Jacket then 
called upon Mr. Holmes with the announcement that the 
Senecas had agreed to allow a church to be built. He 
claimed that he had advocated this in the council and 
seemed to be very friendly to the project. 

In 1807 or 1808 Mr. Holmes had a controversy with 
his society and resigned his charge. After his departure 
the Senecas became distrustful of the efforts of the mis- 
sionary societies which were attempting to aid them and 
refused to have anything further to do with them ; and it 
was not until 1811 that they agreed to receive another 
missionary. In that year Mr. Alexander preached 
amongst them but left after a few months. They then 
invited Mr. Jabez Hyde, a teacher who had accompanied 
the missionary, and an agent of the New York Mission- 
ary Society, to establish a school amongst them. This 
he did. 

For seven years Mr. Hyde kept school on the Reserva- 
tion and during that time he had a varied but discourag- 
ing experience. Pupils were few and irregular, and their 
stay was usually so brief that no good resulted. The 
older people did not support it, though they did not 
actually oppose it. In 1817 the Rev. Timothy Alden, who 
visited Mr. Hyde, reported that the school consisted of 
"about thirty boys in as prosperous a state as could be 
reasonably expected," and that Mr. Hyde had written 


several simple discourses on parts of the Bible which he 
delivered through au interpreter. Mr. Aldeu spoke high- 
ly of Daniel G. Butrick who, on the day of Mr. Alden's 
arrival, was setting out for Boston where he was to be 
ordained. So well did he think of Mr. Butrick's work on 
Buffalo Creek that he urged the missionary board to as- 
sign him here after his ordination. 

Mr. Alden called upon Pollard and Young King and 
asked their aid in arranging for a religious meeting. 
These seemed entirely in accord for they called a meet- 
ing for the following Sunday at Mr. Hyde's school 
house '"in Seneca as the village on Buffalo Creek is 
sometimes called." At the appointed time a large audi- 
ence awaited him. Amongst them was Red Jacket who 
contrary to expectations raised no objections to the 
preaching which followed, and which was interpreted by 
Jacob Jamison. After the preaching Pollard delivered in 
Seneca a short address of thanks "in a very graceful 
and eloquent manner." 

Not until 1819 could Mr. Hyde note any effect of his 
work. In that year several young men of good families 
became convinced that Christianity was superior to their 
own belief and became regular attendants at the school, 
and within a few months others followed their lead until 
the school house was crowded, even some of the older 
chiefs attending. So successful was the school that the 
New York Missionary Society decided to enlarge the 
scope of the work and sent two agents to Buffalo Creek 
to carry out their plans. 

This attempt bade fair to discredit all of Mr. Hyde's 
work. The agents made a "covenant" with the various 
nations on the Reservation by which the society was to 
send teachers, and the Indians were to attend upon in- 
struction, and to advise and counsel with the society. As 
soon as this agreement had been made, active opposition 


developed. The Senecas split into two factions, one fav- 
oring Christianity, the other opposed to it and to every- 
thing else emanating from the whites, and favoring a 
continuance of their ancient religion. The latter party 
was led by Eed Jacket, and they charged that the "cove- 
nant" bound the Senecas to the society which would 
plunder them of their lands. Feeling ran so high that 
Mr. Hyde was obliged to discontinue his work for a time, 
yet there seems no doubt that by that time many Senecas 
had accepted, if not the Christian religion, at least the 
conditions resulting from Christian teaching. 

Mr. Alden re-visited the Reservation the following 
year, 1820, and reported that Mr. Hyde was still in 
charge. He did not appear to take the opposition to Mr. 
Hyde's school as very serious, and thought that although 
a declaration had been made the year before not to re- 
ceive Christianity, this was not the feeling of any large 
party, but rather that it emanated from Red Jacket 
only. On the contrary he found an increasing number 
of Senecas in the Christian party. Many of these at- 
tended services regularly in their council house and sang 
hymns in the Seneca language. 

During this period of discouraging missionary effort 
the New York Missionary Society had fulfilled its part 
of the "covenant" by sending from New York Mr. James 
Young and his wife, and a Miss Low who was to assist 
them in educational work on the Reservation. They 
journeyed to Tuscarora where they were to remain with 
the resident missionary, Mr. Crane, until a suitable mis- 
sion house was established at Buffalo Creek. Upon its 
completion they drove in a two-horse wagon laden with 
their household belongings to their new home, taking 
two days for the drive over rough and muddy roads. 

Miss Low described the mission house as a two-story log 
house, the upper floor of which was used as a school. Mr. 


Alden, who returned the following year, describes in some 
detail not only the house but the work which was being 
conducted there. The lower story was cut up into com- 
fortable living rooms for the missionary and his family. 
The upper floor comprised one large room in the center 
of which was a large chimney. Here were the "fixtures 
and appurtenances for reading, writing and cyphering, 
sewing, knitting and spinning." The house was fur- 
nished with a "fine toned bell of about 150 pounds 
weight." The school was opened and closed with prayer 
and the children sang a hymn in Seneca. Mr. Young 
taught classes of boys and girls in English, and besides 
he had a class of young men on two evenings a week for 
singing. The music seemed to appeal to the Seneca s and 
their voices were good. Mrs. Young and Miss Low 
taught classes of girls, giving them instruction in sewing 
and knitting. In the summer there were in attendance 
about 15 boys and about the same number of girls. In 
the winter there had been over 45 boys and 25 girls. 

In 1820 the mission was transferred from the super- 
vision of the New York Missionary Society to that of the 
United Foreign Missionary Society which had been or- 
ganized three years previously by the Presbyterian, the 
Dutch Reformed, and the Associate Reformed Churches 
of New York City. This society sent two agents, the 
Reverend Stephen N. Rowan and the Reverend Henry P. 
Strong to get the consent of the Indians to the transfer. 
This they succeeded in doing at a council at Buffalo Creek 
in December, 1820. The same day two wedding cere- 
monies were performed, the first on the Reservation. In 
the first of these Thomas Armstrong and Rebecca Hemp- 
ferman, both white captives who had lived amongst the 
Senecas from childhood, were united. At the same time 
Jonathan, youngest son of Red Jacket, was married to 


Yeck-ah-wak, a Seneca girl who lived on the Cattaraugus 

The first action of the United Foreign Missionary 
Society was to remove the Rev. Mr. Hyde and Miss Low. 
The latter went to New York where she was married 
shortly afterwards. Mr. Hyde seems to have retained 
the respect and liking of his Seneca charges and seems 
to have been doing good work, but his beliefs did not 
meet the approval of his superiors. He wrote seven 
hymns in Seneca, and these were in use for some time. 

In November, 1821, a missionary arrived at Buffalo 
Creek in the person of Rev. Thompson S. Harris. He 
seems to have been tactless, fussy and officious, with 
little common sense, sympathy for his charges or fitness 
for his work. His school was constantly broken up by 
exasperated parents who disapproved of his drastic 
method of discipline. Yet in the years of his charge he 
firmly established Christianity, organized a church and 
a good foundation for future efforts. 

Some of this success was undoubtedly due to the in- 
fluence of the United States Government. In Septem- 
ber, 1822, a general council of the Six Nations was held 
at Buffalo Creek and amongst the matters discussed was 
the mission work. Letters were read from "Government" 
praising the chiefs of the Christian party and censuring 
those of the Pagan party. The next year Mr. Harris 
submitted a report of his work and of its results to the 
Secretary of War. 

At the time of the report a considerable establishment 
had grown up. The missionaries comprised Mr. Harris, 
his wife and an infant; Mr. Young, his wife and one 
assistant. Mr. Young and his wife lived in the log mis- 
sion house already described. Mr. Harris lived in a 
good new frame house built in 1822, large enough to ac- 
commodate about twenty children as a boarding school. 


The missionaries had tilled and planted a plot of ground 
for a garden, and had enclosed twelve acres for an or- 
chard and pasture. This latter incensed the Senecas who 
dreaded the thought of whites securing a foothold on 
their lands. Indian boys were taught shoemaking, farm- 
ing and carpentry. The girls learned sewing, weaving 
and spinning. 

The first persons to be received into the church were 
baptized on Sunday, April 13, 1823, and received the 
Holy Communion in an enthusiastic gathering of 150 
persons. Mr. Young had translated several hymns into 
Seneca and the missionaries during this year had 500 
copies printed for use in the mission. 

The attempts of the missionaries to enclose and culti- 
vate for themselves a piece of land near the mission re- 
sulted seriously. The Legislature had passed a law in 
1821 prohibiting whites from residing on a reservation. 
The Pagans, led by Red Jacket, acting under authority 
of this law, obtained an order of ejectment against the 
missionaries, and after several fruitless efforts on their 
part to retain their mission, they closed it and left the 
Buffalo Creek. Mr. Young never returned, but Mr. Harris 
after a lapse of a year resumed his work here and in ad- 
dition took charge of the work at Tuscarora and Cat- 

The church grew gradually. In 1823 the "Register of 
the Seneca Mission Church organized August 10th, 1823" 
showed, besides the missionaries, four Indian members. 
One of these was Seneca White, who proved a steadfast 
friend of the church. The next year two more were 
added, one being the very prominent chief Pollard 1 . In 

l Captain Pollard (Waoundawana), seemingly the son of Edward Pollard, 
an English trader, was a chief and warrior, in command of war parties sent 
from Niagara against the borders during the Revolution, and the American 
company of Senecas who operated along the Niagara in the War of 1812. 
He was prominent in the Treaty of 1838. At all times he seems to have 
been a kindly, courteous gentleman, respected by his white and Seneca neigh- 
bors. He seems to have lived on the north side of Potter Road, called in early 
surveys, "Pollard's Road," just beyond the city line. 


1825 three members came and the next year five, the next 
twenty-three and in 1828 nine. 

In 1828 the congregation decided to build a church. It 
was to be 41 feet by 51 feet, one story high with a tower 
and bell, and it was to cost about 11700. The Senecas 
had just sold a portion of their reservations and seem- 
ingly money was easily had for on August 19, 1829, it 
was dedicated. The following year Mr. Harris left his 
work and no permanent missionary was assigned until 
the following year. 

A result of the growth of the church and of the gradual 
leanings of the Senecas toward Christianity was a split 
in the body of Senecas, one party being composed of 
those who were Christians or who were under Christian 
influences, headed by Captain Pollard and Seneca White. 
The other was composed of those who opposed Chris- 
tianity, and who were either followers of Handsome 
Lake, or adherents of the ancient religion. This party 
was dominated at first and for many years by Red Jacket, 
and after his death in 1830, it seems to have been led by 
Big Kettle. In any conference in which the Senecas 
took part, these two parties opposed each other, especial- 
ly in questions regarding the sale of lands. In the at- 
tempts of Mr. Ogden to purchase lands, the Pagan party 
always squarely opposed and the Christian party mainly 
sanctioned the sale of the reservations. This feeling still 
seems apparent. On all question regarding dividing the 
reservation lands and taking fee, or of holding them as 
at present in common, the Pagan party still stands out 
for holding in common, while most of the Christians 
seem willing to divide their lands and possess a holding 
in individual right. 

This split in the Seneca Nation became so serious and 
the Christian party so strong that it was decided to 
oust Red Jacket from his chieftainship. In September, 


1827, the year after the sale of the "niile-strip" of the 
Buffalo Creek Reservation, he was deposed by the chiefs 
at a council in the Seneca Council House. The reasons 
for his deposition as fully set forth in a document writ- 
ten in the Seneca language, were that he was opposed to 
the progress of his people, that he stirred up dissensions, 
and was in many ways definitely set down inimical to the 
best interests of his nation. Amongst the chiefs signing 
this document were Young King, Pollard, Seneca White, 
Strong and Little Beard. At a meeting called later in 
the year he was re-instated but he never resumed his dom- 
inating position. 

On November 9, 1831, the Rev. Asher Wright assumed 
charge of the mission at the Seneca station. For two 
years he occupied the house wherein his predecessor had 
lived, but at the end of that time he moved into a new 
mission-house which had been erected seemingly very 
near the old one. During the early days of his charge he 
seems to have had general oversight over schools which 
had been opened at Jack Berry's town and at the Onon- 
daga village. 

Mr. Wright was a natural linguist and he soon became 
so proficient in the use of the Seneca language that he 
was enabled to preach to his Seneca charges in their own 
tongue. Very soon after his arrival he began publishing, 
using a system of orthography which he had devised to 
represent the sounds of the Seneca language. His first book 
was a "Beginning Book," a primer published in Boston 
in 1836. In 1844 he procured a hand-press and equipped 
it with type specially cast to meet the exigencies of the 
Seneca language. This he set up at the mission. His 
first publication from his own press was a small periodi- 
cal, The Mental Elevator, which appeared at irregular 
intervals until after the Senecas had removed from Buf- 
falo Creek. "A Spelling Book in the Seneca Language 


with English Definitions" was issued in 1842, followed 
a year later by a Seneca hymn book revised from Mr. 
Harris's book. The next year Mr. Wright published cer- 
tain parts of the Kevised Statutes which related to gam- 
bling, profanity and disturbing the peace. 

Mr. Wright and his wife were thoroughly earnest 
Christian workers and they were teachers of a high order. 
That they succeeded in winning over a large part of the 
Senecas is made evident by the fact that when the Indians 
removed from Buffalo Creek the Wrights accompanied 
them to Cattaraugus where they labored with them until 
their deaths. 



The two decades following the formation of the Buf- 
falo Creek Reservation were in the main uneventful for 
the Senecas domiciled thereon. The second war with 
Great Britain was fought during this period, and al- 
though this was of little interest to the Senecas, they 
were active in some of the fighting. Mainly, however, it 
was a period of quiet, of a gradual and peaceful sale of 
small outlying and segregated lands, and of the removal 
of their inhabitants to the Buffalo Creek and other 
larger centers. During this period they also saw the be- 
ginning and sturdy growth of the village of Buffalo upon 
their borders. 

For some time trouble had been threatening about a 
tract of land which had just been purchased by Pennsyl- 
vania and which was best known as the Presqu'isle 
tract. Basing a claim upon a charter from the English 
King similar in every way to that of Massachusetts, Con- 
necticut had set up a claim to a narrow strip of land be- 
yond the western boundary of Pennsylvania. In 1786 
Connecticut ceded this land to the United States, reserv- 
ing a small portion for itself. Much of the land ceded 
lay along Lake Erie, and as Pennsylvania had at that 
time no lake port and appreciated to the full the ad- 
vantages to be derived from one, that state purchased from 
the United States in 1788 a triangular tract of land 
which extended from its northwestern boundary to Lake 
Erie. This was a portion of the Connecticut tract and 
was important because it contained the excellent har- 
bor of Presqu'isle (Erie) and also the main portage 


road across the divide from Lake Erie to the Ohio Kiver. 

This tract lay west of the boundary of the lands of the 
Six Nations laid down in the treaty at Fort Stanwix, and 
it also lay west of, though contiguous to, the boundary 
of the Indian lands as laid down in the treaty at Canan- 
daigua in 1794. There seems, then, to have been no 
ground for any claim by the Six Nations upon this tract. 

In 1789, however, Pennsylvania extinguished any pos- 
sible Indian title to this land through a conveyance 
signed by representatives of the Six Nations. Amongst 
the Seneca signers were Cornplanter and Big Tree. No 
Mohawks signed however, and these as well as the Sen- 
ecas considered the sale invalid. 

In February of 1794 this sale was considered at a coun- 
cil at Buffalo Creek at which both Red Jacket and Brant 
spoke. At a later meeting, in June of the same year, Corn- 
planter, who had been instrumental in selling this land 
complained that settlers from Pennsylvania were en- 
croaching upon the tract. The chiefs decided to send a 
delegation to Presqu'isle to request the removal of the 
settlers, and they invited their Indian Agent, General 
Chapin, to accompany them. He came to Buffalo accom- 
panied by his secretary, Samuel Colt, and by Horatio 
Jones, an interpreter, and in company with several chiefs 
from Buffalo Creek and by William Johnston, they jour- 
neyed to Presqu'isle and so on to LeBoeuf at the southern 
end of the portage road. So satisfied was General 
Chapin that their claims were just that he ordered Mr. 
Ellicott who was surveying the land, to stop work. 

Two years later, in 1796, Mr. Porter was made super- 
intendent of a survey of the Connecticut Reserve in 
Ohio. He outfitted at Canandaigua and started for 
Presqu'isle by way of Buffalo Creek. When he arrived 
here his party was met by Brant, Red Jacket and Farm- 
er's Brother, with a large following who presented their 


claim on the tract comprised in the Connecticut Reserve. 
He assembled the chiefs in council and the whole matter 
was deliberated upon. He finally distributed presents to 
the value of $2,000 and the Indians declared their claim 

The first settlers to attempt the difficult journey 
through New York to the Presqu'isle Tract were Hinds 
Chamberlain and Jesse Beach, who in 1798 reached Buf- 
falo Creek on their way to LeBoeuf . They came on sleds 
drawn by two yoke of oxen and had been obliged to 
break out much of the roads themselves. When the 
Senecas learned that their purpose was to settle on this 
tract, they were highly indignant that these whites pre- 
sumed to enter their lands. A gift of two gallons of 
whiskey and some tobacco appeased them however, and 
the travelers were permitted to proceed. 

Four years later, 1802, the Senecas changed the form 
of their reservation on the Cattaraugus Creek. 

In the original deed to Robert Morris the Cattaraugus 
Reservation was so laid out that it lay along the shore of 
Lake .Erie from Eighteen Mile Creek (Koghguaga) to 
Canadaway Creek (Conondauwea) beyond Dunkirk. 
From this mile strip two tracts extended, one up the 
Cattaraugus Valley, the other up Canadaway Creek. 
This seems to have been mutually unsatisfactory, for 
apparently without any objection on the part of the 
Senecas, they exchanged this for a reservation with a 
small lake frontage at the mouth of Cattaraugus Creek 
and a long extension up the valley of this stream. In 
the; exchange the Holland Company was careful to re- 
tain the pre-emptive right over the land thus reserved. 

In the same year, 1802, the Senecas sold to the State 
of New York a very desirable tract of land lying along 
the Niagara River. It will be remembered that although 
the western boundary of the Indian lands in New York 


was established in 1784 as being four miles east of the 
Niagara River from Lake Ontario to the mouth of Buf- 
falo Creek, the treaty of 1794 changed this by running 
the line to Steadman's Creek just above the Falls, and 
thence along the river to its head. The western boundary 
of New York laid down in the compromise with Massa- 
chusetts was to be one mile east of the river to Lake 
Erie. The tract left from Steadman's Creek to the 
mouth of Buffalo Creek was thus left in the possession 
of the Senecas. New York purchased this tract from 
the Senecas in 1802, with certain reservations how- 
ever. They were to retain the right to fish and camp on 
the banks of the river, and to gather driftwood. In the 
treaty New York stipulated that two tracts, each a mile 
square, north of Scajaquada Creek were to be granted, 
one to Jasper Parrish, the other to Horatio Jones. 

In 1803 the sale of lands resulted in the deposition at 
Buffalo Creek of one of the most prominent chiefs of 
the Six Nations, Joseph Brant. In 1799 Brant became 
involved in a controversy between the Caughnawaga 
branch of the Mohawks and the State of New York re- 
garding the sale of a certain parcel of land extending 
from the Mohawk River to Pennsylvania which John Liv- 
ingston had purchased from the Six Nations two years 
before. Brant had signed the deed as a witness, and 
later the Caughnawagas accused him of selling their 
lands and pocketing the proceeds. Later when he was 
instrumental in acquiring for the Six Nations the tract 
of land on the Grand River now known as the Grand 
River Reservation, the Senecas accused him of having 
received personal emoluments from the English, and they 
also claimed a portion of these Grand River lands. His 
conduct was considered at a council of the Six Nations 
held at Buffalo Creek in 1803, probably in the council 
house of the Onondagas on Cazenovia Creek, for they 


were the only nation privileged to call a meeting of the 
Confederates. The leaders of the Senecas were Farmer's 
Brother and Red Jacket. 

As a result of the deliberations Brant was formally 
deposed as a chief of the Six Nations, together with all 
the other Mohawk chiefs, and all his actions in connec- 
tion with the Grand River lands were disavowed. Brant 
and the Mohawks naturally claimed that this action at 
the council was illegal. They claimed that the council 
fire of the League had been regularly removed to the 
Grand River where the main body of Onondagas was 
established, and that it was only there that any national 
business could be transacted. That this had been done 
was denied by the nations on Buffalo Creek and certainly 
there seems to be a good deal of doubt that this had been 
done. Certainly all national affairs had been transacted 
at Buffalo Creek for many years, and a considerable body 
of Onondagas still resided at Buffalo Creek, and in these 
were vested the right to convene a council. 

Mr. Stone in his life of Brant is inclined to think that 
the deposition was purely the result of intrigue instigated 
by Red Jacket. There never was any doubt that the two 
were enemies. Brant had publicly expressed his con- 
tempt of Red Jacket as a warrior and had often ac- 
cused him of cowardice. Brant laid the blame upon the 
Indian Agent, Mr. Claus, who he says stirred up the Sen- 
ecas to protest against Brant's action in the Grand River 
land deal. He attempted to clear himself in a letter to 
the Duke of Northumberland by saying that a few com- 
mon people had gone to Buffalo Creek to attend a council 
there and had met Claus at Niagara and had at his insti- 
gation signed a protest to be sent to England. 1 

In 1803 there was consummated at Buffalo Creek the 
first sale of the small reservations. At a council of Sen- 

l Stone's Life of Brant, II, 417. 


eca chiefs presided over by John Tayler, a commissioner 
appointed by the United States, Joseph Ellicott pur- 
chased for the Holland Company the reservation on the 
Genesee surrounding the village of Little Beard. 

When in 1786 New York and Massachusetts had by 
compromise settled their dispute about their conflicting 
land claims, New York had ceded to Massachusetts the 
pre-emptive right to all Indian lands. This was no more 
than the sole right to purchase the lands from their In- 
dian owners. Massachusetts purchased no land, but it sold 
this pre-emptive right to Robert Morris who purchased 
such lands as the Senecas would sell, and still retained 
the sole right to purchase all their remaining lands. He 
deeded the lands of western New York thus acquired to 
the Holland Company and with them the pre-emptive 
right to the lands remaining, these being the reserva- 
tions. The Holland Company did not purchase these res- 
ervations but it still retained the pre-emptive right, the 
sole right to purchase them and it was "lawfully author- 
ized to sell the pre-emptive rights to the reserved tracts." 

In 1810 the first steps were made to acquire title to 
the large reservations. As a preliminary the Holland 
Company conveyed to David A. Ogden the reservations at 
Cattaraugus, Buffalo Creek, Allegheny River, Tonawanda 
Creek, Caneadea and Lewiston, in all, about 196335 
acres at fifty cents per acre, "subject to the right of the 
native Indians, and not otherwise." In other words Mr. 
Ogden at an expense of $98,167.50 acquired the right to 
purchase from the Senecas 196,335 acres of land compris- 
ing their reservations in New York. 

The pre-emptive right thus transferred to Mr. Ogden 
was not considered to include the right to purchase the 
islands in Niagara River. When the boundary line be- 
tween the United States and the provinces of Great 
Britain was defined the line was to run in the middle of 


the principal branch of the Niagara and it would seem 
that enough doubt attached to the ownership of the 
islands to cause them to be omitted in the treaties of 1784 
and 1794. The Senecas always claimed them in spite of 
the fact that they were definitely west of their western 

It will be remembered that in 1768 in a treaty with 
Sir William Johnson, the Six Nations ceded to him a 
tract four miles wide on each side of the Niagara. 
Nothing was said about the islands and they certainly 
still remained in the possession of the Six Nations and as 
these were contiguous to lands recognized as belonging 
to the Senecas, any claim upon them by the Senecas 
would be considered valid. 

In 1784 the Six Nations ceded to the United States all 
their lands west of a line drawn four miles east of the 
Niagara. According to this the sovereignty over these 
islands would have passed to the United States and from 
it to New York. In 1794 the western boundary of the 
Senecas' land was established at this four mile line only 
as far as Fort Schlosser, thence along the river and Lake 
Erie to the Pennsylvania line. The Seneca claim ap- 
parently rested upon the assumption that 'along the 
river' meant along the middle of the river, which included 
the islands, excepting Navy Island, in their territory. 

As the Morris purchase from Massachusetts in 1791 in- 
cluded only the lands then owned by the Senecas, it na- 
turally did not include the islands which were not at that 
time in the possession of the Senecas. 

The Senecas never relinquished their claim to the 
islands, and this was recognized in 1812 by the people of 
western New York. Shortly after the second war with 
Great Britain was announced, a rumor reached Buffalo 
that Indians attached to the interest of Great Britain 
had established themselves on Grand Island. This so 


disturbed the Senecas that the chiefs consulted with their 
agent, Mr. Erastus Granger, as to their best course of 
action. Eed Jacket voiced the claim of the Senecas to 
the island and asked permission to send warriors from 
Buffalo Creek to hold it. He shrewdly expressed his 
conviction that judging from past experiences, should the 
war end with Canadians on the islands, they would keep 
possession of them by right of conquest. 

Immediately after the war, September 12, 1815, the 
Senecas sold all the islands,' Grand, Squaw, Strawberry, 
Eattlesnake and Bird, for f 1,000 and an annuity of $500 
per year forever. The boundary was not finally estab- 
lished until 1819, when by measurements the principal 
branch of the river was decided to be on the west side 
of Grand Island, and that these islands were within the 
limits of the United States. 

The first Buffalo newspaper was published in Buffalo 
in 1811 and very soon thereafter occasional notices be- 
gan to appear emanating from the reservation. Several 
issues in May of 1812 bore the advertisement of a good 
canoe, then lying in Buffalo Creek, for sale by Twenty 
Canoes. Erastus Granger advertised the loss by theft or 
straying of a horse owned by an Indian named Jonas. 
In February, 1813, Mr. Jabez Hyde, missionary on the 
reservation, advertised that two horses had strayed upon 
the reservation and were then in the custody of Seneca 
White and James King. 

When the Second War with Great Britain was declared 
there was much anxiety in western New York as to the 
attitude of the Senecas. Many were still alive who had 
suffered in the border wars of the Revolution and they ap- 
preciated to the full that on the reservation in their 
midst there were hundreds of fierce clansmen trained 
and eager for war. Should these choose actively to side 
with their ancient allies, the English, no one could doubt 


the effect upon the isolated settlements. Their only 
hope for safety was that the Senecas could be persuaded 
to side with the United States or at least remain neutral. 

In July, 1812, soon after war was announced, Mr. Eras- 
tus Granger, the Indian Agent, met the Indian chiefs and 
in a long speech in which he presented the cause of the 
war, he urged that because of the justice and fairness 
which had marked the treatment of the Senecas by the 
United States, the} 7 should remain neutral in a war, the 
causes or outcome of which could in no wise affect them. 
He intimated, also, that if any of the young men might 
care to take up arms, they might enlist in the army 
which the United States was then raising, on equal rating 
and equal pay with the whites. 

Red Jacket acted as spokesman of the Senecas. He ad- 
mitted that justice had always characterized the dealings 
of the United States and that the Senecas had asserted 
their desire to be at peace. He assured Mr. Granger it 
was the intent of the Senecas to take no part in the war, 
and further that they would send a delegation to Canada 
where some of their clansmen were taking up arms for 
Great Britain, and endeavor to persuade them to remain 
neutral. He refused to consider allowing any Senecas to 
enlist. As a result of this a delegation of chiefs was 
sent to Canada. They had great difficulty in getting 
permission from the English commander to enter Canada, 
but were finally allowed a few minutes' conversation with 
a few of the Canadian Indians. They failed to influence 
them, and thereafter during the war the clansmen fought 
on opposite sides. 

In September of 1812 at a meeting of the chiefs of the 
Six Nations at Onondaga, they decided to offer to aid 
the United States and on the same day 140 young men 
from the Allegheny Reservation came to Buffalo Creek 
where the} 7 encamped, danced a war dance in the streets 


of Buffalo, and offered to take up arms for home defence. 

The neutrality which the chiefs had decided upon was 
found to be impracticable. Almost immediately after 
the war began, the Senecas at Buffalo Creek heard 
rumors that the Canadian Indians were occupying Grand 
Island. A meeting between the chiefs and Mr. Granger 
was arranged and Red Jacket asked permission to allow 
their young men to drive them off. 

In the spring of 1813, the commander at Fort Niagara, 
a United States post, invited the Senecas to the fort, 
hoping to use them in persuading the Mohawks of the 
Grand River to refrain from war. Following his invita- 
tion a large number, 300 to 400, came to the fort armed 
for war and led by Farmer's Brother. As the Mohawks 
were determined to side actively with the English, the 
band of Senecas was enlisted into the service of the 
United States. 

These enlisted Senecas seem to have had their first 
active participation in war on July 10, 1813, when the 
village of Buffalo was threatened by an English force. 
This had landed at Scajaquada Creek and taken the bat- 
tery at Black Rock which was deserted by its occupants. 
When the alarm reached Buffalo Mr. Granger placed a 
guard of 40 Senecas under Farmer's Brother to guard his 
house. While the English force was destroying the 
battery and looting its few stores a force was collected in 
Buffalo made up of all the soldiers who would stand, 
seemingly supplementing these Senecas. This force at- 
tacked the English and drove them off. 

At the battle of Chippewa in July, 1814, the Senecas 
did good service. They were led there by Captain Pol- 
lard and (so Lossing asserts) by Red Jacket. 

From the close of the Revolution, most of the Six Na- 
tions seem to have fully appreciated that it would be 
difficult for them to maintain themselves permanently on 


their New York lands. The life to which they were ac- 
customed demanded wide unpopulated lands, for only 
from these could they derive peltry, the sole commodity 
which they might use in exchange for the necessities of 
life for which they now depended entirely upon the white 
men. Their lands in New York were restricted to such a 
degree, and so rapidly were the surrounding tracts being 
settled, that it could be but a short time until they must 
abandon this mode of life and either assume that of the 
white people or perish. 

The acquisition by the United States of immense 
tracts of land west of the Mississippi aroused in the Six 
Nations a desire to find there new homes, where sur- 
rounded by vast tracts of wild land, they might con- 
tinue to live in their ancient manner. This desire was 
expressed in 1810 when they sent the President a com- 
munication inquiring about the possibility of acquiring 
lands in the West. 

As a result of this inquiry the Government acquired 
from the Menominees , of Wisconsin a tract of land at 
Green Bay, comprising 500,000 acres of land. This pur- 
chase was consummated in 1831 and the land was se- 
cured to the Six Nations. The next year the Six Nations 
gave their assent to this purchase and settlement, and 
during the next three years, part of the Six Nations, the 
Oneidas, relinquished their New York lands and removed 
to the Green Bay tract. 

Most of the remaining nations, however, refused to 
emigrate thither, and intimated a desire to exchange 
these Green Bay lands for larger tracts in the Indian 
Territory, and the President, prompted probably by the 
constantly growing demand for the New York lands, as 
well, perhaps, by a desire to settle for all time the de- 
mands of these clamorous clansmen, was willing to com- 
ply with their wishes. 


One result of this feeling and desire on the part of the 
Six Nations was their willingness to sell their lands in 
New York. The Senecas accordingly, during the years 
in which the western land question was being debated 
began the sale of their lands, the first sales being of those 
already noticed, the Little Beard Eeservation, the islands 
in the Niagara and the portage road. 

In 1819 an effort was made by the Ogden Company to 
buy all the reservations except that at Allegheny. The 
Seneca chiefs were assembled at Buffalo, there being also 
present Hon. Morris Miller, commissioner appointed by 
the President, and Mr. Nathaniel Gorham, commission- 
er representing Massachusetts. At this meeting the two 
parties of Seneces were represented, the Christian by 
Captain Pollard, the Pagan by Red Jacket. The offer to 
purchase was voiced by Mr. Miller who presented also 
offers by the United States to cede to them lands in the 
West. Red Jacket in a strong and somewhat rude 
speech opposed the sale and his influence was such that 
the offer was rejected. Yet a minority of the chiefs, rep- 
resenting the Christians, assembled with Commissioner 
Morris and its spokesman, Pollard, deplored the seeming 
rudeness of Red Jacket's speech, and expressed his be- 
lief that the Senecas must soon change their condition. 

Three years later the Senecas were again assembled at 
their village to consider selling their lands. Again Red 
Jacket opposed the sale and was supported by the council. 

The first large sale was finally negotiated in 1826, and 
was consummated at a treaty held at Buffalo Creek in 
August of that year, between the "sachems, chiefs and 
warriors" and Robert Troup, Thomas L. Ogden and Ben- 
jamin W. Rogers. Mr. Oliver Forward was present as 
commissioner of the United States, as was Mr. Nathaniel 
Gorham, superintendent representing Massachusetts. 

At this time, in consideration of $48,260, the Senecas 


conveyed to Mr. Troup and Mr. Ogden all the remaining 
small reservations, namely at Caneadea, Canawaugus, Big 
Tree, Squawky Hill, and Gardeau. With these they also 
conveyed three large reservations, at Buffalo Creek, Tona- 
wanda Creek and Cattaraugus Creek, but with certain 
specified exemptions. In effect this was the sale of por- 
tions of each of these reservations. The portion thus 
exempted from the sale of the Buffalo Creek reservation 
is specified in the conveyance as follows : 

Also all that other tract of land commonly called and known 
by the name of the Buffalo Creek Reservation situate lying 
and being in the said county of Erie and containing by estima- 
tion eighty three thousand five hundred and fifty seven (83,557) 
acres, excepting nevertheless and always reserving out of the 
said Buffalo Creek reservation the following tract, piece or 
parcel thereof that is to say, seventy-eight square miles or forty- 
nine thousand nine hundred and twenty (49,920) acres bounded 
as follows, that is to say: Beginning on the north line of the 
said reservation at a point one mile and a half east of the Cayuga 
Creek, running thence south one mile and a half; thence east 
parallel with the north line so far as that, a line to he drawn 
from the termination thereof south to a point one mile distant 
from the south line of the said reservation; and thence west 
parallel with the south line to the west line of the reservation, 
and thence along the west and north line of the same to the 
place of beginning will contain the said quantity of seventy-eight 
square miles or forty nine thousand nine hundred and twenty 
(49,920) acres. 

The southern strip thus conveyed to Troup and Ogden 
lying between this line on the south and the Holland 
Company's tract has always been known as the "Mile 

This treaty was signed by forty-seven Seneca chiefs, 
amongst them being Young King, Pollard, Little Billy, 
Cornplanter, Blacksnake, Silverheels, Big Kettle, Shongo, 
Red Jacket, and some others of local note. Horatio Jones 
and Jacob Jimeson acted as interpreters. Jasper Parrish 
was Indian Agent. 


Although the Senecas considered the sale valid at the 
time, delivered the lands, and received the purchase 
price, the validity of the transaction has since been dis- 
puted. The Senate never ratified this treaty, in accord- 
ance with the Constitutional provision regarding treaties, 
nor did the President proclaim it. Because of these two 
omissions the Senecas in later years claimed that the 
treaty was invalidated, and as a test case they brought 
action against one Christy, occupying a portion of the 
Cattaraugus Reservation conveyed in this treaty. 



These sales left the Senecas but relatively small reser- 
vations, one at Buffalo Creek a portion of that originally 
reserved; one at Tonawanda and one at Cattaraugus, 
each a portion only of the original reservations ; the Alle- 
gheny Reservation and the square mile at the Oil Spring. 
There was, however, at this time and during the succeed- 
ing few years, the expectation that these must also be 
relinquished and that the nation must emigrate to Wis- 

When the lands at Green Bay were finally secured to 
the Six Nations, the Senecas were foremost in refusing 
to remove thither. At the expiration of three years, dur- 
ing which the removal was to have been completed, they 
united with the Cayugas and Onondagas in requesting 
that such of the Green Bay lands as should have been 
alloted to them be exchanged for lands in the Indian 
Territory. If this were done they could then sell their 
New York holdings and emigrate. In compliance with 
this desire, a treaty was negotiated at Buffalo Creek in 
1838 by which lands were secured to the Indians and at 
the same time their New York lands were sold. The 
events following the negotiation of this treaty were ex- 
tremely exciting. 

The treaty of January, 1838, recites in detail that the 
Six Nations became convinced soon after the Revolution 
that eventually they must migrate to the West, and that 
at a general council of the Six Nations in 1810 a memorial 
was sent to the President asking for information re- 
garding title to any lands which they might acquire there. 


Further, that land was acquired at Green Bay, and that 
final settlement was made by the United States with the 
Indian owners in 1831, a settlement to which the Six 
Nations gave assent in 1832. By this settlement 500,000 
acres of land were secured to the Six Nations, and to the 
St. Begis Indians, on condition that they remove, and had 
intimated a desire to remove, to the Indian Territory. 
These had applied to the President to exchange their 
lands at Green Bay for lands in Indian Territory. The 
reason for the treaty is said to be the President's desire 
to comply with the wishes of the Six Nations. 

In the treaty the Six Nations ceded to the United States 
all those lands at Green Bay excepting a tract then oc- 
cupied by Indians of the Six Nations, that is those who 
had already removed thence. 

In consideration of this cession the United States 
agreed to set apart for the Six Nations a tract of land 
comprising 1,825,000 acres, adjoining lands already ceded 
to the Cherokees, Miamis, and Osages. This was to be 
divided amongst all the Indians of New York State and 
to this tract they must remove within five years or forfeit 
all rights to it. 

Of this tract the Senecas were allotted the eastern por- 
tion, to include 320 acres of land for each soul of the 

The treaty specifically recites that the Senecas have at 
this time sold lands to Thomas L. Ogden and Joseph Fel- 
lows, for a consideration of |202,000. Of this, $100,000 
were to be invested for the Seneca Nation by the Presi- 
dent. The remaining $102,000 were to be paid to the 
owners of improvements upon the lands in a manner 
specifically stated. 

Further, the United States bound itself to acquire and 
give the Six Nations a portion of the Cherokee territory, 
to transport them to their new homes, to erect schools. 


churches and council houses, and further to appropriate 
$30,000, the income from which would be used to maintain 
a literary institution amongst them. 

When the treaty came before the Senate this amended 
it by striking out all these latter provisions and insert- 
ing one to appropriate $400,000 to aid in transporting 
the Indians to their new homes, support them during their 
first year, erect mills and houses, buy farm animals and 
tools and to encourage education. With this amendment 
the treaty was ratified by the Senate, but with the stipu- 
lation that before it became binding it must be submitted 
and fully and fairly explained by a commissioner of the 
United States to each of such tribes or bands, separately 
assembled in council, who must give their full and volun- 
tary consent thereto. 

During the summer of 1838 the United States Com- 
missioner, Ransom H. Gillett, visited the various Indians 
in order to secure their assent to this amended treaty. 
All ratified except the Senecas. In August he came to 
Buffalo to obtain the assent of the Senecas. With him 
was General Dearborn, the commissioner of Massachu- 
setts. The latter gentleman kept a journal which is most 

Active opposition by a large part of the Senecas had 
already developed before the arrival of the commissioner. 
The meeting was to have been held in the council-house, 
but the chiefs were averse to this and would not allow 
the meeting to be held there. Judge Stryker, the local 
Indian Agent, erected a large temporary building in 
which to hold the meeting, but the night before the 
meeting it was burned, and it was the opinion of many 
that it had been set on fire by some one of the party 
opposed to the treaty. Lacking permission to use the 
council-house, the meeting was held in a grove adjoining 
their settlement, east of "Allen's tavern." 


Of all the personages representing the diverse interests 
at this meeting a few stand out prominently. Of these, 
Ransom H. Gillett was one. He was the commissioner 
who according to the terms of the treaty was to submit 
it to the nations and "fully and fairly" explain it. He 
presided at the meetings and performed his duty in a 
forceful, intelligent manner. General Henry A. S. Dear- 
born was a commissioner appointed by the Governor of 
Massachusetts to be present at the negotiations. As 
these involved a transfer of lands, it was necessary, ac- 
cording to the i>rovisions of the New York-Massachusetts 
agreement in 1786, that a Massachusetts commissioner 
be present. Of all the persons present, he might be ex- 
pected to be most disinterested as his sole duty was to 
signify his approval of the sale should there be one. As 
a matter of fact he interested himself on behalf of the 
Indians to such an extent that he gained the respect of 
both the opposing Seneca parties. 

Of these two parties, one opposed the treaty, and was 
identical with the Pagan party formerly led by Red 
Jacket. He had died in 1830 and the present leader was 
Big Kettle. He seems to have been the same that once 
lived on the Squawky Hill Reservation on the Genesee, or 
his son. He lived at the eastern extremity of the reser- 
vation at East Elma where he had large holdings of land 
seemingly well improved. He, with the brothers Seneca 
White and White Seneca, were instrumental in having 
a saw-mill built at East Elma to which he and others 
could sell timber. With him in the opposition was 
Israel Jimierson (Jimerson?) whose violent and uncon- 
trolled actions in the meeting threatened to break it up 
in riot. Supporting these two were two Buffalo millers, 
Grosvenor and Heacock. They had leased a right of way 
for a feed canal from the fork of Buffalo and Cayuga 
Creeks at the present eastern city line, to their mills on 


the present Hydraulic street. Not only was their valu- 
able lease in danger through the sale, but the Indians 
were heavily in debt to them, and a removal might re- 
sult in this loss also. Both proved very obnoxious to the 
two commissioners. 

In favor of the treaty there were several chiefs, the 
most prominent though least active being Pollard; the 
most active perhaps, Seneca White, a Christian Indian 
living near East Elma. These and others of the two 
factions carried on a bitter fight for weeks, from August 
20th until October 2d. 

The business preliminary to the treaty was speedily 
transacted. Mr. Gillett stated the object of the meeting 
and General Dearborn explained his presence there. The 
next three days were occupied in explaining the articles 
of the treaty. On August 24th this explanation was con- 
cluded, and for several days the Indians deliberated. 
Finally, each party chose six chiefs, who were to de- 
liberate and report. 

They seemed unable to come to a decision, for the com- 
missioners again explained the articles of the treaty, con- 
cluding on September 4th. 

At this time Big Kettle made a speech opposing giving 
assent. He was answered by Seneca White. The fol- 
lowing day Big Kettle and others spoke, and the council 
was adjourned so that the Indians could celebrate their 
Corn Feast. 

After the Corn Feast the council met once more and 
on the several days following there was a general debate 
amongst the Indians. By September 10th feeling ran 
high. Several whites, amongst them Mr. Grosvenor, were 
very active in attempts to induce the chiefs to refuse 
their assent. After a long speech by Commissioner Gil- 
lett in which he brought out several errors in the state- 
ments made in debate Big Kettle and an Indian named 


Johnson said that he talked too much and that unless 
the council were ended at once they would go home. Mr. 
Grosvenor also spoke correcting what he said were false 
statements made by Mr. Gillett, who at once, amid great 
excitement, defended his statements. General Dearborn 
then made a tactful conciliatory speech and the council 
adjourned quietly. That night an attempt — the third — 
was made to burn the council-house. 

The following day both commissioners laid before the 
Indians the necessity of ratifying the treaty, giving as 
an opinion that should they not do so the conveyance of 
their lands would still be binding, and without the west- 
ern lands acquired by the treaty, they would be homeless. 

On September 14th the ill feeling culminated in a dis- 
turbance which bid fair to end in murder. An Indian 
named Bennett had been maligned the day before by 
Israel Jimenson (Jimerson?) and spoke in his own de- 
fence. A chief named Pierce became turbulent and so in- 
solent that Commissioner Gillett threatened to exclude 
him. Captain Pollard, called upon to announce the prac- 
tices in council, was assaulted by Jimenson. Big Kettle 
seized Seneca White, and Jimenson then throttled the 
interpreter. Strong. Others raised a war-whoop and the 
whole assembly rushed threateningly forward to the two 
commissioners. Order was finally achieved and the meet- 
ing broke up. 

That evening Strong swore out a warrant against 
Jimenson and the sheriff was called upon to provide 
officers to keep the peace. 

For four days there was no meeting. Big Kettle and 
others uttered numerous threats against the commis- 
sioners and others. Jimenson was brought before Justice 
Barton on a charge of assault, and the justice discharged 
him, much to the disgust of the commissioners, who now 


made arrangements to have a military guard of United 
States troops if necessary. 

Three days later the meeting then called in the council- 
house was again in a turmoil, through utterances of Maris 
Bryant Pierce and Mr. Heacock. The commissioners or- 
dered the sheriff to put Heacock out. There was an 
altercation in which Big Kettle told the commissioners 
that if the council were not ended in a week the Indians 
would carry them off the reservation bundled up like 
sacks. Eventually Heacock was put out, order was re- 
stored and the council adjourned. 

In consequence of a conversation with Mr. Heacock 
later General Dearborn recommended as conciliatory 
measures that the Ogden Company be obligated to pay 
all debts of the Indians and to give any Indian who de- 
sired it a lease for life of the lot on which he lived, should 
he not wish to remove. 

On September 28th after these recommendations had 
been debated at length and accepted, the treaty was pre- 
sented for signature. Sixteen chiefs signed. After ad- 
journment a large number remained and 64 chiefs signed 
a dissent to the treaty in the presence of General Dear- 
born, who certified to this effect. On October 2d, the 
council adjourned till November loth. 

On November 15th the commissioners returned to Buf- 
falo where, at a hotel, other chiefs signed. It was not 
until December 26th that negotiations closed. "Thanks 
to the Lord !" wrote General Dearborn. 

His sigh of relief was premature, however. The treaty 
with its signatures of 41 alleged chiefs was transmitted 
to the President for his approval. So doubtful was he 
of its validity that he submitted it to the Senate as it 
stood and asked the advice of that body. The Senate was 
also dubious and recommended only that as soon as the 
President should be satisfied that the assent of the Sene- 


cas had been given he should proclaim the treaty. He 
decided that the only way to satisfy himself about it was 
to send some disinterested person to investigate the cir- 
cumstances, and selected for this purpose the Secretary of 
War, Mr. Poinsett, whom he ordered to visit the Senecas 
on the Cattaraugus Reservation and obtain from them 
a first hand account of their feelings. 

After a weary journey Mr. Poinsett arrived at Buf- 
falo where he found awaiting him a number of inter- 
ested persons, including General Dearborn. They secured 
passage on a steamer to Cattaraugus Creek, and put up 
for the night at Irving. The following day, August 13, 

1839, they drove six miles up the Cattaraugus Valley to 
the Seneca Council-House, where they called a meeting of 
chiefs. Here they heard a number of speakers both for 
and against the treaty and the following day left Irving 
with a promise to report the feeling of the Senecas to 
the President. 

With this scanty and incomplete report before him the 
President on January 14, 1840, transmitted the treaty 
with a message in which he said: "No advance towards 
obtaining the assent of the Senecas to the amended 
treaty, in council, was made, — nor can a majority of them 
in council be now obtained." However, on March 25, 

1840, the Senate ratified the treaty, and on April 4, 1840, 
the President proclaimed it. 

Immediately after the proclamation of the obnoxious 
treaty the Senecas began agitation to have it annulled. 
In their efforts they were aided materially by several 
Societies of Friends who had followed the course of the 
treaty closely and with deep interest. They had had 
representatives at the meeting at Cattaraugus in 1839 
and had assured themselves that the manner of securing 
the signatures of the chiefs was fraudulent. Therefore 
"at a meeting of the Committees of the Four Yearly 


Meetings of Genesee, New York, Philadelphia and Balti- 
more, on the concern of those meetings for the welfare of 
the Indian natives of our country, held at Cherry Street 
meeting-house in the City of Philadelphia Fourth month 
7th, 1840, it was agreed to prepare a statement of facts 
for the information of our own members, in relation to 
the circumstances of the Seneca Indians in the State of 
New York." 

The Quakers, having been satisfied that the Senecas 
had been defrauded, sent a memorial to the President 
showing him by affidavits that several signatures to the 
treaty alleged to be those of chiefs were in reality not 
those of chiefs, and further, that without these a major- 
ity of chiefs had not signed. Later they sent a memorial 
to the Senate showing that although the Senate had ex- 
plicitly instructed the commissioner to obtain the signa- 
tures openly in council, he had failed to do this, and that 
most of those signing had done so secretly in a hotel in 
Buffalo. A committee of Friends was appointed to wait 
upon the Governor of Massachusetts protesting against 
the treaty and urging that he disapprove it. The Senecas 
also sent a memorial to the President vigorously protest- 
ing against the treaty and refused to remove from the 
lands or relinquish them. 

The Quakers further obtained an opinion from able 
lawyers, most prominent of whom was Daniel Webster, 
regarding the legality of the treaty. All agreed that as 
the treaty had been ratified and proclaimed it would be 
considered valid by the courts. Mr. Webster however 
suggested that a compromise might be effected with ad- 
vantage to both parties. The Quakers then took the mat- 
ter of a compromise to the Secretary of War, who sug- 
gested to Mr. Ogden, the trustee of the Ogden Company, 
that in view of the disputes regarding the title with 
consequent possible litigation and difficulty of taking pos- 


session a compromise might be arranged which might be 
mutually satisfactory. Mr. Ogden finally agreed to make 
some concessions, and arrangements were made to ne- 
gotiate a new treaty. The President appointed Mr. Am- 
brose Spencer a commissioner, with power to call a meet- 
ing at Buffalo Creek to effect a settlement. He assembled 
the Seneca chiefs at Buffalo and in a very short time 
negotiated a treaty May 20, 1842, by which the Senecas 
renounced their claims to the Buffalo Creek and Tona- 
wanda Creek Reservations; and the Ogden Company, to 
whom the lands had been deeded in 1838, released to the 
Indians the Allegheny and the Cattaraugus Reservations, 
reserving however their pre-emption right to both. 

One article of this treaty provided for a board of two 
members, one to be appointed by the Secretary of War, 
the other by the Ogden Company, whose duty it should 
be to ascertain the value of the improved and unimproved 
lands on the tracts sold. It provided further that sur- 
veyors be appointed to make a true and complete report, 
a copy of which was to be filed with the Secretary of War 
and one with the Ogden Company. The unimproved 
lands were to pass into the possession of the company 
within a month after the report of the board had been 
filed and the improved property within two years. 

The treaty recites that "questions and differences hav- 
ing arisen between the chiefs and headmen of the Sene- 
cas and Ogden and Fellows in relation to said indenture 
of 1838, and the rights and provisions contained in it not 
having been executed, the said parties have mutually 
agreed to settle compromise and finally terminate all 
such questions and differences. 

"I. The Senecas may continue in the occupation of the 
Cattaraugus and Allegheny Reservations with the same 
right and title in all things as they had and possessed 
therein immediate! v before the date of the said indenture, 


saving and reserving to the said Ogden and Fellows the 
right of pre-emption and all other the right and title 
which they then had or held. . . ." 

The treaty further recited that the Senecas confirmed 
to Ogden and Fellows the Buffalo Creek and Tonawanda 

To set a value upon the lands thus sold it was provided 
in the treaty that Ogden and Fellows should pay to the 
Seneca Nation "such proportion of the original sum of 
|202,000 as the value of all lands within the said two 
tracts called the Buffalo Creek and Tonawanda Reserva- 
tions shall bear to the value of all the lands within all 
the said four tracts and of the said sum of one hundred 
and two thousand dollars the said Ogden and Fellows 
shall pay such proportion as the value of the improve- 
ments on the same two tracts shall bear to the value of 
the improvements on all the said four tracts." 

The amount of money to be paid was to be decided by 
two arbitrators, one to be appointed by the Secretary of 
War, the other by Ogden and Fellows. These were to 
appoint "suitable surveyors to explore, examine and re- 
port on the value of the said lands and improvements." 
The arbitrators were to award to each individual Indian 
the value of his improvements. 

Acting upon these terms the Secretary of War appoint- 
ed Thomas C. Love, and Ogden and Fellows appointed 
Ira Cook, as the two arbitrators. These employed "suit- 
able surveyors" who examined and reported upon three of 
the four tracts, namely the Buffalo Creek, Cattaraugus 
and Allegheny Reservations. Their report dated March 
26, 1844, showed the acreage of the Buffalo Creek Reser- 
vation to be 49,920 acres ; and contained a detailed report 
of all buildings and farm improvements belonging to the 
Senecas on all the reservations but the Tonawanda. This 
latter appears without details. It showed that they had 


adjudged that Ogden and Fellows should pay for the 
lands on the Buffalo Creek and Tonawanda Keservations 
the sum of seventy-five thousand dollars ; and for the im- 
provements on these the sum of f 58,768. 

The report dwells upon the fact that the arbitrators 
were forcibly prevented by the Senecas on the Tonawanda 
from surveying or examining their lands, which accounts 
for the lack of a detailed report on that reservation. 
They had visited the Tonawanda twice and had met a 
majority of the Senecas there in council. At both coun- 
cils the Indians "with unanimous voice and action abso- 
lutely and unconditionally refused to permit" them to ex- 
amine any part of the reservation ; and on the occasion of 
the second council they were "each taken by the arm by 
a chief and accompanied by him and warriors off the 
said reservation." Their report of the extent and value of 
the improvements on the Tonawanda is therefore an esti- 
mate only. Seemingly the Tonawanda Senecas did not 
want to be examined. 

The amounts awarded to some of the Indians are inter- 
esting. Big Kettle had evidently died before the award 
was made, for his widow is credited with 35 acres of land, 
with two houses worth together $55, and she was award- 
ed |225.01. Big Kettle's sister had 18 acres of land with 
a house worth $30 and a barn worth $4, and was awarded 
$122.29. Jacob Big Kettle, evidently a son, with 22 acres 
and a house, received $161.99. A saw-mill owned by the 
chiefs, probably that at East Elma, was valued at $300. 
Jack Berry's widow, for three acres of land and a house 
received $26. John Jacket, probably the son of Red 
Jacket, received $408.72. Tom Jamison, "Buffalo Tom," 
received $2,609.03 for 179 acres. This lay at the junction 
of the present Seneca and Elk streets, and included rich 
farming lands, well cultivated, on both sides of Buffalo 
Creek. The Seneca Nation received for one house, prob- 


ably the council-house, $75 and for their church the sum 
of $683.90. Pollard's widow, and George Fox, with 56 
acres, a house and barn, received $915.01. John Seneca's 
saw-mill with 83 acres of land, brought him $1432.83, but 
Seneca White's mill with house and barn brought only 
$354.01. For 160 acres of creek land on Seneca street 
just beyond the present city line, with four houses, three 
barns and an orchard of 92 trees, Moses Stevenson re- 
ceived $1623.39. For 25 acres of creek land on Abbott 
Road near the present Cazenovia Park with two houses, 
Silverheels received $174.85. George Wheelbarrow, who 
lived on Abbott Road at the present Woodside avenue, 
received $428.03 for 63 acres with three houses, a cheap 
barn and an orchard. The Buffalo Creek chiefs fared 
badly as compared with those at Cattaraugus. They re- 
ceived only $217.10, for their holdings including a saw- 
mill, but the Cattaraugus chiefs divided $1445.85. 

Immediately after the awards were made the Senecas 
began to relinquish their lands and to seek new homes 
on the Cattaraugus and Allegheny Reservations. These 
were common property of the entire Seneca Nation and 
were consequently as much the property of these now 
homeless immigrants as of those who had occupied them 
for generations. All that was necessary was that the 
chiefs should allot the newcomers land to live upon. 
Naturally all the more fertile portions had been already 
occupied, consequently most of those from Buffalo 
Creek were allotted the unoccupied, and therefore poorer, 
land on the hills at the northeastern edge of the Cat- 
taraugus Reservation. Some, perhaps because of their 
money derived from their holdings at Buffalo Creek, the 
Jamisons, Silverheels, Stevensons and Whites, and others, 
acquired farms in the bottoms along Clear and Cat- 
taraugus Creeks. 

Not all the landholding Senecas at Buffalo Creek re- 


moved, however. Of these, two were Thomas Jamison and 
Moses Stevenson. Both these were evidently excellent far- 
mers and were prosperous, for Jamison had been awarded 
12609.03 for his improvements, and Stevenson $1623.39, 
both large sums for that time. They continued to live 
on their farms for some years. They sent their children 
to the public schools which were soon established, and 
conducted themselves exactly as did their white neighbors. 
A few people still remember their school days in which 
the Stevenson and Jamison children were figures. Mr. 
Richards, still living on Seneca street, can recall his 
youth when he worked as a farm laborer for Tom Jami- 
son. Mr. Stevenson's house still stands a little south of 
Seneca street just beyond the city line. Some old apple 
trees but lately killed and removed, marked the Jamison 
orchard and barnyard, on Keppel street, and a house once 
occupied by his son, Chauncey, still stands on Elk street 
near Bailey avenue. 

For many years parties of these expatriated Senecas 
returned frequently to Buffalo and Cazenovia Creeks. 
Many came in spring to fish, and the writer can remem- 
ber frequent parties of Indians in wagons, with fish 
spears and camp supplies, camping on the banks of 
Cazenovia Creek within the city limits. Other parties re- 
turned annually for many years to visit the graves of 
their dead at the various villages, and it is less than 
ten years ago that individual Senecas from Cattaraugus 
have discontinued visiting the cemetery at East Elma. 
Farmers now resident in East Elma can remember oc- 
casional fishing parties and basket-making camps along 
Buffalo Creek near that village. 

Immediately after the removal of the Indians the res- 
ervation was thrown open to settlers and was quickly 
taken up. Some was taken up in large parcels by specu- 
lators like the Wadsworths of Geneseo. A large tract 


was purchased by a colony of Germans, who established 
themselves here in an attempt to live communally. This 
was known locally as the Ebenezer Community, which 
built up the present villages of Ebenezer, Gardenville and 
Blossom. With these German communists came other 
Germans who bought heavily of the fertile lands of West 
Seneca and Cheektowaga. Most of the remainder of the 
reservation was cut up into smaller holdings which were 
quickly bought by individual purchasers. Some of these 
at first made their homes in abandoned Indian cabins. 
One estimable lady of the writer's acquaintance was born 
here in an Indian log-cabin on land which her father had 
just bought. In fact, all the buildings left by the Indians 
were used for one purpose or another. The Indian 
church, the most pretentious building on the reservation, 
in time was used as a barn, and it was so used until so 
recently that most of the older people of South Buffalo 
can remember it. The Seneca council-house which stood 
about a hundred yards north of the corner of Littell and 
Archer streets became a dwelling house. The rough 
crooked road running to the Seneca village became the 
Aurora plank road. Saw-mills sprang up and consumed 
the shadowy forests like fire, leaving the fertile lands 
available for farms. Crops waved where the red hunter 
had pursued the deer. The Indian huts gave place to the 
frame homes of the white farmer and presently disap- 
peared. Only in the memories of the older people re- 
mained the Buffalo Creek Beservation. 





1918, 1919, 1920 

WILLIAM DAVID WALKER, D.D., LL.D., D.C.L., 1839-1917. 

First Missionary Bishop of North Dakota, 1883-1896. 

Third Bishop of Western New York, 1896-1917. 


To the Buffalo Historical Society, May 18, 1918 

In the winter of 1918 Mrs. William D. Walker offered 
to present to the Buffalo Historical Society certain arti- 
cles which had belonged to her late husband, and were 
associated with his life and work as Missionary Bishop of 
North Dakota, and Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal 
Diocese of Western New York. These articles were 
deemed of public interest and historic value, and were 
gratefully accepted by the Board of Managers. A suit- 
able exhibition case was provided, at the joint expense 
of Mrs. Walker and the Society; and on the afternoon 
of Saturday, May 18, 1918, the collection, known as the 
Bishop Walker Memorial, was unveiled and with appro- 
priate exercises was formally presented to the Society. 

The Walker Memorial is located in the middle 
of the large portrait hall, on the second floor of 
the Historical Building. This room had been temporarily 
cleared of other exhibits, and seated for the accommoda- 
tion of the considerable audience which gathered there. 
Among the specially-invited guests were the officers of 
the Buffalo chapters of the Daughters of the American 
^Revolution, Sons of the American Kevolution, and other 
patriotic societies; many clergy and friends of the late 
Bishop. The Bev. George F. Williams, rector of St. 
Mary's-on-the-Hill, directed a squad of Boy Scouts, who 
served as ushers, and constituted a guard which stood at 
"attention" around the Memorial during the exercises, 
and when presentation was made, removed the large 
flag which had covered it. A drummer and bugler gave 
signals for opening the exercises. The donor, Mrs. 


Walker, was accompanied by her brother, Mr. Louis P. 
Bach of New York, who spoke for her in the presenta- 
tion. The Historical Society was represented by its 
honorary president, Mr. Andrew Langdon; its president, 
Hon. Henry W. Hill; its vice-president, Mr. Charles R. 
Wilson, and numerous managers and members. 

The exercises opened with the singing of "America," 
Mr. Seth Clark accompanying at the piano. After an 
invocation by the Rev. Charles H. Smith, D. D., rector of 
St. James Episcopal church, Vice-President Wilson ad- 
dressed the gathering as follows: 

mr. Wilson's greeting 

Mr. President, Mrs. Walker and Ladies and Gentlemen — 
In behalf of the Buffalo Historical Society I have the 
honor and very great pleasure of extending to Mrs. Walk- 
er and to you, — the friends and acquaintances of the 
late Bishop of this Diocese, William David Walker, — a 
most cordial welcome on this occasion, when we are 
about to commemorate the life work of Bishop Walker 
in a fitting and affectionate tribute to his memory. 
Through the kindly offices of Mrs. Walker there has been 
prepared under her thoughtful and discriminating care 
a case, containing the very personal things of the Bishop, 
endeared to him through association, — individual and 
ecclesiastical, during his long and active life. This case 
with its contents (which will be more particularly de- 
scribed by others) Mrs. Walker is about to present to 
this Society, as it seems to her a suitable and proper 
custodian of a collection unique in character, and that 
here the articles may be seen, appreciated and enjoyed 
by those who knew and loved the Bishop. It was my rare 
privilege to know him quite intimately during his visit 
in our home circle, of some seven or eight weeks, as the 
honored guest of our family when he first came to Buf- 


falo to take up his official duties, as the successor to 
Bishop Coxe, and we continued the same cordial and 
very happy relations until his death. I feel, therefore, 
that it is a very pleasant opportunity that is accorded 
to me in taking a small part in the dedicatory exercises 
this afternoon. 

I now have the pleasure of introducing Mr. Louis P. 
Bach of New York, the brother of Mrs. Walker, who will 
formally present to this Society these chosen articles as 
duly provided through the generous and courteous offer 
of Mrs. Walker. He will be followed by our President, 
Hon. Henry W. Hill, who will accept the same for the 
Society, and then we shall have the pleasure of hearing 
Rev. Charles A. Jessup, Rector of St. Paul's Church, 
representing the clergy of this Diocese. May I again 
extend our kindly greetings to you all. 

As Mr. Bach came forward in response to the intro- 
duction, the bugle sounded, and Boy Scouts from Trinity 
and St. Mary's-on-the-Hill unveiled the memorial. Mr. 
Bach said: 


Mr. Chairman,, Ladies and Gentlemen — 

I am a stranger within your gates, known to but very 
few in this hall, and I could not take the least umbrage 
if the question arose in your minds : what justification 
existed for having accorded to me the great privilege and 
honor of participating in these proceedings which so in- 
timately and so peculiarly concern the members of the 
Diocese of Western New York as well as the citizens at 
large of your thriving and attractive city. 

You will believe me, I know, when I assure you most 
sincerely that this privilege was unsought by me, and I 
am here only in deference to the wish and request of one 


who is very dear and close to me in kinship, and I could 
not bring myself to refuse her earnest request to represent 
and to speak for her, who is the donor of this memorial 
to the late Bishop Walker. 

Although, as a material fact, I am a stranger coming 
from the great Metropolis at the other end of the State, 
yet, in spirit,, there must be a bond of sympathy, uncon- 
scious though it may be, between those, who, although 
scattered to the far corners of the earth, have sat at the 
feet of the same spiritual leader, have been blest by the 
same ministrations, and have been comforted and coun- 
seled by the same Christian worker, pastor and friend. 

It is a noteworthy and beautiful thought that inspires 
those pupils who have been privileged to study under 
some one great master of music or of painting, or under 
some great teacher, or under a great scientist, to feel 
themselves more strongly bound by a common tie because 
of the inestimable privilege and influence which they 
have enjoyed as distinguished from all other students 
seeking knowledge in similar fields. Therefore, how in- 
finitely more grappling, surpassingly more strengthening, 
should be the bonds that link together in the spirit of 
appreciation and thankfulness those who were privileged 
to enjoy the affection and the benign influence of a 
master minister of Christ! 

Ladies and Gentlemen, in this spirit, I beg you not to 
look upon me as a stranger for I, too, knew Bishop 
Walker well, — very well. Indeed, I cannot remember 
the time when as children in our household we did not 
know him. 

Childhood recollections, with their vivid imagery, im- 
planted pictures of this dear guardian of our youth upon 
our hearts and very souls which will never be effaced 
until eyelids droop and close for eternal rest. More than 
two score years have passed, yet how ineffably clearly 


stand out his morning visits to the little parish-school 
out of which he reared a congregation of youths and 
maidens, later the men and women, who fairly idolized 
their pastor, the Vicar of Calvary Chapel! Yet again, 
and quite as clearly, can I see the picture of the Con- 
firmation Classes and the First Communion he adminis- 
tered to us. Again comes before me the memory of the 
meetings and activities of the youthful Chapel Organiza- 
tions of which we were so proud, and which he guided 
with such consummate benevolence and helpfulness. 
Ladies and Gentlemen, I hope you will bear with me and 
forgive me for indulging in these happy reminiscences, 
but I cannot avoid doing so because my whole life seems 
to have been spent in and about the very ground which 
was the center of his beneficient activities as Vicar of 
Calvary Chapel. From earliest school days I have passed 
the years of my life in daily travel through the same 
thoroughfare over which the innumerable errands of 
mercy, and of Christian duty, sad or happy as they might 
be, necessitated the countless thousands of steps which 
were taken by him for the comfort, happiness and guid- 
ance of not only his parishioners, but of any others in 
distress or need. 

Even now as I go and come daily from my business I 
pass the spots where stood the first Calvary Chapel, a 
dingy brown little building somewhat hazy in my memory, 
and then directly opposite where stood the second Chapel 
building raised and built entirely through his unflagging 
will and effort — a beautiful little church in which he 
took such pride, and which was known more easily by 
preference and affection as "Dr. Walker's Church" by the 
good people of the parish. 

These landmarks have long since passed, and as I 
trace my steps where once stood also the homes of so 
many of his people of whom quite a few have gone on 


their last long journey, I can still see in spirit and in 
memory, the lithe and active figure flitting from church to 
home, or from home to home, always a welcome and be- 
loved guest, striving, cheering and helping — a real Shep- 
herd of his flock. My friends, in those days, the title of 
Vicar was not very significant to us, in fact, I cannot 
recall that it was commonly used. We only knew Doctor 
Walker as our Pastor, the one man we looked to in every 
emergency, in every trial, in every sorrow, and in every 
joy, for comfort, for strength, for advice, and for help if 
need be, and thanks be to God, these were always forth- 
coming. Then later came our great trial when it was 
borne in upon us that he had been elected Missionary 
Bishop to North Dakota. In that far-away time we did 
not know much about North Dakota; it was not yet a 
State of the Union, and in our disappointment it did not 
seem much of a place to send our Dr. Walker to. But 
again he knew better. In his great and calm vision he 
saw the need and the duty and like a true soldier of 
Christ he enthusiastically and with characteristic energy 
accepted the call that involved the severance of the beau- 
tiful ties with a people who loved him, and the sacrifice of 
the comfort and the dignity which the pastorate of a 
metropolitan parish afforded. But he stood ready and 
anxious to enter this new sphere, in an isolated region, 
sparsely settled and but little known, simply for the 
service of God, and the benefit of mankind. Leaving be- 
hind him the refinements of city life and associations, he 
determined to carry the Gospel to every corner of this 
new missionary district. No task was too arduous; no 
community, whatever its complexion, whether red faces 
or pale faces, gamblers or derelicts, that did not respond 
to his ministration. In his unique Cathedral Car 
(which by the way carried as part of its appurtenances 
gifts and mementos from Calvary Chapel) he solved many 


of his ministerial difficulties by going to the people, if 
they would not come to him. At the same time feeling 
no indignity in being his own caretaker, his own lamp- 
lighter, his own fireman, and car cleaner, and if you will 
forgive the frivolous play of words he was not only a 
Missionary but a Commissary Bishop as well. 

After a number of years of service in this far-off field 
came the call from your diocese, a fitting reward in recog- 
nition of the achievements he accomplished in the wilds 
of the Northwest. Of the hold he took upon your hearts 
and the manner in which he exercised the prerogatives of 
his great and Holy Office among you I need not speak, for 
the loyal and affectionate support which the clergy and 
the people of this Diocese accorded him without stint and 
without reservation filled his cup of happiness to over- 

Two weeks before he passed away, it was my pleasure 
to be a guest at his home for a few days. One afternoon 
he drove me about your city and its suburbs, and though 
showing the marks of illness, his face fairly glowed as he 
pointed out the churches of his diocese, all displaying the 
flag of our country. His spirit of patriotism was as pure, 
as vigorous, and inspiring as his religion. On the fol- 
lowing Sunday he officiated at St. Mary's Church, at 
which the rector delivered a most beautiful and touch- 
ing address of welcome to the Bishop, felicitating him 
on the resumption of his duties, but nevertheless kindly, 
yet firmly admonishing the Bishop that he could not per- 
mit him to overtax his strength by making an address 
to the congregation. Nothing daunted, however, the 
Bishop waved the kindly rector aside and with the Amer- 
ican flag before the altar he delivered one of the most 
powerful and appealing patriotic addresses I have ever 
heard. After reaching his home, I asked him why he 
had acted at variance with the kindly advice of the 


rector, to which he replied : "Well, after I had listened 
to all that the people of the congregation and the rector 
were doing and contemplating for the boys of the 74th 
Regiment that were about to enter the service of the 
country, I simply could not keep quiet." Almost his last 
utterances in public were directed towards an unqualified 
loyalty to our country and its flag. As he was a soldier 
of Christ, so was he also a soldier of the State. His ab- 
horrence of the indescribably cruel and unrighteous con- 
duct of the autocracies that have caused the terrible 
cataclysm which has engulfed the world, inspired him to 
an ardent and whole-souled advocacy of the cause of our 
country and its. allies. 

The Gospel that Bishop Walker preached was plain and 
understandable to a layman. There was nothing iconoclas- 
tic in his interpretation of the Word of God. In all 
things he had a profound reverence for simple righteous- 
ness and truth, and was impatient to a degree of indig- 
nation with the sensational desire for change which 
never sees virtue in any custom, ceremony, precept, or 
belief unless it be changed simply for the sake of alleged 
modernizing. A prophet is one who sees and expounds 
the truth in advance of his contemporaries, and surely 
no more prophetic words applicable to the present agon- 
izing conditions which the world is enduring were ever 
uttered than those Bishop Walker spoke in a sermon on 
Christian Charity, written as long as forty years ago, as 
follows : "It is cowardice to yield a hair for the sake of 
peace or unity or any other reason when it is at the cost 
of principle." 

He brooked no compromise with the right or the true, 
and with all his cheeriness of manner and gentleness of 
spirit he nevertheless set his face and heart sternly and 
irrevocably against the evasions, hypocrasies and glitter- 
ing superficialities of so-called modern cults and schools 


of thought, as well as the sinister tendencies of political 
leanings towards socialism and communism. Brave and 
faithful until death, beloved and revered by man, woman 
and child, simple and beautiful in his unshakable belief 
in a merciful, and ever-living God, can it not be said of 
him, as Tennyson says : 

Tho' world on world in myriad myriads roll 
Round us, each with different powers 
And other forms of life than ours, 
What know we greater than the soul? 
On God and God-like men we build our trust. 

Peace and rest came to him just as he would have 
wished. Active and useful in the service of the Master 
to the last moment, death came to him, not as the pall of 
midnight folds its mantle of darkness around a tired 
earth, but with the light-streams of a new day warming 
and illuminating the path to a new and everlasting life. 

Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen, this case containing uni- 
versity robes, caps, degrees, insignia of office, and other 
personal articles belonging to the official life and work of 
the late Bishop Walker, is offered to your institution as 
a gift by his wife. I hope I will not be misunderstood in 
commenting upon the beautiful communion of spirit, of 
affection and of trust that existed between Bishop Walker 
and the donor of this memorial. I am tempted to say it 
was almost unusual, but fear the exaggeration, yet truly, 
even though I might be charged with nepotic admiration, 
the attachment of each to the other, the never-changing 
helpfulness and thoughtfulness that each lavished on the 
other, ever seemed to me growing in beauty ; and no wife 
could ever have held greater happiness as her lot than to 
serve with a nobleman, as was Bishop Walker, in the 
works of the Lord and for the welfare of their fellow- 
beings. I can say for her in presenting this Memorial to 
the people of the Diocese and the city of Buffalo that it is 


done out of the thankfulness of her heart for the sur- 
passing loyalty, fidelity and sympathy which was always 
accorded to the Bishop and for the cordial and affection- 
ate evidences of kindness and good-will which were at all 
times showered on her. 

However, I would be performing the service delegated 
to me very imperfectly if I omitted an emphatic refer- 
ence to the fact that this Memorial in its concrete form 
represents not alone her own personal tribute; but in its 
consummation those who contributed the materials, the 
willing hands that gave it form, and the master mind 
that gave it design, were equally moved by sympathetic 
respect and reverence to do honor to the Churchman, the 
Citizen and the Patriot. 

Furthermore, I do not think the concept of this Mem- 
orial would express its loftiest purpose had it been in- 
tended merely as a vehicle to display the rewards that 
were meted out to the Bishop for his great learning, or 
the insignia of the high distinctions he achieved in his 
earthly career. Quite to the contrary, for as the loving 
heart often in solitude and reverence withdraws from its 
secret resting place the trinket, the faded portrait, or the 
lock of hair of a departed dear one in order to revivify 
the most tender memories, so the purpose of this gift, as 
I divine it, is that those who dwelt in the light of his 
countenance and who lived under the spell of the radiant 
Christianity of this good Bishop may have opportunity, 
as they may wish, to refresh themselves with the sweet 
and ennobling memories of his earthly ministration by 
tarrying in quiet retrospection and reverent contempla- 
tion before this Memorial. 

Mr. Chairman and Members, on behalf of Mrs. Walker 
and in the spirit of which I have spoken, and in affection- 
ate memory of the Et. Rev. Wm. D. Walker, Third Bishop 
of Western New York, it is my great x>rivilege to present 


this case and its contents to your society, and in the 
same spirit, I am sure it will be accepted, guarded and 
cherished by you for the benefit of the people of Buffalo, 
and of the Diocese of Western New York. 

In accepting the Memorial, President Hill for the His- 
torical Society spoke as follows: 

I am authorized by the Board of Managers of the Buf- 
falo Historical Society in its name to accept the case pre- 
sented by Mrs. William David Walker containing the 
personal, ecclesiastical and academic caps, hoods, rings, 
watch and chain, robe, seal, family coat-of-arms, pectoral 
cross presented by Pere Hyacinthe to Bishop Coxe, by the 
latter to Bishop Walker, and other insignia of the late 
Bishop's cultural, clerical and official activities and ac- 
quisitions during a useful and prolonged life, extending 
from June 29th, 1839, to May 2nd, 1917. 

The Buffalo Historical Society will preserve and pro- 
tect this Memorial as it does its other priceless collec- 
tions, comprising the memorabilia in whole or in part of 
many, who have contributed something to the uplift of 
the life of this region from its aboriginal occupation to 
its present intensive activity. Generations come and go, 
but we trust this institution may go on through the cen- 
turies, discovering, collecting and preserving, as its foun- 
ders designed it should do, memorials not only of the 
city and country, but also of individuals for the benefit 
of those who may fill their places in the future business 
growth and intellectual progress of this country. It is, 
therefore, eminently proper that the ecclesiastical and 
academic insignia of the late lamented Right Reverend 
William David Walker, D. D., LL.D., D. C. L., third 
bishop of the Diocese of Western New York, be placed in 


the custody of this institution, where the clergy and laity 
of the diocese and the faculties and students of Hobart 
and De Veaux Colleges and of De Lancey Divinity School, 
as well as of all other institutions over which the lament- 
ed Bishop presided, may find the insignia of preferment 
and honor, in which their beloved Bishop was held at 
home and abroad. 

Rarely does it fall to the lot of any one person to be so 
signally honored. An alumnus of Columbia University 
in 1859, a graduate of the General Theological Seminary 
in 1862, he received the degree of D. D. from Racine Col- 
lege and the degree of S. T. D. from Columbia University, 
both in 1884; the degree of LL.D. from Griswold College 
in 1888, the degree of D. C. L. from Kings College, Winds- 
or, Nova Scotia, in 1890, and the degree of LL.D. from 
Trinity College, Dublin, and the degree of D. D. from Ox- 
ford University, England, both in the year 1894. He was 
the Select Preacher at Cambridge University, England, in 

The insignia of most of these academic honors are in- 
cluded in the glass case now presented to the Society. 
Here they will be preserved as a memorial to one whose 
scholarship was genuine and whose devotion was stead- 
fast to the duties of the several exalted stations so well 
filled by him. 

In his long and useful service there "was no variable- 
ness, neither shadow of turning." Through the evolu- 
tionary crisis from 1870 to 1890, that swept the scientific 
and educational institutions, throwing them into con- 
fusion as a storm sweeps the sea, throwing its waters into 
unutterable commotion, he clung to the Bible, as did Mr. 
Gladstone, who characterized it, "The impregnable rock 
of Holy Scripture." His answer to the assertions of 
skeptics that science had demolished the very foundations 
of the church, was that "in the last sixty years every ex- 


ploration in Egypt, in Moab, in Babylonia, in Arabia, in 
Palestine, in Rome, had but confirmed Old Testament or 

In this sermon on the Bible, he said: "It (the Bible) 
stands apart and alone on a mountain crest where Heav- 
en's eternal sunshine plays, and where the Almighty sits 
in majesty revealing His gracious pity and His abounding 
purity and love to the children of men." His messages 
were direct and practical. There was no mysticism in 
them. They may be read with profit by all, who would 
think straight on matters transcending all others in im- 

In reading them one is 1 reminded of the force and fer- 
vor of Richard Hooker and of the simplicity and optimism 
of the late Bishop Brooks. 

Bishop Walker was the third Bishop of the Diocese of 
Western New York. His predecessors were the Right Rev- 
erend William Heathcote De Lancey, D. P., LL.D., D. C. 
L., who became Bishop of the diocese in 1839, and the 
Right Reverend Arthur Cleveland Coxe, D. D., LL.D., D. 
C. L., who was consecrated Bishop of the diocese in 1865. 
All three were men of large vision, broad sympathies and 
profound veneration for the apostolic succession of the 
mantle of authority from generation to generation. Their 
good works extended far beyond the confines of Western 
New York, where their influence in moulding, refining and 
uplifting character left an enduring impression. 

Bishop Walker pursued his labors in widely separated 
fields. For 21 years after his ordination on June 29th, 
1863, as priest in Calvary Church, New York City, his 
energies were directed towards the building of Calvary 
Free Chapel. He was chosen the first bishop of the Mis- 
sionary District of North Dakota in 1883, where he la- 
bored for 13 years. During that period he made his re- 


pert to the President and Congress on the Sioux and 
Chippewa Indians. 

In 1887, he was appointed by President Cleveland, a 
member of the Indian Commission. His Western Episco- 
pate was so extensive and churches therein so scattered 
and unequipped, that he designed for use a "Cathedral 
Car," furnished with altar, font, lectern, organ and seats 
to administer to thousands scattered over the prairies of 
the Dakotas. That type of missionary car was adopted 
later by many denominations. During the failing years of 
of the late Bishop Coxe, he called to his assistance Bishop 
Walker and a strong friendship grew up between them, 
so that the former was moved to and did formally pre- 
sent to the latter the Pectoral Cross received from Pere 
Hyacinthe, the bold reformer and commissioner to Eng- 
land in 1870. The friendship between the two Bishops 
was thus cemented by a gift that recalled the great work 
of Father Hyacinthe in England in 1870, for the relief of 
the distressed peasantry of France during and after the 
war with Germany in 1870 and 1871. It also recalled the 
work of Bishop Coxe, who preceded Bishop Walker. 

It was a matter of course that in 1896, after the death' 
of Bishop Coxe, Bishop Walker was chosen Bishop of the 
Diocese of Western New York, where he labored incessant- 
ly for twenty-one years. Others will speak of his work 
in this Diocese. During that time he was appointed by 
Governor Roosevelt and served on a special commission to 
investigate the condition of the Indians in New York 
State for which he was admirably prepared after his 
long ministry to them in the West. 

His activities in this Diocese were increasingly absorb- 
ing and his home at the See House became a mecca, 
whither diocesan members repaired in large numbers for 
advice, counsel and comfort. 

Bishop Walker was a great uplifting power in the re- 


ligious life of this city. His was a clear steady light that 
illumined all who came within the sphere of its effulgence. 
He was commanding in appearance as he was in intellect. 
He was genial in temperament, but stood through all the 
transmutations of religious belief like a rock of defense 
o;' the immutability of the Holy Scriptures and the canons 
of the Church founded thereon. 

Bishop Walker was well known abroad, as well as in 
America. He preached in St. Paul's Cathedral in Lon- 
don in 1887 and in Westminster Abbey, London, in 1888, 
and read a paper on "Domestic Missions" in St. James' 
Hall, London, in 1888, and another on "Missions in the 
United States" in the same place in 1894. 

Thus was afforded him opportunity to present to the 
Church of another country his messages, which awakened 
deep interest in the religious culture of this country and 
established still closer relations between the English 
speaking peoples. He was quite as welcome among the 
scholarly and distinguished clergy of the Church of Eng- 
land as he was among his own people in America. That 
is a tribute to his fine scholarship and good repute in 
foreign lands. 

The last of the Bishop's pastoral Easter Messages was 
read in the 150 churches of Western New York on April 
8th, 1917. It was a patriotic appeal to the clergy and 
laity to uphold the rights and liberties that inhere in the 
very being of manhood against the aggressions of a Power 
that "sheds the innocent babies' blood and drowns the un- 
armed and helpless in the depth of the sea." 

On April 15th, 1917, Bishop Walker officiated at the 
"Trooping of the Colors" at St. Paul's Church in this 
city prior to the departure of some of Buffalo's military 
organizations to participate in the Great War devastat- 
ing portions of Europe. 

On April 24th, he presided at the annual meeting of 


the Archdeaconry of Buffalo and on the second following 
day at a similar meeting in Kochester. 

His long life was full of good works and many of them 
were performed in the Diocese of Western New York. 
These and his noble life for the uplift of his fellow men 
will in some degree be perpetuated in memory by the 
memorial now presented by Mrs. Walker to the Buffalo 
Historical Society. This the Society gratefully accepts 
and will jealously house and protect. 

After the audience had joined in singing the "Battle 
Hymn of the Republic," the Rev. Charles A. Jessup, D. D., 
rector of St. Paul's, spoke as follows for the clergy of 
the diocese: 


You have heard adequate and fitting reference to the 
character and influence of Bishop Walker as a citizen. 
And no occasion of this sort will be complete unless 
emphasis has been laid upon the fact that he was en- 
thusiastically loyal to the country of his birth, and deeply 
interested in all that concerned its best interests and 
highest welfare. More than one object in this case, which 
furnishes an unusual but most fitting memorial of him, 
evidences the fact that he did not forget or neglect his 
duty as a citizen of our great Republic. Although his 
career on earth was finished very soon after our country 
declared war on the German Empire, his heart had not 
been neutral, so far as the interest of the great conflict 
was concerned, since the very outbreak of the war. He 
saw clearly the moral and spiritual questions involved in 
the struggle. And I, for one, confess that I have been in- 
creasingly impressed, as the months and the years pass, 
with the clearness and soundness of his views as to the 
great moral and spiritual issues which brought on the 
conflict and which are involved in it. 


It may not be known to some of yon that it was with 
difficulty that he was dissuaded from attempting to 
march in the great patriotic parade held in this city in 
June, 1916, notwithstanding the fact that at that time he 
was a very ill man, although he himself could not be 
brought to believe it. 

I should be doing violence to my feelings if I did not 
allude at this time to an occasion in which he was the 
chief figure, both as a citizen and as a Bishop. Those of 
us who were present when he blessed the flags of the Buf- 
falo Naval and Military organizations, which were 
brought to Saint Paul's Church for that purpose, will not 
soon forget the deep solemnity of his bearing and the earn- 
est and fervent tones of his voice. The memory of this 
event is more deeply stamped upon our minds because this 
was his last service in which he took part, in a church 
which he loved to attend. 

One passes easily from the consideration of this service 
where Bishop Walker took part and in connection with 
which one thinks of him not only as a prelate of the 
Church but also as a loyal citizen, to the thought of his 
ecclesiastical labors. And it must never be forgotten that 
the responsibilities which his Church laid upon him al- 
ways had first place in his thoughts. Many of the ob- 
jects which are now given into custody of our Historical 
Society evidence this fact. His sermon cover is by no 
means the least interesting of the objects here displayed. 
How many years it was used, I do not know. But many 
of us have seen it frequently, and we know that the re- 
sponsibilities of preaching the gospel, of which it is an 
outward and visible sign, were to him both a burden and 
a delight. 

His pectoral cross, worn as a Bishop, which came to 
him from his illustrious and scholarly predecessor in this 
See, the Eight Reverend Arthur Cleveland Coxe, is an- 


other outward and visible sign of his office. And the 
thought that he carried the responsibilities and discharged 
the duties of the Episcopate for more than thirty-five 
years is a deeply impressive thought. Few Bishops of our 
generation in any branch of the Christian Church have 
served longer in this high office. And when one remem- 
bers that he was pleased to say, and he said it with thank- 
fulness and not with boastfulness, that during a period 
of thirty-four years he had never missed an appointment, 
one realizes that the record of his service in his high 
office was indeed unique. He was devoted to his work as 
a Bishop. He never spared himself. Few outside the im- 
mediate circle of his home knew how T constantly and un- 
ceasingly he gave himself to his labors. Early and late 
he worked, traveling, holding services, preaching, hold- 
ing innumerable conferences. And those nearest to him 
are thankful that he had the great happiness, just before 
the end of his earthly labors, of resuming his public 
duties, after a considerable period when, by his physician's 
orders, he was obliged to abstain from taking part in the 
public ministrations of the Church. During the few 
weeks immediately preceding his translation to a higher 
sphere, he was able to officiate again, to confirm many 
candidates and to visit the more distant parts of the 
Diocese. He thought that he was recovering, and he re- 
joiced most in the prospect of being able to resume all his 
duties as a Bishop. But. when the end of the earthly 
chapter was approaching, God gave it to him to know the 
fact, and I like to think of him as saying, without a tre- 
mor, "I believe that this is the end," and then passing on- 
ward and upward with the believing prayer of a humble 
child of God upon his lips, asking God's pardon and for- 
giveness and His acceptance into the Heavenly Home. 

It should be remembered also that while he was unable 
to officiate publicly during the greater part of the last 


year of his life, more confirmations were reported in 
1917, in the Diocese of Western New York, than in any 
year for a decade. His work was ever his first thought — 
aod I say this without hesitation in the presence of the 
gracious lady who was indeed a "helpmeet for him," — and 
that work continued to have first place even during these 
later months when great physical exertion was a burden 
to him. Some of us know how earnestly he desired to 
establish a mission of our Church in Northern Buffalo, 
and how he visited that section constantly with this 
thought in his mind. The fact that the mission was not 
established was not due to any failure on his part, either 
of interest or effort. 

During the years of my acquaintance with Bishop 
Walker, and they covered a period of time much longer 
than my residence in the Diocese of Western New York, 
I have never ceased to wonder, with constant surprise, at 
his ability to keep, what I call, his rule of courtesy. This 
rule was, never to deny himself to any person who called 
upon him. Whether the caller were a brother Bishop or a 
tramp. Bishop Walker was always able to receive the 
visitor, to give him as much time as courtesy demanded, 
and to treat him with that lack of haste which is charac- 
teristic either of men of leisure or of very busy men. 
Some of us who have far less exacting duties are unable 
to observe such a rule as this. 

But most of all he desired to see the clergy of his Dio- 
cese and to be seen by them readily and freely. Only 
those who knew the working of his home can realize how 
much time he gave to personal conferences. He wished to 
be a "Father in God," a title of high honor given to a 
Bishop by that Prayer Book which was dearer to him 
than any other book, the Bible alone excepted. Not only 
in Western New York, but scattered all over the country, 
are clergymen who recall with feelings of deepest emo- 


tion the conferences which they had with Bishop Walker 
in his official capacity. And the personal element was 
not eliminated from these conferences, although one never 
forgot that it was a Bishop to whom one was speaking. 
He received many academic honors, but none I am sure 
that he prized more than that title of which he desired to 
be worthy, the title of "Father in God." 

The exercises closed with the Doxology and Benediction. 

The Bishop Walker memorial case is a rectangular up- 
right museum showcase of special but simple design, six 
and one-half feet high, about five feet by twenty inches, 
of bronze and glass, and was designed from a sketch by 
Mrs. Walker, who also arranged the exhibits. The articles 
are all numbered, corresponding to a numbered list in the 
case, as follows : 


1. Convocation Robe, Oxford University (D.D.). 

2. Episcopal Cap, Oxford University. 

3. Hood, Oxford University (D.D.). 

4. Cap, Oxford University. 

5. Hood, Trinity College, Dublin (LL.D.). 

6. Cap, "Bishop Andrews." 

7. Hood, Colum'bia College (S.T.D.). 

8. Cap, Biretta. 

9. Hood, Racine College, Wis. (D.D.). 

10. Cap, Zuchetto. 

11. Pectoral Cross; presented by Pere Hyacinthe to Bishop Coxe, 

1888-1893; presented to Bishop Walker, 1896. 

12. Episcopal Ring, Western New York. 

13. Episcopal Ring, North Dakota. 

14. Personal Ring, Bishop Walker. 

15. Watch and Chain, Bishop Walker. 

16. Gavel; presented by the Woman's Auxiliary, Junior Auxil- 

iary and Babies' Branch, Western New York, Septem- 
ber 29, 1904. 

17. Sermon Cover. 

18. Photograph: See House, No. 314 Delaware Avenue, Buffalo. 

19. Photograph: See House, No. 367 Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo. 

20. Photograph: Cathedral Car, North Dakota. Exterior. 

21. Photograph: Cathedral Car, North Dakota. Interior. 

22. Peace Pipe, smoked at Council of Sioux Indians. 


23. Bead Souvenirs, presented by Sioux Indians, North Dakota. 

24. Stiletto, acquired in Sicily. 

25. Indian Commission, President Cleveland, 1887. 

26. Indian Commission, Governor Roosevelt, 1900. 

27. Election to Diocese of Western New York. 

28. Photograph of Bishop Walker. 

29. Diocesan Seal, Western New York. 

30. Walker Family Coat-of-Arms. 

'31. Model of Cross on Bishop Walker's grave; and 

32. Model of Marker, Kensico Cemetery, N. Y. 



JANUARY 7, 1919 

The fifty-seventh annual meeting of the Buffalo Histor- 
ical Society was held at the Historical Building, Tues- 
day evening, January 7, 1919. Mr. A. J. Elias was made 
chairman, and after routine business was transacted, 
Messrs. Andrew Langdon, Loran L. Lewis, Jr., Carlton R. 
Perrine, George A. Stringer and Frank H. Severance 
were reelected members of the Board of Managers for 
the ensuing term of four years. 

The annual reports of the President, Hon. Henry W. 
Hill, and of the Secretary, Frank H. Severance, submit- 
ted at this meeting, here follow: 


Officers and Members of the Buffalo Historical Society, 
Ladies and Gentlemen: 

The year 1918, A. D., was an eventful one the world 
over, even more so than any one of the three preceding 
years, momentous as they were in the world's history. 

Buffalo was notably affected by the general conditions 
prevailing throughout the country. In common with 
other American cities, it was drawn from its normal com- 
mercial and industrial life into military activities, which 
added much to its history. It is too early to commit that 
to writing. Much remains to be brought together in 
permanent form. All that can be done now is to mention 
some of the matters that will form a part of that history 
yet to be written. Buffalo has no small part in New 
York's contribution to the aid of the nation in the great 


war. That history will include a record of Buffalo's con- 
tributions to the forces and sinews of war and of the 
heroic sacrifices made by its citizens. 

On this occasion I will attempt only a brief survey of 
some of the more notable events of local importance that 
will indicate something of their historical significance. 
These are not all, but are sufficient to illustrate the range 
and importance of such events of the year 1918 as matters 
of local history. 

From the time of the declaration of war by the United 
States of America against the Imperial German Govern- 
ment on April 6, 1917, and the entrance of this nation into 
the great European war, the peaceful pursuits of the 
citizens of this country, which had been lulled into a 
sense of security in the long period of tranquility in 
America, were disturbed by the rapid succession of events, 
indicative of a nation suddenly plunged into war. That 
condition continued through the year 1917, and increased 
in intensity as the aspects of the conflict became more 
menacing to the allied armies. Such was the case until 
the tide of battle was turned by a division of marines and 
other American troops in the first battle at Chateau 
Thierry and at Belleau Wood on June 6 and 7, 1918. Buf- 
falo made liberal contributions of its eligible manhood 
and of its resources to aid this nation in alliance with 
France, Great Britain, Belgium and Italy, to win the war, 
which threatened the very perpetuity of free institutions. 
Its citizens responded gallantly and liberally to all ap- 
peals of the nation. Many of them voluntarily enlisted in 
the army, or in the navy, or in the aviation service, or in 
some other department or branch of the Federal service; 
while thousands were called under the first and second se- 
lective draft measures of Congress. Members of the pro- 
fessional and business classes volunteered in large num- 
bers to enter and serve in the army, navy, aviation and in 


the several auxiliary branches of the service, including 
base hospitals, American Red Cross, Y. M. C. A., Knights 
of Columbus and other organizations. These war service 
calls made extraordinary demands upon the citizens of 
Buffalo, and it may be found that a majority of the house- 
holders of this city have thus made some direct or col- 
lateral manhood contribution to the forces of the nation. 
In addition to all such contributions, down to November 
11, 1918, there were intense industrial and other activities 
due to the war, among the people in all parts of the city. 

Buffalo's commercial and industrial enterprises were 
transformed into factories for the production of the mu- 
nitions of war as well as war supplies. So general was 
the transformation that Buffalo became one of the princi- 
pal war industrial centers of the country. 

All such extraordinary activities of the citizens of Buf- 
falo during the year 1918, and others hereinafter men- 
tioned, have made more apparent than have the events of 
any previous year, the wisdom of the founders of this So- 
ciety in making it an institution for the collation and 
preservation of the essentials of local history. Never in 
any one year before in the history of Buffalo have oc- 
curred so many events of historical significance and 
worthy of permanent record. A few only of the most im- 
portant ones can be mentioned on this occasion. 

Buffalonians were engaged in various branches of the 
service and in war activities to an unusual degree, and 
their record will constitute an important chapter in the 
history of the city. All these, added to the normal ac- 
tivities of the city, made the year 1918 a memorable one. 

It is within the scope of the work of this Society to col- 
lect and preserve, as far as practicable, the data, out of 
which the local history of the period may eventually be 
written. This will necessitate the collection of military, 
naval and other official records of Buffalonians, who may 


have entered the service of the United States, as well as 
a record of such services, whether foreign or domestic; 
and the positions occupied and services performed in 
winning the great world war. 

The honor roll of Buffalonians who made the supreme 
sacrifice for home, country and humanity will be a 
lengthy one. 

A record may very properly also be made of the various 
auxiliary organizations of women here and in all the allied 
countries, which contributed in no small degree to the 
success of their armies. Buffalo had a prominent part in 
all such work and it will be one of the memorable events 
in its history, that in the greatest conflict in the history 
of the world, it had some part in winning the victory for 
democracy over military despotism. All who may have 
done anything to that end, will have the satisfaction of 
knowing that their efforts were not in vain, and that 
their liberties, as well as those of all the peoples of the 
allied nations, have been preserved in the triumph of 
right over might. 

The full extent of the participation of Buffalonians in 
the great war is not yet known here and it is too early to 
attempt to extend to individuals the full measure of 
praise severally due them. However, that will be done as 
time goes on, undoubtedly in a manner in keeping with 
their heroic services. Some have already been signally 
rewarded by France, Great Britain, Italy or the United 

Millard Fillmore, the first President of this Society, in 
outlining its purposes, said : "Let this institution be the 
grand repository of everything calculated to throw light 
on our history." The history of Buffalo would be incom- 
plete without a record of the participation of its citizens 
in and of its activities in relation to a war, whose un- 
successful termination on the part of the allied powers, 


might have endangered the free institutions of Western 

Buffalo has sustained many losses in killed in the great 
war and many of its soldiers have been wounded and 
others maimed for life. Every effort should be made to 
obtain and preserve a record of all such sacrifices. This 
Society is doing what it can to that end. 

All classes have devoted their energies and their re- 
sources in aiding the nation, allied with other nations, to 
win the war. Corporal Jack F. Koons of the 37th Divis- 
ion, at the signing of the armistice wrote from Belgium 
to his mother in Cincinnati as follows: "Thank God, 
America has played her part effectively, energetically 
and well." 

Similar reports came from all the western battle-fronts, 
where the American armies performed most heroic services 
and won most signal victories over the veteran forces of 
the Central Powers, even to turning the tide of battle at 
Chateau Thierry, the ejection of the German army from 
the strongly fortified Saint Mihiel salient, held by it for 
four years, and the taking of that celebrated stronghold, 
Sedan, which had been held by the Germans since the 
first year of the great war. It will be remembered that 
Sedan was surrendered to the Germans by the French 
just before the close of the Franco-Prussian War, but 
was not retained by them. In some of these contests, the 
Buffalo regiments suffered heavily losses, as appeared in 
the lists of casualties of the forces in those engagements, 
and from official reports of the Regular Army. This So- 
ciety is already compiling data and accumulating records 
in relation to the participation of Buffalonians in the 
great war. 

Some record should be made of enrollment under the 
selective service laws. 



The Selective Service Laws, from the one first approved 
on May 18, 1917, under which the Judge Advocate Gen- 
eral was detailed as Provost Marshal-General by the Sec- 
retary of War and charged with the execution of that 
part of said act which related to the registration and the 
selective draft, were not in all respects identical. The first 
act provided for registrants between 21 and 30 years of 
age, of which on June 5, 1917, there were 9,587,000 in the 
United States. On May 20, 1918, the President approved 
the Joint Resolution of Congress, whereby quotas to be 
furnished by the several states were apportioned accord- 
ing to the number of registrants in Class "A," instead of 
according to population, and it applied to all men who 
had attained the age of 21 years between June 5, 1917, 
and June 5, 1918, when pursuant to the President's procla- 
mation 736,000 men registered. On August 24, 1918, 
under the preceding Joint Resolution, and a further 
proclamation of the President, there also were enrolled 
158,000 males subject to military service. 

On August 31, 1918, Congress amended the Selective 
Service Law so as to provide for the registration of all 
males between the ages of 18 and 45 years. Such registra- 
tion was held on September 12, 1918, resulting in the 
further registration of 13,228,000 males, thus bringing the 
grand total up to 23,700,000 registrations in the United 
States. Of that number 2,801,635 were inducted into mili- 
tary service. In addition to these were the enlistments 
from the Regular Army and the National Guard, which 
brought the entire army up to 3,441,000. Of this number 
328,000, or 9% per cent, were from the State of New 
York. The enrollment in Buffalo on June 5, 1917, con- 
sisted of 59,278 registrants between the ages of 21 and 30 


years, and on June 5th and August 24, 1918, of those who 
attained the age of 21 years between June 5, 1917, and 
June 5, 1918, and August 24, 1918, were 4,901 ; but the 
climax was reached on September 12, 1918, when there 
were 76,419 registrants between the ages of 18 and 45 
years, making a grand total for Buffalo of 140,598 regis- 
trants. Of these there were inducted into the military 
service of the United States approximately 16,234, sent in 
separate detachments to various cantonments during 1917 
and 1918. These were exclusive of enlistments into the 
Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard and special Army 
branches. In addition to these Buffalo supplied such or- 
ganizations as the former 74th and former 65th Regiments 
of the National Guard and Troop "I" of the first regi- 
ment of the New York Cavalry. These did not include the 
Buffalonians who were in the Regular Army and Navy 
and such as enlisted in Canadian and other allied armies. 
At present we have no official records of such enlistments, 
but there were many. 

In addition to the foregoing were the enlistments from 
Buffalo in the Navy and in the aviation service of the 
United States and of the allied nations. On April 12, 
1918, two hundred men on the waiting list of the Naval 
Reserve were sworn in and sent to training stations. 
Groups of other enlistments were sent from time to time 
to the Great Lakes Training Station, in May, June, July, 
August and September, 1918. 

In addition to the foregoing manhood contributions to 
the military, naval and aviation forces of the nation, was 
the staff of the Buffalo Base Hospital No. 23 under the 
supervision of Dr. Marshall Clinton and 226 assistants. 
A score or more of physicians are in the Volunteer Medi- 
cal Service Corps. Several Buffalo physicians held com- 
missions in the overseas hospital service. Many physi- 
cians, surgeons and nurses volunteered and entered the 


medical service. On April 7, 1918, Health Commissioner 
Dr. Frances E. Fronczak was appointed a major in the 
army and sent to Camp Upton. Capt. A. L. Benedict, M. 
D., was sent to the Base Hospital at Camp Dix; and Dr. 
W. W. Plummer was promoted to the rank of major and 
assigned as a consultant to a group of base hospitals in 
the Saint Mihiel sector. There mobile hospitals were of 
great service in relieving the suffering of the wounded. 

In July, 1918, a hundred or more nurses entered the 
army and navy service. Many others prior thereto had 
also entered the service. 

In February ten Buffalonians volunteered for the Engi- 
neer Corps. Others entered the Quartermaster's Corps. 
Many went into Red Cross work overseas. Others be- 
came active in such humanitarian agencies as the Young 
Men's Christian Association, the Knights of Columbus, 
the War Camp Community Service, the Jewish Welfare 
Relief and in other charitable and War Relief organiza- 
tions. All these agencies rendered humanitarian services 
overseas on the several battle fronts in ministering to the 
sick and wounded and in relieving the distress of the peo- 
ple in the regions devastated by war. In time complete 
record ought to be made of all such manifold services of 

Buffalo's activities in 1918 also included its several 
campaigns for various war funds. 


The Third and Fourth United States Liberty Loan 
Campaigns were conducted during the year 1918. 

The first of these campaigns extended from April 6th 
to May 4, 1918, resulting in the sale of 139,920,650 of 
Third Liberty Loan bonds. Buffalo's quota was $30,876,- 
600 and the subscriptions exceeded the quota by $9,044,- 
050, being an excess of 29%. 


The second of these campaigns extended from Septem- 
ber 30th to October 21, 1918, inclusive, resulting in the 
sale of 166,583,700 of the Fourth Liberty Loan bonds. 
Buffalo's quota was f 61,648,400 and the subscriptions ex- 
ceeded the quota by $4,935,300, being an excess of 8%. 

Both of these Liberty Loan Campaigns were under the 
direction of the Buffalo Liberty Loan Organization, of 
which Walter P. Cooke, Esq., was chairman, comprising 
fifty or more representative citizens of Buffalo. Numer- 
ous committees were formed, comprising all trades and 
professions of the city, and every house was canvassed; 
resulting, in the Fourth Liberty Loan Campaign, in 196,- 
708 subscriptions, averaging $338.49 for each. There were 
120,988 subscribers of $50 each and 55,316 of $100 each. 
Such subscriptions were made apparently by 40% of the 
population of Buffalo, thus showing the general interest 
in loaning funds to the Government to prosecute its war 

Mrs. Edward H. Butler of Buffalo was the treasurer of 
the Buffalo Liberty Loan Organization, which was desig- 
nated by the Federal Reserve Bank of the Second Federal 
Reserve District. 


Under the National War Savings Committee for New 
York State, with Hon. William J. Tully as State Director, 
appointed by the Secretary of the Treasurer, of which 
Mr. E. M. Husted was the first Director for Erie County, 
until about March 1st, 1918, and thereafter of which 
Edward H. Butler, Esq., was Director for Erie County, 
a campaign was conducted for the sale of Thrift and War 
Savings Stamps during the entire year 1918. Mr. Ralph 
S. Kent and Paul H. Husted were assistant directors. 
Mr. Roberts W. Elmes was executive secretary, Mrs. 
Howard A. Forman was chairman of the Women's Com- 


mittee with Mrs. John M. Satterfield as vice-chairnian. 
Orson E. Yager was chairman of the Thrift parade on 
February 4th, in which city officials and many organiza- 
tions participated. 

During the year there were several special drives for 
the sale of such stamps, the principal one being the last 
week in June, called the Pledge Week Drive, when the 
citizens of Buffalo were solicited to pledge to take a cer- 
tain number during the year. 

In November there was the Pershing Tribute Drive, as 
a special Thanksgiving offering. 

During the year such stamps were sold by the police, 
the firemen, schools, Boy Scouts, fraternal societies and 
many regular established agencies. 

The 150 schools in Buffalo, public, private and paro- 
chial, disposed of such stamps amounting to $901,473.86 ; 
the Boy Scouts disposed of such stamps amounting to 
$225,188.50 ; the Fire Department disposed of such stamps 
amounting to $750,261 .02 ; and the Police Department dis- 
posed of such stamps amounting to $724,816.75. 

The aggregate sales of Thrift and War Savings Stamps 
in Buffalo in 1918 was $7,597,313. This also evidenced 
the popular interest in the matter. 


This campaign was conducted by a committee, named 
on May 12, 1918, of which Kobert W. Pomeroy, Esq., was 
chairman. In anticipation of it, on May 18th, occurred 
the Eed Cross pageant with many thousands in the par- 
ade, including Civil War and Spanish War veterans, Boy 
Scouts and women's organizations. The principal drive 
to raise Buffalo's quota of $1,500,000 extended from May 
20th to May 27, 1918. The school children raised $54,000 
of that quota. The entire amount raised in Buffalo was 
$2,401,337 and in the country was $144,000,000. It was to 


be expended under the supervision of the Ked Cross for 
war relief purposes. 

In addition to the funds so raised in this city, the Buf- 
falo Chapter of the Red Cross kept many households en- 
gaged in knitting and sewing, others in preparing cloth- 
ing and hospital supplies for military and other Red Cross 
overseas uses. The women of Buffalo in this and in 
other war relief services filling positions vacated by the 
withdrawal of men for military purposes were engaged as 
they have been at no other time since the Civil War. 


The committee having the campaign of the United War 
Work Fund in charge was presided over by Hon. William 
A. Rogers, its chairman, and comprised two hundred or 
more prominent Buffalonians. There were seventy teams 
and two thousand workers. The campaign continued 
from November 11th to November 18, 1918. Among the 
speakers were Rev. Dr. Newell D wight Hillis of Brooklyn, 
Dr. Frank W. Gunsaulus, president of the Armour Insti- 
tute of Technology, of Chicago, and Dr. John R. Mott of 
New York. 

Buffalo's quota of the fund to be raised was $1, 800,000. 
There was raised during the one week's campaign the 
sum of 11,970,000, which was $170,000 in excess of the 
quota. The fund was to be disbursed for the comfort and 
welfare of the soldiers and the people in the countries de- 
vastated by war through seven national organizations, 
namely, the Young Men's Christian Association, the Na- 
tional Catholic War Relief Council, Salvation Army, Jew- 
ish Welfare Board, American Library Association, War 
Camp Community Service and the Young Women's Chris- 
tian Association. Substantial sums were also raised for 
Belgian, French, Serbian, Polish, Syrian and Armenian 


Iii addition to the campaigns for raising the general 
war funds already mentioned, were those for raising 
funds for local purposes, largely incidental, however, to 
national exigencies. For these there were many calls and 
large sums were raised for such purposes. 

Military demands were such that all organizations 
subordinated their normal activities to the paramount 
exigencies of the war and contributed what they were 
able, to aid in its successful termination. 

The Buffalo Chamber of Commerce from the time of its 
annual dinner on January 12, 1918, when the banqueters 
were addressed by its retiring president, Archer A. Lan- 
don; Mayor George S. Buck; Hon. Albert Johnson, repre- 
sentative in Congress from the State of Washington; 
Robert McNutt McElroy, Educational Director of the Na- 
tional Society League; and Judge Joseph Buffington of 
Pittsburgh, devoted its energies in the main in the furth- 
erance of national war activities. It rendered most time- 
ly services to the various war loan and war fund cam- 
paign committees, and entertained commissions, delega- 
tions and speakers, who came to Buffalo in aid of any 
one of the campaigns during the year. It also directed 
the activities of the Niagara Frontier Defense League, 
created to guard against fires, explosions and other plot- 
tings in industrial plants engaged in the production of 
the munitions of war. 

Other business organizations, the Labor Council, so- 
cieties, schools, churches, fraternities and clubs, devoted 
more or less of their activities to the paramount demands 
of the nation in preparing for the prosecution of the great 
war. When the records are completed of the work per- 
formed by all such agencies in the year 1918, they will 
constitute an important chapter in the history of Buffalo. 

The Home Defense Reserve, organized in 1917 under a 
committee of which General Edgar B. Jewett was chair- 


man, comprised about 1500 members, mostly business 
men. They were armed and equipped by Erie County, 
under State law, and drilled weekly. They maintained 
their organization through the year 1918. 


The Buffalo District Board was the third and one of 
nine in the State. Its jurisdiction extended over the 
counties of Erie, Niagara, Orleans, Wyoming and Gene- 
see. In these counties there were twenty-six Local Boards 
of which sixteen were in Buffalo. After its organization 
in August, 1917, the District Board underwent some 
changes. In March, 1918, it consisted of George G. David- 
son, Jr., Hon. John G. Wickser, William H. Crosby, and 
Harlow C. Curtiss, all of Buffalo; Dr. Allen Moore of 
Lockport, Mr. W. W. Smallwood of Warsaw and Mr. 
Silas W. Williams of East Aurora. In April, 1918, Mr. 
Wickser resigned and was succeeded by Mr. George Houck 
of Buffalo. Later Mr. Houck became chairman upon the 
resignation of Mr. Davidson, whose vacancy on the board 
was filled by Mr. W. W. Keilley of Buffalo. The board 
had exclusive original jurisdiction over all industrial and 
agricultural claims and appellate jurisdiction over all 
other claims. From the time of its organization on Au- 
gust 13, 1917, until the signing of the armistice on No- 
vember 11, 1918, out of a total registration of 230,744 in 
the five counties mentioned, the board entertained 36,906 
claims for deferred classification or for exemption, of 
which 29,206 were industrial and agricultural, and of 
that number there were granted 20,037 and of the 7,700 
appeals the board granted 2,611. 

The Selective Service Act was held to be a constitution- 
al enactment by the Supreme Court of the United States 
[in Arver v. U. S., reported in 245 U. S., 366, and also in 
Goldman v. U. S., reported in 245 U. S., 474] ; but there 


remained many questions as to classification, treaty pro- 
visions between different countries affecting the status of 
registrants and the extent to which courts might go in 
overruling the decisions of exemption boards. Some of 
these questions were settled in the courts and others were 
eliminated by amendments of the law, or by revised regu- 
lations, promulgated by the Provost Marshal General 
under the direction of the Secretary of War. On August 
7, 1918, the distinguishing appellations "Regular," "Re- 
serve Corps" and "National Guard" were ordered discon- 
tinued and all military forces were consolidated into the 
"United States Army." Many of the questions were novel 
and they had to be settled according to some established 
rules applying the country over. 

In Buffalo there were sixteen local boards, which en- 
rolled the 140,598 registrants in the city. They were en- 
gaged continuously from the time of their appointment 
in 1917 until the signing of the armistice and thereafter 
in closing their records and completing their reports. 
Several of the Local Boards have sent in brief reports of 
their official transactions, but not all. All such reports 
will form valuable historical records for future use when 
a history of Buffalo's part in the great war is to be writ- 
ten. Each of the sixteen local boards had an enrollment 
of several thousand registrants, passed on hundreds of 
claims and inducted into military service approximately 
10% of the registrants enrolled with them respectively. 
All such records and the names of the members of the 
sixteen Local Boards, when supplied, may be preserved in 
our archives. All such records and a list of Buffalonians, 
who became members of the Army of the United States 
and of the Navy, of the Aviation, Medical, or Hospital 
corps and of any other branch of the Federal Service, as 
well as of those who may have served in any of the auxil- 
iary war relief agencies, together with a record of their 


participation in the great war, will constitute historical 
material of great value for local purposes. 

Nine young women left Buffalo for service in the Navy 
on September 30, 1918. They were the first to volunteer 
for that service. 

During the year 1918, both public as well as private 
business affairs were subordinated to the exigencies of the 
nation at war. War industries thrived and there were 
many of them. 


The Pierce Arrow Motor Car Company and others fur- 
nished hundreds of war trucks and other supplies. The 
Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Corporation, which built 
an enormous plant in the northwestern part of the city 
and as to which there was some criticism, and an investi- 
gation on the part of the Federal Government through 
former Governor and former Justice Charles E. Hughes, 
constructed many aeroplanes for overseas service. These 
two companies employed many artisans and skilled work- 
men and thousands of unskilled laborers in their extensive 
shops and factories during the war. The Curtiss Aero- 
plane and Motor Corporation was a new industry for Buf- 
falo and added much to the city's industrial activity, the 
greatest in the year 1918 in its history, but that was large- 
ly due to the production of the munitions of war. The 
output and value thereof for the year cannot be now 

The normal activities of Buffalo's non-war industrial 
enterprises for the year 1918 were limited by the lack of 
materials and during the winter months because of the 
scarcity of coal; and on account of the high cost of both 
material and labor, Buffalo in common with many other 
centers suffered in its building and in its new construc- 
tion work of all kinds. Under governmental regulation 


of industries and public utilities, private businesses have 
been so hampered that many have been unable to do any- 
thing outside of war orders or work incidental thereto. 


For reasons already stated, the officials of Buffalo, 
working in harmony with the officials at Washington, 
have wisely refrained from embarking on extensive im- 
provements or new construction, that would involve the 
city in large bond issues or in heavy taxes. Councilman 
Charles B. Hill of the Department of Finance made a sur- 
vey of the city's finances, including its resources and lia- 
bilities, for the purpose of determining what and what not 
the Council might wisely or safely do under the 10% con- 
stitutional limitation in view of the accruing obligations 
which the city must meet. 

On February 13, 1918, Councilman Charles B. Hill was 
appointed by Governor Charles S. Whitman, a member of 
the Public Service Commission of the Second District. He 
was promptly confirmed and appointed chairman of that 
State Commission, which has jurisdiction over the public 
utilities in this city. The vacancy occasoned by the 
resignation of Councilman Hill was filled by the election 
of Frederick G. Bagley, a well known lawyer and one of 
the staunchest supporters of Buffalo's commission form 
of government. 

Mayor George S. Buck, who took office January 1, 1918, 
and Councilman Bagley were familiar with the commis- 
sion form of government and readily adapted themselves 
to its exigencies. Mayor Buck took the Department of 
Public Safety, Councilman Heald was transferred to the 
Department of Finance and Accounts; and Councilman 
Bagley was assigned to the Department of Public Instruc- 
tion. Commission government as administered in this 
city is growing in popular favor. 


In January, 1918, Henry J. Girvin succeeded John Mar- 
tin as Superintendent of Police. 

Dr. Frances E. Fronczak, who had served as Health 
Commissioner for eight years, was re-appointed by Mayor 
Buck. Dr. Fronczak was in hospital service in France 
in 1917-'18. 

On October 1, 1918, Bernard J. McConnell, chief of the 
Fire Department, after 26 years' service as such, retired. 
He had been in the service 48 years. 


Early in the year 1918, Dr. Henry P. Emerson tendered 
his resignation as City Superintendent of Education, but 
continued to serve as such until July, 1918. He was suc- 
ceeded in September by Dr. Ernest C. Hartwell of St. 
Paul, Minnesota. Dr. Emerson became instructor in 
Latin and Greek in the Buffalo Central High School in 
1874, a principal thereof in 1883 and Superintendent of 
Education in 1893, and held that position in this city for 
25 years. Under the old charter, he was ex-ofncio member 
of the Board of Managers of the Buffalo Historical So- 
ecity. During his administration of the Buffalo school 
system the population of the city increased from 290,000 
to approximately 500,000, and the public and high schools 
proportionately. Barely does it fall to the lot of an edu- 
cator to supervise a school system for a quarter of a cen- 
tury as Dr. Emerson has done here. Teachers and pupils 
alike will ever remember his life work in Buffalo and 
what he did for them and for the uplift of the city. He 
was generally recognized as one of the most versatile 
and successful educators of the period. He knew person- 
ally some one or more members of many of the families 
of Buffalo and he will be most sincerely missed by those 
who have been in close touch with his work. 

During the entire winter of 1917-18 there was a short- 


age of coal and the weather was unusually severe much 
of the time. Buffalo and its industries were seriously af- 
fected and the people suffered from the want of fuel. The 
National Fuel Administrator closed office buildings sev- 
eral Mondays in succession. The street-car service was 
wholly inefficient and that added to the discomfort of all 
classes dependent upon the cars for transportation. 

The International Railway Company asserted that it 
could not maintain efficient service under the increased 
cost of labor and material and the demands of conductors 
and motormen at the prevailing rate of five cent fares. 
Later a referendum was submitted to the people, but they 
refused to ratify an increase to six cents, and the com- 
pany maintained it could not increase the wages of its em- 
ployes. Accordingly on October 3d the men struck and 
there was no service until October 26, 1918, the longest 
continuous railway strike in the history of the city. Dur- 
ing the street railway strike, the epidemic of Spanish in- 
fluenza raged in Buffalo and vicinity, prostrating scores 
daily and causing great mortality- — one of the most fatal 
epidemics that ever swept the city. Schools, churches, 
theatres and all other places where people were accus- 
tomed to congregate, were ordered closed from October 
11th to November 1, 1918. There were so many deaths in 
Buffalo of Spanish influenza that the death rate for 1918 
was 21.2 per thousand of population as compared with 
16.4 of population in 1917. Although the epidemic sub- 
sided, many cases were reported in November and De 


Lake receipts and shipments at the Port of Buffalo for 
the navigation season from April 23d to December 19, 
1918, that being 240 days, were less than they have been 
in any year since 1910. 


In a time of unusual railroad activity and freight con- 
gestion, the country over, lake tonnage at Buffalo was 
the smallest in years. The records of the United States 
Customs Office at Buffalo show the ex-lake receipts for the 
year 1918 as follows: Flour, 5,390,255 barrels; wheat, 
66,472,192 bushels; corn, 243,162 bushels; oats, 14,304,- 
971 bushels; barley, 4,437,684 bushels; rye, 7,256,702 
bushels; flax, 3,151,543 bushels; aggregating, including 
flour received in its equivalent as wheat, 131,065,678 
bushels as compared with 172,136,346 bushels received in 

Other ex-lake receipts at Buffalo were the following: 
Bituminous coal, 131,960 tons; copper, 92,484 tons; pig 
iron, 23,593 tons; ore, 8,698,585 tons; limestone, 1,255,021 
tons ; merchandise, 171,078 tons ; lumber, 42,168,195 feet ; 
shingles, 3,515,409 thousands; feeds, 490,933 sacks; salt, 
20,739 barrels ; and small quantities of other articles. 

The shipments from Buffalo up the lakes were the fol- 
lowing: Coal, 3,594,803 tons; salt, 51,130 barrels; cement, 
400 barrels; sugar, 85,985 barrels; railroad iron, 11,600 
tons ; flaxseed, 232,770 bushels ; and some merchandise. 

At the close of navigation there were in the Buffalo 
harbor 177 lake vessels, the largest fleet that ever win- 
tered here. One hundred and seventeen of these vessels 
were loaded with grain for winter storage, aggregating 
in amount 39,000,000 bushels. There were also stored in 
the elevators of Buffalo about 12,000,000 bushels, thus 
making the total amount of grain in storage in Buffalo 
51,000,000 bushels. No other port in the world ever had 
such a quantity of grain at any one time within its con- 
fines. Most of the grain was received late in the season. 
Under the Federal routing of grains to the seaboard, the 
normal flow through this port was checked and much of 
it was delivered over railways to various Atlantic and 
Gulf ports. In peaceful times Buffalonians would not 


look with equanimity upon such diversion. It may be 
justified on account of war necessities. 


The last barrier between the completed sections of the 
new Barge Canal at Rochester was removed by Hon. 
Frank M. Williams, State Engineer and Surveyor, on 
May 10, 1918, thereby making possible navigation through 
the improved Erie Canal from Lake Erie to the Hudson 
river. All the barge canals were opened on May 15, 1918, 
and they were taken over by the Director-General of 
Railroads early in the year, pursuant to the proclamation 
of the President, made under the provisions of an Act of 
Congress authorizing him so to do. Nearly all the boats 
were commandeered and the canals were operated by 
representatives of the Director-General of Railroads 
through the year. Private or individual operation ceased 
and the tonnage over the canals was reduced to the 
smallest volume in their history. 

General W. W. Wotherspoon, Superintendent of Pub- 
lic Works, reported on December 30, 1918, the tonnage on 
the canals for the season as follows : Erie Canal, 667,374 
tons; Champlain Canal, 434,784 tons; Oswego Canal, 44,- 
661 tons; Cayuga and Seneca Canal, 7,509 tons; Black 
River Canal, 4,932 tons; aggregating a total tonnage of 
1,159,270 tons. 


There were many assemblages and patriotic meetings 
in Buffalo during the year 1918. A complete report of 
them would unduly prolong this paper and for that rea- 
son only a few will be mentioned. 

On January 31st, the Pythians of Western New York 
celebrated their Golden Jubilee with a public celebration 
at Elmwood Music Hall, which was appropriately deco- 


rated and filled to its full capacity. The exercises were 
of a patriotic nature. Henry W. Hill presided. The 
meeting was addressed by Governor Charles S. Whitman, 
Justice William Renwick Riddell of the Supreme Court 
of Toronto, and Hon. John J. Brown, the Supreme Chan- 
cellor of Knights of Pythias of Vandalia, Illinois. It was 
one of the largest patriotic meetings of the year. 

On March 14th another large audience filled Elmwood 
Music Hall that was addressed by Rev. Henry A. Mooney, 
Lieutenant J. L. Forgie of the Canadian Highlanders, 
Judge Thomas H. Noonan and Ralph S. Kent, along pa- 
triotic lines. 

Various other patriotic meetings were held from time 
to time in Elmwood Music Hall during the year, in the 
Broadway Auditorium, in the Hutchinson High School, 
in the Assembly Hall of the State Normal School, and 
elsewhere. These were addressed by distinguished speak- 
ers from this and other countries in behalf of Liberty 
Loan and other war funds. 

On February 14th Brigadier General W. A. White of 
the British recruiting mission was entertained by and 
spoke at the Buffalo Chamber of Commerce. 

Hon. Josephus Daniels, Secretary of the Navy, spoke in 
Buffalo on two occasions, the first time on April 9th in 
behalf of the third Liberty Loan, and the last time at the 
united Thanksgiving meeting in Elmwood Music Hall on 
November 28, 1918. 

On June 3, 1918, a troop of the famous French Chas- 
seurs on their return from the battle front in the near 
East via the Pacific, visited Buffalo and were escorted 
about the city. They did heroic work in some of the en- 
gagements of the great war. 

On June 11th Bishop Dennis J. Dougherty received the 
announcement of his appointment as Archbishop of Phila- 
delphia. Thereafter several receptions were tendered in 


his honor by several organizations of the diocese. He de- 
livered his farewell address at the new cathedral on Sun- 
day evening, July 7, 1918, to the clergy and the people of 
the diocese. During his bishopric in Buffalo he formed 
many warm friends and his early departure was generally 

On July 29th the Buffalo Chamber of Commerce gave a 
farewell luncheon to Bishop Thomas J. Walsh, who was 
about to leave Buffalo for Trenton, New Jersey. On the 
evening of that day Hon. Frank B. Baird, at his beauti- 
ful home on Delaware Avenue, gave a dinner in honor of 
Bishop Walsh, which was attended by 171 invited guests, 
comprising many of Buffalo's prominent citizens. The 
Bishop had been active in all Liberty Loan and war re- 
lief fund campaigns and formed many warm personal 
friends in those and other activities. He was conse- 
crated Bishop of Trenton, N. J., on July 25th, at the new 
St. Joseph's Cathedral in Buffalo. 

The frequent departure of groups of men for various 
military camps and other military activities filled the 
weeks with thrilling incidents, which made the year a 
memorable one in the annals of Buffalo, as it was the 
world over. This Society is equipped to do much in the 
collection and preservation of all such matters of local 
historical interest. 

During the coming year it may be able to obtain of- 
ficial information of the positions, ranks and offices at- 
tained and held by Buffalonians in all branches of Federal 
service and in the army of the United States. Many of 
Buffalo's young men have acquired for themselves military 
and other commissions, indicating their promotion in 
service. It is not possible now to enumerate all with their 
respective ranks. 



In the Secretary's report will appear the names of mem- 
bers of the Society who died during the year 1918. Brief 
mention may be made of some of them as well as of some 
other Buffalonians who died during the year and who 
have been officially or otherwise more or less prominent 
in some of this city's manifold activities. In enumerat- 
ing the following, it will be understood that there may 
be others, whose services to Buffalo were also worthy of 
record. The list of those who in the great war made the 
supreme sacrifice for their country and to preserve free 
institutions from obliteration under the iron rule of a 
military despotism that threatened individual liberties 
and popular government itself, will be a long and an 
honorable one, worthy of perpetuation in the hearts of all 
Americans. Such list will be made later as official reports 
are completed. This Society will do what it may to per- 
petuate all such records. 

On January 9th Charles L. Hard passed away. He was 
a manufacturer and favorably known to many Buffalon- 
ians. He was a member of this Society. 

Clarence Munson Bushnell, also a member of this So- 
ciety, passed away on February 1st. He was prominent 
ir the Cleveland Democracy and at the bar. For years 
he was a member of the law firm who were attorneys for 
the International Railway Company. 

Porter Norton died on February 2d, fifteen hours after 
the death of Clarence M. Bushnell, with whom for sev- 
eral years he was associated in the practice of the law. 
He was widely and favorably known to the bench and 
bar and for forty years was the attorney for the com- 
pany owning the street railway system. He possessed a 
genial nature, and his ready wit was proverbial. He was 
a member of the Buffalo Historical Society. 


Dr. Henry F. Fullerton died on February 13th, at the 
age of 84 years. He was graduated from the University 
of Buffalo in 1875, but never practiced. He was principal 
of School No. 16 for 48 years. He was a life member of 
this Society. 

Michael J. Healy, chairman of the Local Board No. 3, 
died on February 14th. He was supervisor of the Second 
Ward for four terms from 1903 onward and alderman of 
that ward from 1911-1915. 

Buffalo's poet, James Nicol Johnston, died on February 
14th at the age of 86 years. He had lived in Buffalo near- 
ly seventy years. He was born in Donegal, Ireland. He 
was the author of "Donegal Memories" and compiled a 
volume of Buffalo verse. He was a member of this So- 
ciety and his bust stands in the main hall of the Historical 
Society Building. 

George K. Birge, after a brief illness, died on February 
17th. He had been engaged in active war-fund campaign 
work. He was president of M. H. Birge & Sons Wall 
Paper Company. He had been a director of the Pan-Amer- 
ican Exposition Company. He organized and was presi- 
dent of the Pierce Arrow Motor Car Company until 1916, 
to whose development he devoted his greatest energies. 
The success of that company, to some extent, was due to 
his efforts. He was a student of art and a trustee of the 
Buffalo Fine Arts Academy and also a vice-president of 
the Arts Club of New York. He was a member of this So- 
ciety and was interested in local history. 

Dr. Conrad Diehl, aged 75 years, died on February 20th. 
He was graduated at the University of Buffalo and 
studied also at Berlin. In 1865 he was coroner of Erie 
County and prominent in the National Guard from 1870 
to 1878. He was Mayor of Buffalo from 1897 to 1901, and 
thereafter he devoted his entire time to the practice of 


George H. Lamy died on February 23d. He was under- 
Sheriff of Erie County for several terms and was also a 
Sheriff of Erie County. He was prominent in Masonic 
organizations and generally admired by all who knew him. 

Edward B. D. Riley, a member of this Society, passed 
away on February 25th. He was a son of Gen. Bennett 
Riley, U. S. A., formerly stationed in Buffalo, who gal- 
lantly served his country during the Mexican War. 

Major Willis R. Buck, for many years a member of the 
74th Regiment, and a clerk of the Iroquois Hotel for 29 
years, died on March 15th. 

John W. Fisher died on March 31st. For several years 
he was prominent in Erie County politics. For four years 
he was attorney for the Board of Supervisors of Erie 

William J. Donaldson died on April 1st. He was ac- 
tive in civic movements and especially in those affecting 
Black Rock and that section of the city. He was well and 
favorably known in Masonic circles. 

Rev. Andrew V. V. Raymond, a member of this So- 
ciety, pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Buffalo, 
died on April 5th, near Spartanburg, South Carolina, 
where he had gone to visit his son, Lieutenant Andrew 
V. V. Raymond, Jr. Dr. Raymond was president of Union 
College from 1894-1907. He was pastor of the First 
Presbyterian Church from 1907 to April 5, 1918. His 
discourses were scholarly, and his sympathies broad and 
genuine. He enjoyed the fellowship of refined and cul- 
tured associates. His personality was charming and re- 
freshing. He was one of the best known and most rev- 
ered clergymen in this city and took a deep interest in 
all charitable and humanitarian activities. 

George W. Ferris died on April 10th, at the age of 72 
years. For many years he was an editorial writer on the 


George Bleistein died April 21st. He was for a time 
president of the Courier Company, a trustee of the City 
and County Hall, and a Collector of Customs at the port 
of Buffalo at the time of his death. He was also a life 
member of this Society. 

Major John M. Farquhar passed away on April 24th. 
By profession he was editor and publisher. During the 
Civil War he was judge advocate in the 4th Army Corps. 
He was a Representative in Congress from 1885-1891. 

Judge Robert C. Titus died on April 27th. Born Oc- 
tober 24, 1839, he was educated at Oberlin College, and 
was District Attorney of Erie County from 1878-1880. 
He was elected to the State Senate in 1881, and again in 
1883, and served two terms, when he was elected Judge 
of the Superior Court of Buffalo. That position he held 
until the court was merged into the Supreme Court in 
1896, whereupon he became Judge of the Supreme Court 
and served out the balance of his term. In 1913 he was 
appointed Commissioner of Jurors in Erie County, and 
held that position until his death. He was a prominent 
Mason and had received the 33d degree. He was for 
many years a member of this Society. 

On May 12, 1918, Dr. Thomas B. Berry, for 21 years 
rector of the Church of the Good Shepherd and there- 
after the warden of the DeLancey Divinity School at Ge- 
neva, N. Y., for nine years, died. His funeral at the 
Church of the Good Shepherd in Buffalo was attended by 
many clergymen of Western New York. 

On May 18th Francis X. Egloff, a well known Civil 
War veteran and active in the Grand Army of the Re- 
public, died, nearly 64 years of age. 

On May 30th, Charles H. Utley died at the Lenox after 
a long illness. He was born here September 1, 1847, and 
was a graduate of Rensselaer Polytechnic School. He 
dealt in pianos and other musical instruments. He was 


a military aid on the staff of Grover Cleveland when he 
was Governor. He was vestryman of Trinity Church for 
25 years, and one of the organizers of the Humane So- 
ciety. He was a member of this Society. 

On June 28th William H. Ellis, secretary-treasurer of 
J. D. Warren Sons Company, died at his home on Rich- 
mond Avenue after an illness of three weeks. He was 
born in Buffalo July 10, 1857, his father, Henry W. Ellis, 
being a widely known lake captain. He entered the em- 
ploy of the Commercial at the age of 16. He was promi- 
nent in Masonic circles and a member of this Society. 

On June 30th William German, former member of the 
City Council, passed away. He was elected to the Coun- 
cil in 1903, and served four years. In January, 1912, he 
was again elected to fill the unexpired term of John J. 

On July 16th Dr. Richard Rathbun, acting director of 
the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, passed away. 
He was 66 years old, and a native of Buffalo. He was an 
author of many standard works. 

Miss Mary M. Hawley died on July 26th. For some 
time she was custodian of the Lord Library and associated 
with the library work of this Society. 

On July 27th Dr. Daniel Upton, principal of the Buf- 
falo Normal School, passed away suddenly. He was a 
graduate of Cornell, the first principal of the Buffalo 
Technical High School, and became principal of the 
State Normal School at Buffalo in 1909. He was of 
pleasing personality and was an educator of wide repu- 
tation and high ideals. His conception of the functions 
of a Normal School was wrought out in the range of in- 
struction provided in the various departments of the 
Normal School in this city. 

Dr. George E. Fell died in Chicago the latter part of 


July. He lived in Buffalo most of his life, and was the 
inventor of the original pulmoter. 

George W. Lockwood died July 31st, aged 88 years. 

On August 14th George Feldman, one of the promi- 
nent figures of old Buffalo, passed away. He was promi- 
nent during the campaign of 1876, during the political ac- 
tivity of Senator Roscoe Conklin, James G. Blaine and 
President Hayes. He was Judge of the Buffalo Police 
Court for two years. 

George Szag, prominent violinist and director of the 
Szag School of Music, died September 3d, aged 54 years. 

On September 17th Samuel Root, founder and presi- 
dent of Root, Neal & Company, died. He was in business 
here for 30 years and prominent in insurance circles. 

On November 3d Miss Anna Olive Lee, a member of this 
Society, passed away. She was long devoted to welfare 
work in this city. 

On November 30th William H. Hotchkiss, former part- 
ner of the late J. N. Adam, died. He was one of the best 
and most favorably known business men of Buffalo, 
where he had resided since 1882. He was interested in 
many activities and philanthropies in this city. He was 
a life member of this Society. 

On December 27th passed away Carl K. Friedman, one 
of the editorial writers of the Buffalo Express for 21 
years. He was also a writer for the Buffalo Courier for 
some years prior to associating himself with the Buffalo 

On December 29th Eli D. Hofeller, a member of this 
Society, passed away. Mr. Hofeller was a contractor and 
operated several pavement companies. He organized 
Jewish relief work in Buffalo and established the Hofeller 
Foundation as a summer home for children on the lake 
shore near Derby, N. Y. 



The activities of the Society have not been lessened dur- 
ing the year. All the meetings have been well attended 
and the lectures have been unusually interesting and edi- 

The reports of the Secretary and Treasurer will dis- 
close many of the activities of this Society and its gen- 
eral status, as well as the work performed, gifts received 
and its general condition. 

I take this occasion to express to my colleagues of the 
Board of Managers my appreciation of their hearty co- 
operation in the administration of the affairs of the Buf- 
falo Historical Society during the past year, when in- 
numerable demands have been made upon them, and the 
business affairs of the city requiring their attention have 
been subordinated to the exigencies of this nation at war. 
They have been attentive to the duties devolving upon 
them and have given the Society the benefit of their best 
thought and experience. One of their number, Captain 
Evan Hollister, during the year has been in the United 
States Army. 

At present the officers and members of the Board of 
Managers, exclusive of the city officials, are the follow- 
ing: Andrew Langdon, Honorary President; Henry W. 
Hill, President; Charles R. Wilson, Vice-President; 
Frank H. Severance, Secretary-Treasurer; Albert H. 
Briggs, M. D., Lee H. Smith, M. D., John G. Wickser, 
William A. Galpin, Howard H. Baker, Dr. G. Hunter 
Bartlett, G. Barrett Rich, Henry W. Sprague, William Y. 
Warren, Henry R. Howland, George R. Howard, Loran 
Briggs, M. D., Lee H. Smith, M. D., Hon. John G. Wickser, 
L. Lewis, Jr., George A. Stringer, Captain Evan Hollister, 
Edward S. Hawley and Carlton R. Perrine. 



Mr. President, Members of the Buffalo Historical Society: 

During the year 1918 this Society has carried forward 
its various activities much as in former years, although 
war conditions have led to certain new lines of work, and 
have made it perhaps more difficult to secure new mem- 

The building has been maintained in good condition 
with far less outlay than in many former years. Neces- 
sary furnace-room and roof repairs were made under the 
supervision of the engineer. 

Membership. During the year we lost by death 15 
members. Nineteen new members were added to the list. 

The names of those who have died are: 


Jan. 9. Charles L. Hard Resident Member 

Feb. 1. Clarence M. Bushnell " " 

Feb. 2. Porter Norton " " 

Feb. 13. Henry Franklin Fullerton Life 

Feb. 14. James N. Johnston Resident 

Feb. 17. George K. Birge " 

Feb. 28. Edward B. D. Riley 

Apr. 5. Rev. Andrew V. V. Raymond " 

Apr. 21. George Bleistein Life 

May 30. Charles H. Utley Resident 

June 27. William H. Ellis 

July 26. Miss Mary M. Ha wley Life 

Nov. 3. Miss Anna Olive Lee Resident 

Nov. 30. William H. HotchkisB Life 

Dec. 29. Eli D. Hofeller Resident 


The annual State appropriation of $100, which for some 
years has been applied to book-buying and binding, hav- 
ing been discontinued, we have correspondingly curtailed 
the library expenditures. Most of the purchases have 
been on lines which are thought essential for our collec- 


tion. An especial effort is made to preserve here books 
by Buffalo authors, and books printed in Buffalo. Every- 
thing of value pertaining to the regional history is se- 
cured if possible. 

The total number of accessions, by gift, exchange and 
purchase, during the year, was 1043, making the total 
number of catalogued books in the Society library, De- 
cember 31, 1918, 26,912. 

The Lord library remains unchanged from year to year. 
It contains 10,260 volumes. 

A year ago I dwelt on the crowded condition of our 
library. Except for some temporary makeshifts, nothing 
has been done to relieve the congestion. Figures were 
had for the installation of metal stacks, but they were so 
large that the matter was tabled. 

New stacks have been built in the newspaper and public 
document room, and are already in large measure filled. 

In every department of our collections — reference li- 
brary, newspaper and public documents room, and mus- 
eum, we need more room. 


It has been a year of many and notable gifts, to both 
library and museum. Donors of books were Miss N. J. 
Bame, Dr. G. Hunter Bartlett, John Brauer, the Bureau 
of Kailway Economics, Miss Ellen M. Chandler, Hon. 
Wm. A. Cheney of Los Angeles, the J. W. Clement Co., 
John W. Crafts, Lieut. Simon Cullen of the Buffalo Police 
Department, the Curtis Publishing Co., Philadelphia, J. 
H. Davie, Erie, Pa., Gen. Francis V. Greene, Ernest G. 
Hatch, Wm. H. Johnson, Henry Adams Kimball, Con- 
cord, N. H., Herman T. Koerner, John I. Laney, Mrs. 
Charles F. Mensch,Geo. N. Newman,Henry Harmon Noble, 
Essex, N. Y., Charles J. North, Mrs. Roberta Parke, 
Arthur C. Parker, Albany, Miss Anna M. Paul, Geo. 


Haven Putnam, New York City, Walter Allen Rice, Miss 
J. Bessie Bobbins, Miss Isabella M. Shaw, Frank H. 
Severance, Clias. W. Sickmon, Dilworth M. Silver, Mrs. 
Roswell Skeel, Mrs. James Tillinghast, Mrs. William D. 

Meriting special mention are the "Histories of Noble 
English Families," two volumes, folio, London, 1846; and 
the "History of the Orders of Knighthood," four volumes, 
4to, London, 1842, and others, costly and beautiful books 
formerly owned by Mr. James Tillinghast, once president 
of this Society. These books were presented by Mrs. Til- 
linghast. To the Francis V. Greene collection, chiefly of 
books relating to American wars, General Greene has 
added during the year 578 volumes. 

Our newspaper collection has been enriched by the 
gift, from Mr. Frank Held, of bound files of Buffalo's first 
German newspaper, Der Weltbiirger; also of Der Frei- 
muthige, and of the Buffalo Demokrat. 

Perhaps the most conspicuous single article added to 
the museum is the carriage formerly owned and used by 
Millard Fillmore. After his death in 1874 it became the 
property of the Hon. Loran L. Lewis, whose daughter, 
Mrs. Louise Lewis Kahle, has given it to the Society. It 
has the double association of ownership and use by two 
distinguished citizens of Buffalo, both in their time mem- 
bers of this Society, one of whom was its first president, 
and thirteenth President of the United States. Of Presi- 
dent Fillmore we possess many interesting souvenirs. His 
old mahogany-veneered desk has been used for 17 years 
by your secretary. Of Buffalo's other President, Grover 
Cleveland, we have but few souvenirs, among them the 
desk he used when sheriff of Erie County. 

Much of beauty and interest was added to our museum 
through the gift of Mrs. William D. Walker of articles 
belonging to or associated with the work of her late hus- 


band, Bishop William D. Walker of the Diocese of West- 
ern New York. It includes the robes, hoods and caps 
worn on the occasion of the bestowal of scholastic de- 
grees by Oxford and other universities; the pectoral 
cross, signet rings and other articles associated with his 
episcopal office; souvenirs of his missionary diocese in 
North Dakota; and numerous other articles — notably a 
much-prized portrait of Bishop Walker — all tastefully ar- 
ranged in a specially-constructed case, provided for the 
collection jointly by Mrs. Walker and this Society. The 
presentation of this memorial was the occasion of a meet- 
ing of much interest, on the afternoon of May 18, 1918. 
A detailed account of the exercises on that occasion will 
appear with this report, in the Publications of the Society. 

Of the multitude of articles which have come to us dur- 
ing the year, only a few are here mentioned. Dr. G. 
Hunter Bartlett has presented numerous souvenirs of the 
Civil War, pictures and historical documents. From 
Mrs. George Bleistein we have a marvel of a Mexican 
hat, heavy with gold and silver, acquired by the late Mr. 
Bleistein from a member of Buffalo Bill's Wild West 
company. A model of the ship Buffalo, made in 1856 by 
Bichard Caudell, is a gift from his son, Mr. William M. 
Oaudell, who also gives us a model of a Lehigh Valley 
bridge over Seneca street, made by himself. Mr. William 
A. Galpin has made numerous fine additions to his col- 
lections of antiques and of historical engravings. 

Our collection of war posters has been augmented by a 
number of Canadian Victory Loan posters, the gift of Mr. 
J. A. Mitchell, of the Public Archives of Canada. These 
are now on exhibition. 

A great variety of articles have been added to the 
museum, all by gift except a few Indian articles, and two 
or three bronze medals commemorating American histori- 
cal events. 


For the better display of some of our possessions, new 
cases are greatly needed. 


In September the Society placed two rooms in the build- 
ing at the service of Red Cross workers in the nearby 
Nye Park and adjoining neighborhood. One of these is 
the Board Room, used by the managers for their monthly 
meetings ; and on entertainment evenings, as a cloak-room 
for ladies. The board of managers has found it no great 
hardship to transfer its meetings either to the Secretary's 
office, or to the down-town office of President Hill; thus 
giving to the Red Cross workers a well-lighted, fairly 
ample room. It was accepted with warm expressions of 
appreciation; and here, until the armistice of November 
11th, the preparation of hospital supplies went actively 
forward. Since that date the character of the work has 
changed, but the accommodation will, it is understood, 
be needed by the Red Cross for some months — perhaps 
many months to come. Speaking for the officers of the 
Society, it may be added here that it has been a pleasure 
to do even this slight bit for the cause. 


During the Liberty Loan drives special exhibitions of 
posters were arranged ; and early in the year the flags of 
the principal allied nations were procured and hung in 
the court, which they continue to render more attractive 
than before. A collection of more than 100 large photo- 
graphs, showing scenes from the seat of war, were pro- 
cured from the New York pictorial agency of the French 
Government, and are a valuable permanent addition to 
our museum. 


During the past few months much time has been given 


to the compilation of data relating to Buffalo's part in the 
Great War. Card lists are kept giving name, residence, 
kind of service and other essential data of Buffalo men 
killed in action, died of wounds or disease, either overseas 
or in American training camps, of those wounded severely 
01 slightly, or gassed ; of those missing in action, or in Ger- 
man prison camps. Special records of men from Buffalo 
engaged in aviation service have been compiled ; also, rec- 
ords of Buffalo men and women who have shared in Red 
Cross or Y. M. C. A. canteen work, here or abroad; with 
a mass of miscellaneous data not necessary to specify 
further here. It has been the Secretary's plan ultimately 
to edit and publish this material in a volume which might 
appropriately be entitled, "Buffalo's Part in the Great 
War." It having been announced, however, that the 
Municipality of Buffalo would publish a volume cover- 
ing practically the same field, and your Secretary having 
been named one of a committee to carry out that work, no 
further steps towards separate publication on this sub- 
ject will be taken until the character and scope of the 
city's proposed book are known. In the meantime the 
collection, arrangement and permanent preservation of 
material will continue. 


Volume XXII of the Publications of the Society was 
issued in the spring. It contained a group of papers re- 
lating to educational work in Buffalo, notably a compre- 
hensive "History of the University of Buffalo," by Mr. 
Julian Park, Acting Dean, College of Arts and Sciences 
of the university. Another noteworthy feature of the 
volume is the "Historical Sketch of Niagara Ship Canal 
Projects," by Hon. Henry W. Hill. The volume has been 
favorably received and ranks as a not unworthy continu- 
ation of the lengthening series of our Publications, in 


which our aim is to include authentic studies and original 
documents bearing on every important phase of our reg- 
ional history. 

For some months the Secretary worked, in co-operation 
with Prof. J. D. Ibbotson, librarian of Hamilton College, 
in collecting and editing the journals and letters of 
Samuel Kirkland, whose early visits to our region, and 
work as missionary and Government interpreter among 
the Indian tribes of this State, make it desirable to pre- 
serve his writings in suitable form. He was the founder 
of Hamilton College, and that institution has a lively in- 
terest in the proposed publication. Some of Mr. Kirk- 
land's unpublished manuscripts are owned by the college. 
Others, including valuable journals of his early visits to 
Buffalo Creek and the Niagara region, have long been 
held by this Society. As the project developed, the inter- 
est of Hon. Elihu Boot, an alumnus and trustee of Ham- 
ilton, was enlisted; and it was determined upon that a 
comprehensive collection of Mr. Kirkland's writings 
should be prepared and published co-operatively by Ham- 
ilton College and the Buffalo Historical Society. When 
the United States became a participant in the European 
war, the routine at Hamilton, as at most American col- 
leges, was upset, Mr. Ibbotson was drawn into war work 
— and, in brief, it was necessary to lay aside the Kirkland 
project until a more favorable time. 

Devoted to other matter of importance, volume XXIII 
of our Publications, — notwithstanding the truly painful 
increase in cost of paper, printing and binding, will in 
due time be placed in the hands of our members. 

It should, perhaps, be added that the Secretary is mak- 
ing such headway as other duties will permit with a 
study of documents bearing on events in this region in 
the years immediately following the end of the French 
regime. The narrative will be a continuation of the story 


set forth in "An Old Frontier of France." A few days 
were found, during the autumn, for study in the Dominion 
Archives at Ottawa ; but so much remains yet to be done 
that it is too early to say when the work can be offered 
to our members. 


The usual course of entertainments has been provided 
for our members; the attendance, except in inclement 
weather, being usually very good, and sometimes in ex- 
cess of the seating capacity. 

The entertainments offered during the year were as 

follows: f :# ! lf! 

Jan. 15 — An Indian Entertainment Miss Irene Eastman 

Jan. 30 — Illustrated Lecture: "The Awakening of Russia" 

B. R. Baumgardt 

Feb. 12 — Lecture with Illustrative Exhibits: "Evolution 

and Growth of Our Flag" R. G. Ballard Thurston 

Feb. 26 — Illustrated Lecture: "Four Years in the North 

Polar Field" Donald B. MacMillan 

Mar. 12 — Illustrated Lecture: "America in the Caribbean" 

Frederick Monsen 

Mar. 26 — Illustrated Lecture: "Life and Work at Pine 

Mountain Settlement" Miss Ethel de Long 

Nov. 5 — Address: "The Resurrection of Russia". .. .A. J. Sack 
Nov. 19 — Lecture: "With the Red Triangle in France"... 

Dr. Thomas Travis 

Dec. 3 — Address: "Our Problems of the Near East" 

Rev. Samuel V. V. Holmes, D. D. 

Dec. 10 — Illustrated Travel Talk: "Calling on the Can- 
nibals" Mrs. Rene Brown 


As usual for several years our building was placed at 
the service of the Public School Department for the an- 
nual commencement exercises of School 22, which has no 
suitable assembly hall. 

The Secretary has responded, so far as conditions per- 
mitted, to numerous calls for lectures and historical 
talks before various local organizations. In March a 
course of four lectures was given for the Arts Depart- 


ment of the University of Buffalo. Addresses have also 
been given for the State Normal School, the Chamber of 
Commerce, West Side Business Men's Association, West- 
minster Club, Saturn Club, Credit Men's Association, 
and numerous church and other organizations. 

Chiefly because of war conditions, fewer conventions 
and annual meetings than usual have been held of or- 
ganizations in which the Society holds membership and 
is usually represented by the Secretary. The Historical 
Society of the Canadian Province of Ontario reduced its 
annual meeting to the transaction of necessary business, 
omitting all historical and literary features. The New 
York State Historical Association, which was to have 
met in Rochester, cancelled the meeting. The American 
Historical Association, in which we have been actively 
represented for years, was to have convened in 1918 in 
Minneapolis. Late in the year the meeting-place was 
changed to Cleveland ; and finally the meeting was aban- 
doned altogether, because of the prevalence of influenza 
in that city. 

In May your Secretary attended the annual meeting of 
the American Association of Museums, at Springfield, 
Mass. One of our managers, Mr. Henry R. Howland, has 
for two years been president of this flourishing organiza- 
tion. Its scope embraces all museums — whether of sci- 
ence, art or history. The two former subjects have en- 
grossed most of the attention of the annual meetings; 
the special museum problems of historical institutions 
have received but little attention — practically none at the 
Springfield meeting. 

For one year your Secretary has acted as editor of the 
historical department of the monthly periodical published 
by the Association ; but preferring to confine his work to 
the Buffalo Society, he resigned his editorial duties for 
the Museums Association. 


The activities of the Society tend to increase. The 
work grows. Our library is not at present as much used 
by the public as we could wish, but we keep on steadily 
improving its character along definite lines. In days to 
come many will thank us — or invoke blessings on our 
memory — for building up here a collection of printed and 
manuscript material relating to this field, which has no 
counterpart in other perhaps more popular repositories, 
but which is essential for historical study. We especially 
desire to make our institution helpful to the schools of 
Buffalo, public, private or parochial. 

This report would be incomplete without a word of 
acknowledgment of the faithful and efficient services of 
our librarian, Mrs. Anna A. Andrews, and of the assist- 
ant secretary, Miss Helen F. Moffat. To their ability, 
devotion to the interests of the Society, and unfailing 
helpfulness, it is a pleasure to testify. 

With many tasks ready, we go forward into the new 
year under the same old motto : "We are here to help." 

Frank H. Severance, 


On January 9th the officers of the preceding year were 
re-elected for the ensuing year. 



JANUARY 6, 1920 

The fifty-eighth annual meeting of the Buffalo Histori- 
cal Society was held at the Historical Building, Tuesday 
evening, January 6, 1920. President Henry W. Hill pre- 
sided, and read his annual address. Frank H. Severance 
made the annual reports of the Secretary and Treasurer ; 
and Messrs. Albert H. Briggs, M. D., William A. Galpin, 
Edward S. Hawley, Lee H. Smith, M. D., and John G. 
Wickser were re-elected members of the Board of Man- 
agers for the ensuing term of four years. 

The annual address of the President, and the report 
of the Secretary, here follow. 


Officers and members of the Buffalo Historical Society, 
Ladies and Gentlemen: 
The Buffalo Historical Society has completed another 
year of its activities and its officers are now to render 
their reports of its proceedings. Its managers have held 
regular monthly meetings, except during July and August, 
and passed on all administrative and other matters as 
they arose, and a full record thereof is made by the Secre- 
tary and that is preserved. Such parts of that record as 
show in a general way our membership, finances, gifts of 
historical material and general status of the Society will 
be presented by the Secretary. For several years our ac- 
counts have been audited by a certified public accountant 
and found to be correct. Such certification is also a 
matter of record. Most of the expense of this Society is 


quite invariable, except for occasional repairs and other 
minor matters and therefore is readily ascertainable. 
During recent years, the City of Buffalo, through its chief 
fiscal officer, has been apprised annually of the expenses 
of maintenance and for heat and light and no suggestions 
have come from that source. 

The Common Council as well as the tax-payers of Buf- 
falo generally recognize, that this is one of the educa- 
tional institutions of the city and that it is being eco- 
nomically managed. The Board of Managers are well- 
known business men, who freely give their advice and 
services to the administration of its affairs. It has been 
so from its organization in 1862. The men, who have so 
served the Society and latterly the city as well since the 
Buffalo Historical Society is now a publicly supported 
institution, are entitled to the gratitude of Buffalonians. 
The list of such is a large one and comprises some of 
Buffalo's most prominent citizens, extending from Mil- 
lard Fillmore, its first President, to the late Andrew 
Langdon, of whom I shall speak later. The contributions 
they made to the upbuilding of this Society and their 
efforts to preserve the materials upon which local history 
its founded, and family records are maintained, were of 
priceless value to the people of this city. That work is 
still going on, and records are still being made of the ac- 
tivities of Buffalonians and of the occurrences in this 
city, that will increase in value as time passes. This 
Society was founded by President Fillmore and others 
to collate, preserve and perpetuate local history. He and 
his associates fully understood the importance of such 


I was more than ever impressed with the inestimable 
value of an historical collection on inspecting the Domin- 


ion Governmental archives at Ottawa last August, where 
may be found papers, documents and much of the ma- 
terial, constituting the background of Canadian family, 
colonial and national history, and much that forms a part 
of the history of the Niagara Frontier and of the Prov- 
ince of New York. This collection is unique in that it in- 
cludes, besides its great accumulation of original manu- 
scripts, a most useful collection of copies of historical 
documents, military and civil reports, etc., the originals 
of which are in European depositories. It well illus- 
trates the importance of collecting and preserving official 
papers, documents and material, which have historical 
value. The systematic classification of all such historical 
material renders it available for ready reference. Some 
such systematic collection and classification might well 
be adopted at Washington, where official documents and 
historical papers are strewn through Governmental de- 
partments with too little attention being given to their 
preservation. In every capitol city and in every large 
municipality there is urgent need of such institutions as 
the Buffalo Historical Society, whose activities include 
the discovery, collation, classification and preservation of 
historical data of special interest to this locality. 

In the recent case of Matter of Hamlin, reported in 
226 New York, 407, a Buffalo case, the Court of Appeals 
announced at page 414 that "as bearing upon the inten- 
tion of the Legislature of this State in the enactment of 
a statute we may consider such historical or other facts 
as are reasonably within the scope of judicial cognizance." 
The Court then proceeded to consider at some length the 
records of Congress in the perfection and enactment of 
the Federal Estate Tax Law imposed by the United States 
upon property in its devolution from one generation to 

In the recent case of Wilson v. New, reported in 243 U. 


S. Reports, pages 332-389, construing the Act of Congress 
regulating the hours of work and rate of wages of rail- 
road employees engaged in interstate commerce, Chief 
Justice White reviewed at length the history of the con- 
troversy that led up to the enactment of the Act of Con- 
gress under consideration; and in substance the Court 
took into consideration the history of the dispute, the in- 
quiries and circumstances which culminated in the legis- 
lation, the nature of the provisions made and comparison 
of them with the issues, which existed between the dis- 
putants, to refute the claim that the act was passed 
without consideration. These and other cases illustrate 
the uses of historical records in the disposition of im- 
portant cases, involving property rights and constitution- 
al liberties. 


Much more so, do legislative bodies rely upon historical 
records in formulating important legislation. All De- 
partments of Government are equally reliant. Several 
states are enjoying the advantages of historical organi- 
zations, most of which, however, are dependent upon vol- 
untary contributions for their maintenance. That is the 
condition of the New York State Historical Association, 
which is doing genuine historical work in this State. The 
Buffalo Historical Society is fortunate in being a municip- 
ally-maintained institution so that it may prosecute its 
researches and collate, classify and preserve the essentials 
of local history, at a time when its people, in common 
with the people of other localities and countries are 
and have been actively engaged in making history. Such 
history is local, state and national as well as international 
and world-wide, and thus farther reaching than the his- 
tory of any other war, of which there is record. 



The campaigns of Alexander, Caesar and Napoleon af- 
fected only limited areas, while that undertaken by Fred- 
erich Wilhelm Victor Albert, born at Berlin on January 
27th, 1859, known as William II, Emperor of Germany 
and King of Prussia, was designed to bring all the Euro- 
pean nations into subjection to his will and also to im- 
pose his military despotism upon all other nations. In 
this enlightened age by free peoples such 

"Vaulting ambition, which o'erleaps itself" 

is interpreted as evidence of paranoia. 

The people of that empire were obsessed with the delu- 
sion that they were commissioned to dominate other 
races, and went forth to overthrow free institutions 
wherever they were. 

Belgium was laid waste. Northeastern France was 
despoiled. Italy was entered from the north, and the 
British and other cities were stormed by German aero- 
planes; and ships of the allied nations, and of this coun- 
try were attacked by submarines. 

The United States finally declared war against the Im- 
perial German Government on April 7th, 1917, and from 
that date until November 11, 1918, when the armistice 
was signed, a year, seven months and four days, this na- 
tion was at war with that Empire. From its peaceful 
pursuits it was plunged into the most destructive war 
of the ages. Its man-power was drawn upon to the ex- 
tent of three to five millions, though less than four mil- 
lions were transported over seas to engage in military 
service. A million or more were in training in the United 
States, or engaged in the auxiliary branches of the ser- 
vice of the United States. At home many were engaged 
in civil pursuits in aid of governmental activities. So 


normal conditions were quite generally disturbed the 
country over. 

buffalo's share in the war. 

Buffalo shared in such disturbed conditions as well as 
contributed its full quota of man-power to the American 
Expeditionary Forces over seas and to the auxiliary 
branches of the service. Its regiments participated in 
many of the fierce engagements in the sectors where they 
were stationed. The official record when published, of 
all such engagements, including the names of Buffalo 
organizations, officers and men, who participated therein 
and also including the long honor roll of those who made 
the supreme sacrifice of life itself, that free institutions 
might endure, will constitute a large part of the history 
of this city during the war period and will show how 
loyally Buffalo responded to the nation's call to do its 
full part in the crisis that threatened our liberties. The 
City Clerk, Mr. Daniel J. Sweeney, with the aid of others 
is preparing a complete roll of all men, who went from 
Buffalo during the European war into the military and 
naval service of the United States and the extent of their 
services. The honor roll of those, who went from Buffalo 
and made the supreme sacrifice of life itself, as far as 
then known, was published in the Buffalo Express on 
April 21st, 1919; 275 were reported as killed in action, 
and 637 altogether lost their lives. The official reports, 
when completed, may contain the names of others from 
this city, who, laid down their young lives in behalf of 
home, country and constitutional liberty. Memorial ser- 
vices were held at Elmwood Music Hall on April 20th, at 
which Lieutenant-Colonel Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., and 
Chaplain Rev. John C. Ward of the 108th Infantry, paid 
tribute to their memories. The names of all such heroes 
will be obtained and preserved in grateful memory, for 


do greater service has ever been rendered the cause of 
human freedom than that by those, who checked, held 
and finally routed the veteran forces of the Central 
Powers, whose battle lines extended at times from Nieu- 
port on the northwest extending near Paris on the south 
and then easterly to a point near Belfort on the south- 
east. The American Expeditionary Forces took over one 
or more sectors, as the Haute Marne and St. Mihiel sec- 
tors. Their heroism at Belleau Wood, at Chateau Thier- 
ry, in the Argonne Forest and elsewhere has given them 
a name worthy the high emprise they heroically cham- 
pioned. Such valorous achievements rivalled those of 
Americans on other historic battle-fields. 


The return of troops from Europe began early in 1919. 
Colonel John D. Howland of the 106th artillery, formerly 
the Third Field Artillery of Buffalo, returned on January 
11th, 1919. Later and on January 26th, Col. Howland 
was the guest of honor at a dinner given by his former 
comrades of the 65th Regiment of the New York National 
Guard. The 106th Regiment was in the St. Mihiel drive. 
In the final offensive on Cote Romagne and on Cote Mira- 
mont, it changed position five times and finally held its 
ground. Many Buffalo soldiers were cited for bravery 
and won high honors, a record of all of which may be 
made later. 

Buffalo had a Soldiers' Welcoming Committee consist- 
ing of Colonel Newton E. Turgeon, chairman, William R. 
Reilley, Rev. S. V. V. Holmes, Henry J. Rahl, Col. Elias 
Haffa, Dr. A. W. Hengerer, Mayor and Councilmen of 
Buffalo, twelve members of the Board of Supervisors, 
City Clerk David J. Sweeney, Dr. 0. Frank Bruso, Wil- 
liam T. Conway, a chorus of 300 male voices and others. 
On February 5th, 1919, an official welcome was extended 


to the 102d Trench Mortar Battery, comprising members 
of Troop I, which left Buffalo in August, 1917, and ex- 
perienced hard fighting along the Meuse; to the 108th 
Regiment, that being the old 74th Regiment, which ar- 
rived in New York on March 6th ; to the 350 Buffalonians 
in the 302d Regiment of Engineers forming a unit in the 
77th Division, which reached New York on April 24th, 
1919 ; and to the 308th Trench Mortar Battery. 

On March 6th, the 108th Infantry, formerly the 74th 
Regiment of Buffalo, under the command of Colonel Ed- 
gar S. Jennings, arrived in New York on the Mauritania. 

On March 13th, the 106th Regiment, Field Artillery, 
formerly the Third Artillery, arrived in New York. Major 
Bradley Goodyear, Capt. Chauncey J. Hamlin, Capt. Pat- 
rick J. Keeler, Major Walter J. Schoellkopf, Major Hinds, 
Capt. John Grabau and others were welcomed by the re- 
ception committee, which went from Buffalo to greet them. 
That regiment was called to the colors and transferred 
to the United States service on August 4th, 1917. 

The 106th Field Artillery and the 108th Infantry Regi- 
ment comprising principally Buffalonians received a 
warm welcome on their return to Buffalo on April 1st, 
when thousands turned out to greet them. They and the 
107th formed a part of the 27th Division under Major- 
General John F. O'Ryan and bore the brunt of the attack 
on the Hindenburg line. The 107th Regiment "went over 
the top" on September 27th, 1918. The fighting was ter- 
rific and the regiment was forced back three times and on 
the following morning the three regiments with support 
from Australian, Canadian and Scottish regiments joined 
in the assault and drove the Germans from their in- 

On April 30th, 27 members of the 308th Trench Mortar 
Battery, most of them veterans of the old Troop I and of 
the 102d Trench Mortar Battery, returned to Buffalo and 


were officially welcomed. Other troops continued to re- 
turn during the year. Colonel William J. Donovan of 
the 165th Regiment, formerly the 69th Regiment of New 
York, returned to Buffalo on May 5th, 1919. 

On May 7th, Base Hospital No. 23, comprising 176 
men and eight officers, all Buffalonians, was welcomed 
home. It embarked for Europe on November 21st, 1917, 
under Dr. Marshall Clinton. It was stationed at Vittel 
in the Vosges, where it rendered great service. It re- 
turned under Major Joseph B. Belts. Dr. Clinton was 
made consulting surgeon of the First American Army 
and later of the Second American Army and advanced to 
the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. 

On April 19th, 1919, was awarded to Base Hospital 
No. 23, the following citation : 

"Lieut-Col. Marshall Clinton, M. C, IT. S. A., for ex- 
ceptionally meritorious and conspicuous services at Base 
Hospital No. 23, France, American Expeditionary Forces. 
In testimony thereof, and as an expression of apprecia- 
tion of these services, I award him this Citation. 

John J. Pershing, 


On May 11th, Major-General Robert Alexander and 
staff with the veterans of the fighting 77th Division re- 
ceived a royal welcome. The 302d Regiment of Engineers 
were followed by two sections of Infantry, the heroes of 
Chateau Thierry and the Argonne Forest. 

On May 21st, the remaining 117 members of the 77th 
Division arrived and were also welcomed. 

On May 30th, about 300 veterans of the 78th Division, 
known as the Lightning Division, returned and were 
heartily welcomed. 

The 309th Infantry Regiment of the 78th Division, re- 
turned later. That Regiment was in the Argonne Forest 


from October 16th to November 5tk, 1918. It had been in 
the Saint Mihiel sector from September 1st to October 
4th, 1918. 

On June 8th, 300 more members of the 309th Infantry 
Regiment were welcomed back to Buffalo. 

On July 10th, 104 members of the 51st and 53d pioneer 
regiments returned under escort of Dr. O. Frank Bruso. 

On August 14th about 100 members of the 5th and 6th 
Regiments of Marines returned to Buffalo and received a 
rousing welcome. It will be remembered that it was the 
United States Marines that checked the German advance 
at Chateau Thierry and Belleau Wood and eventually 
turned the tide of battle in the great war. 

Commissioner Charles M. Heald officially welcomed 
them. They were in the fight that saved Paris from the 
enemy, when the German advance appeared irresistible. 

In welcoming home its 18,000 or more soldiers, Buffalo 
expended something like |80,000, in addition to the ex- 
penses of organizations and individuals. 


The campaign for the fifth and last Liberty Loan was 
opened in Buffalo, April 21st, 1919, by Attorney-General 
A. Mitchell Palmer at a banquet at the Iroquois Hotel. 
Walter P. Cooke, Chairman of the Liberty Loan Com- 
mittee, presided, and opened the campaign and later pre- 
sented Mayor George S. Buck and Attorney-General Pal- 
mer. Buffalo's quota to be raised was |46,000,000. That 
with the |190,000,000 raised in the four preceding Liberty 
Loan campaigns totalled f 236,000,000. Several hundred 
members of the campaign committee were in attendance. 
Hon. Job E. Hedges, Admiral William S. Sims, General 
John F. O'Ryan, Col. William J. Donovan and others 
spoke during that campaign. Pershing's Band was in 
Buffalo to arouse interest in the campaign. Mayor Buck 


declared a civic half holiday on May 2nd when 637 little 
girls, dressed in white, paraded the streets with the large 
American flag, 50 x 75 feet, which had been displayed in 
other cities. The campaign ended May 10th and the Buf- 
falo subscriptions totalled $57,103,250, which was $11,- 
003,250 in excess of its quota. Buffalo's record in the 
fourth Liberty Loan Campaign shows that its citizens 
subscribed in the aggregate for $66,583,700. 


Buffalo's War Exposition was opened at the Broadway 
Auditorium on January 1st, 1919, with a complete pro- 
gramme of exercises, William A. Morgan presiding. Cere- 
monies were also observed at Elm wood Music Hall at 
which Hon. Newton D. Baker, Secretary of War, was the 

The exposition continued nine days and war materials 
and paraphernalia were exhibited. That was in aid of the 
Bed Cross and other war activities and was seen by 250,- 
000 visitors. 

On Saturday evening, January 4th, 1919, occurred the 
annual dinner of the Buffalo Chamber of Commerce, 
presided over by Henry D. Miles, its president. Secretary 
of War Newton D. Baker, and John McF. Howie, were 
the principal speakers. 

On January 8th, Buffalonians assembled in the Elm- 
wood Music Hall to pay tribute to the memory of the 
late Col, Theodore Boosevelt, who died at Oyster Bay, 
January 6th, 1919. Chancellor Charles P. Norton of Buf- 
falo University presided, and addresses were made by 
Rev. George Frederic Williams, Rev. Father Mooney and 
Rev. S. V. V. Holmes. 

On January 14th, the City Council approved the pro- 
posed bond issue of $8,000,000 for additional school build- 
ings and facilities. 


About January 15th, Col. Charles Clifton donated to 
the Buffalo Fine Arts Academy $100,000, the income of 
which is to be used in the purchase of rare works of art. 
That is the largest gift made to the Academy aside from 
the gift of the building presented by J. J. Albright. 

On February 1st, 1919, Rev. William Turner, D. D., 
professor at the Catholic University at Washington, was 
appointed Bishop of the Buffalo Diocese. He was con- 
secrated at Brooklands near Baltimore on March 30th, 
1919, by James Cardinal Gibbons. He was installed as 
the Sixth Roman Catholic Bishop of Buffalo on April 
9th, 1919, by Archbishop Patrick J. Hayes of New York, 
assisted by Bishop Thomas J. Walsh of Trenton and 
Bishop Edmund F. Gibbons of Albany. He is an ac- 
complished linguist and the author of works on philosophy 
and religion. 

The Right Rev. Charles Henry Brent, D. D., served for 
a year or more as senior headquarters chaplain in the 
American Expeditionary Forces in France and was in 
close touch with General Pershing. He rendered dis- 
tinguished services and was raised to the rank of Major. 
He arrived in Buffalo on February 4th, 1919, and was 
formally welcomed by representative citizens in Elmwood 
Music Hall on February 6th, 1919. On the same day he 
was installed as Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of West- 
ern New York with an impressive ceremonial. He is the 
Fourth Bishop of the Diocese and was formerly the Mis- 
sionary Bishop of the Philippine Islands. 

On January 24th, Rabbi Louis J. Kopald celebrated his 
sixth anniversary as rabbi of Temple Beth Zion on Dela- 
ware Avenue. There was a large attendance. 

On January 30th, word was received in Buffalo that 
the Federal Reserve Board had decided to establish a 
branch bank in Buffalo, which was opened on May 15th 
with R. M. Gidney, its manager. 


On January 30th the appointment of Harry Wescott 
Rockwell of Pelham Manor as principal of the State Nor- 
mal School of Buffalo was approved by the State Board of 
Regents to succeed the late Daniel Upton. 

The Buffalo War Relief Committee organized June 
20th, 1916, and consisting of Col. Charles Clifton, Ed- 
mund Hayes, Hugh Kennedy, Jesse C. Dann, Rev. S. V. 
V. Holmes, Charles Van Bergen, George B. Mathews, O. 
E. Foster, and George P. Sawyer, made its report on Feb- 
ruary 27th, showing that it collected and disbursed 
|250,486.99 principally to French, Armenian, Syrian, 
Serbian and Belgian children and agencies and had do- 
noted $8,000 to the Red Cross and lesser amounts to Y. 
M. C. A., hospitals and to other agencies. 

On March 27th the Buffalo State Normal School was 
dedicated and Harry W. Rockwell was formally installed 
as principal. Dr. Thomas E. Finnegan of the State De- 
partment of Education delivered the formal address at 
dedication and installation. The State Board of Regents 
were present and Dr. Charles A. Richmond, President of 
Union College, and Dr. James Byrne, Regent, delivered 
addresses, and Principal Rockwell responded. 

On April 20th, Buffalo members of the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows, including representatives of 48 
lodges of Erie County, celebrated at Elmwood Music Hall 
the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Order in 
America. Judge Henry V. Borst, at the head of the Or- 
der, was the principal speaker. 

On April 21st, the Broadway National Bank, 1067 
Broadway, was opened with Maxwell M. Nowak as Presi- 

On May 1st, Frederic Almy celebrated the twenty- 
fifth anniversary of his secretaryship of the Charity Or- 
ganization Society of Buffalo. 

On May 1st, Buffalo Sunday School children paraded 


the streets and were reviewed by Mayor Buck and mem- 
bers of the City Council at Delaware Park. 

On May 7th, nearly all the Bishops of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church convened in the Richmond Avenue M. 
E. Church in this city in their semi-annual Board meet- 
ing, which extended over several days. The Bishops were 
from all parts of the country and remained over Sunday, 
May 11th, and preached in various pulpits of the city. 

On May loth, Governor Alfred E. Smith appointed 
Hon. Philip A. Laing, County Judge of Erie County, a 
Justice of the Supreme Court to fill the vacancy caused 
by the death of Justice Herbert P. Bissell until the next 
election; and on the same day the Governor appointed 
former Senator George B. Burd, County Judge of Erie 
County, until the election and qualification of a succes- 
sor to Philip A. Laing, resigned. 

Early in June, Dr. Francis E. Fronczak, City Health 
Commissioner, returned from Poland. He was a director 
of moral and physical welfare work in the 28 camps of 
the Polish Army and in charge of the sanitation of army 
camps. He was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel and 
transferred to Red Cross work. 

On June 13th, the Buffalo Chamber of Commerce went 
on its cruise up the lake to Cleveland and up the Detroit 
River. The principal speaker on that occasion was Hon. 
Theodore E. Burton, former U. S. Senator from Ohio ; 
500 Buffalonians made the cruise. The party was en- 
tertained in Cleveland by the Cleveland Chamber of Com- 

On June 15th, patriotic exercises were held in the Park 
at the Front under the auspices of the Niagara Frontier 
Past Chancellors' Association of the Knights of Pythias. 
The orators of the occasion were Hon. Francis M. Hugo, 
Secretary of State and Rev. William R. Torrens of Buffalo. 

An army aeroplane took mail from Buffalo to Albany 


on June 22nd in two hours and twenty minutes. Lieu- 
tenant John Plumb was the aviator and the machine was 
"The Phoebe/' Miss Dorothy G. Craigie, an Albany re- 
porter, was a passenger. 

On July 9th, Roland Rohlfs of Buffalo made a flight 
from Buffalo to Hempstead, Long Island, in one of the 
new Curtiss Orioles, without stop, in five hours. 

On July 30th, Roland Rohlfs in a Curtiss 400 horse- 
power triplane broke the American record in attaining 
the altitude of 30,700 feet over the Roosevelt Field at 
Long Island. 

Independence Day was celebrated as no other July 4th 
had been for years. Thousands of Buffalo soldiers from 
European battlefields joined in the parade and exercises. 
Ralph S. Kent presided and addresses were made by 
Mayor Buck, Chaplain John C. Ward and Walter P. 
Cooke. Mr. Cooke paid tribute to the returned heroes 
and said that they a had carried the flag across the seas 
and brought it back unsullied by compromise or defeat, 
but glorified by victory." They had demonstrated that 
America is willing to fight for liberty not only for herself 
but for the world. 

On July 18th, Charles F. Boine, an attorney of Buffalo, 
was appointed temporary Postmaster, following the 
death of George J. Meyer. 

On July 20th, Rev. Dr. W. F. Smith took up his pas- 
toral duties at the Delaware Avenue Methodist Episcopal 
Church. He succeeded Rev. Thomas Oliver Grieves, who 
resigned to accept a call to Boise City, Idaho. 

On August 3rd, Buffalo was visited by Hans Sulzer, 
the Ambassador of Switzerland to the United States. 

On August 5th, the World's Conference of the Chris- 
tian Endeavor Societies convened in Buffalo. Rev. 
Francis E. Clark, the founder and 2200 delegates from 
many parts of the world were in attendance. They were 


officially welcomed by Mayor Buck and addressed by 
Hon. Newton D. Baker, Secretary of War. It was a re- 
markable assemblage. 

The Knights of Columbus held a convention in Buffalo 
on August 5th and were addressed by Admiral William 
Shepard Benson, Hon. Newton D. Baker, Hon. Franklin 
D. Roosevelt, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, James A. 
Flaherty of Philadelphia, and Bishop Thomas J. Sha- 
han, rector of the Catholic University in Washington. 
The convention outlined an educational programme and 
adjourned August 7th. 

On August 7th, Thomas Morton Gibson, vice-president 
of Adam, Meldrum & Anderson Company, was presented 
with a testimonial by his associates in the store on the 
completion of fifty years continuous service and received 
the congratulations of his many friends in and out of 
the establishment. 

Labor Parade on September 1st, was one of the largest 
ever witnessed. Every class and condition of labor was 
represented in the parade. 

On September 13th, prominent merchants, manufac- 
turers, statesmen and publicists of Switzerland, number- 
ing 200, visited Buffalo and Niagara Falls industries. 

On September 14th, President-elect Charles D. B. King 
of Liberia, Africa, accompanied by H. T. Worley, the 
financial adviser of that Republic, was in Buffalo en route 
for Boston. 

September 17th was observed pursuant to the procla- 
mation of the Governor and that of the acting Mayor, 
Charles M. Heald, as Constitutional Day. 

On September 20th, seven heroes of the great war re- 
ceived decorations from the Italian and French Govern- 
ments in recognition of heroic services. Lieutenant T. 
A. Murphy of the 108th Field Artillery, received the Bel- 
gian Cross, while in Europe. 


On September 22nd, there were strikes of steel workers 
at Buffalo and Lackawanna plants as there were at such 
plants in other parts of the country. Several hundred 
went out in Buffalo and Lackawanna. There was but 
little rioting in this vicinity. The strikers had a large 
but orderly parade in Lackawanna on October 25th, but 
the strike was not a success and the workers gradually 
resumed work when they could do so. 

The new arts course in the University of Buffalo 
opened on September 29th with several new professors and 
a student body of 1000 members. 

The Medical annex of the Grosvenor Library was 
opened on September 22nd, affording reference works and 
ample accommodations for physicians and medical stu- 

Surplus army foods were placed on sale at several sta- 
tions in Buffalo on September 23rd, and the sale con- 
tinued for several days and at different dates. 

On October 6th, King Albert and Queen Elizabeth of 
the Belgians and Crown Prince Leopold, the Belgian 
Ambassador Baron de Cartier de Marchienne, and Bar- 
oness de Marchienne, Countess Chislaine de Caraman- 
Chimay, lady in waiting to her Majesty, Lieutenant Gen- 
eral Baron Jacques, Commander of the Third Division of 
the Belgian army, and suite, visited Buffalo and received 
a royal welcome. Mayor Buck delivered the address of 
welcome. While in Buffalo King Albert, the Queen and 
Prince Leopold were entertained at the home of Mrs. 
Charles W. Goodyear on Delaware Avenue. 

The Buffalo Orpheus celebrated its Golden Jubilee with 
a concert at Elmwood Music Hall October 6th and a 
banquet on October 7th with several speeches in appre- 
ciation of the work of the organization and its contribu- 
tions in the musical culture of the city. 

On October 14th, the Lafayette National Bank of Buf- 


falo was opened, facing Lafayette Square, with Hon. 
George Zimmerman as president. 

Cardinal Mercier of Belgium was introduced to Buffalo 
on October 15th, by Mayor Buck and Hon. Frank B. 
Baird. Elmwood Music Hall was filled to greet him. 
There Judge Daniel J. Kenefick introduced the Cardinal. 
He was driven about the city and spent the night at the 
Episcopal residence of Bishop Turner. The Buffalo Ex- 
press said of the Cardinal that "This man is unique 
among the great figures of these extraordinary times." 

The Boosevelt Memorial Association was addressed at 
the Hutchinson High School on October 27th by Hon. 
William R. Wood, M. C, of Indiana, who paid high 
tribute to the memory of the late Colonel Roosevelt. 

At the general election on November 4th, Arthur W. 
Kreinheder, Frank C. Perkins and Ross Graves were 
elected as members of the Buffalo City Council. Hon. 
Charles M. Heald and Hon. Frederick G. Bagley, after 
serving most efficiently as Councilmen, retired on De- 
cember 31st. 

Alonzo G. Hinkley was elected Justice of the Supreme 
Court, Thomas H. Noonan was elected County Judge of 
Erie County, Horace F. Hunt was elected Commissioner 
ol Charities and George W. Woltz was elected as Chief 
Judge of the City Court of Buffalo. 

On November 11th, Armistice day, Prince Casimir Lu- 
bomirski and Princess Therese Lubomirski of Poland 
were in Buffalo and attended sessions of the All-Polish 
Convention at Dom Polski where 800 delegates assembled. 
Mayor Buck and Health Commissioner Dr. Francis E. 
Fronczak met the Prince and party at the station and 
they were escorted to the Hotel Iroquois by Battery C. 
of the 65th Artillery Regiment. In the party were Count 
Francis Pulaski, first Secretary of the new Polish Em- 
bassy to the United States. 


On November 16th, 50 members of the Trade Missions 
of our war allies visited Buffalo, seeking American cred- 
its. British, French, Italian and Belgian interests were 

In November, James Moore Hickson, the lay healer of 
the Anglican Church of England, was in Buffalo a full 
week and held meetings beginning November 17th in St. 
Paul's Episcopal Church, which were largely attended. 

The third campaign for the Joint Charity Fund, which 
ended on November 24th, resulted in raising $461,662, 
whereas the amount sought was $400,000. That fund is 
to go to the Bed Cross and to nine local charities. 


The ex-lake grain receipts at Buffalo for the season of 
navigation were 94,472,127 bushels and 5,155,755 barrels 
of flour which estimated as grain made the total grain 
receipts 120,250,902 bushels whereas in 1918 the total 
receipts, including flour, were 131,065,678 bushels. The 
receipts of ore were 4,837,981 tons, of lumber 16,374,709 
feet, of shingles 50,536,000, and other articles less than 
those of 1918, except sacks of feed, which were 744,242 as 
compared with 288,487 received in 1918. The exports 
from Buffalo up the lakes in coal, totalled 4,156,480 tons, 
in salt 131,268 barrels, in cement 250 barrels and in sugar 
152,750 barrels. 

The shrinkage in ex-lake tonnage was due in part to 
the Federal Administration of the railroads and the 
shipment of grains under the control of the Governmental 
agencies by all-rail routes to the seaboard. The canal 
tonnage for the year on all the canals of the State totalled 
1,238,844 tons. On the Erie canal it was 842,164 tons, on 
the Champlain canal it was 363,699 tons, on the Cayuga 
and Seneca canal it was 12,252 tons, on the Oswego canal 
it was 15,888 tons, and on the Black Elver it was 4,841 


tons. The canal tonnage of the port of Buffalo for the 
year 1919 was: out-going, 203,925 tons; in-coming, 382,- 
842 tons. 


Since the signing of the armistice and during the year 
1919, Buffalo's industries slackened down in the produc- 
tion of the munitions and supplies of war and began to 
assume normal conditions. The large factories completed 
such contracts as were not cancelled, but soon went back 
to the pre-war basis in production, though wages were 
not materially reduced. It became necessary, however, to 
let go many employes, and thousands were out of em- 
ployment. The returning soldiers without positions in- 
creased the number of unemployed. In the meantime the 
prices of edibles, of household necessities, of clothing and 
of fuel advanced despite all efforts on the part of the Gov- 
ernment to regulate prices. They are now higher than 
they were during the war. Labor conditions have been 
unsettled and business affairs have been undergoing a re- 
adjustment to meet changed conditions. Still more seri- 
ous conditions prevail in other countries, which increase 
their seriousness in this country. Thoughtful citizens 
are investigating the industrial, economic and financial 
problems of the times, not for the purpose of accentuat- 
ing, but rather for the purpose of allaying the unrest. 
It has been quite too much the popular conception of 
many to argue themselves into a state of self -justification 
to sustain themselves in their efforts to get whatever they 
were able from others and from the Government at the 
least expenditure of time and money on their part. Such 
a conception of duty to one's self, to his neighbor and to 
his country is not in accord with the Golden Rule of do- 
ing justice to others; and furthermore, it is destructive 
of the confidence that must exist in all business transac- 
tions. All classes must give something to the common- 


weal rather than strive to take from it, either wages or 
profits, to which they are not justly entitled, else this 
Government may not endure. The responsibility of self- 
government must be borne by all classes and cannot be 
disregarded by any without imperilling its foundations. 


During the year the Buffalo Chamber of Commerce has 
been very much engrossed in many activities. Its presi- 
dent, Mr. Samuel B. Botsford, and directors and staff, 
have been frequently called upon to receive and enter- 
tain visiting groups of representatives and organizations 
from other states and foreign countries, notably from 
Italy, France, Belgium, Great Britain and elsewhere, and 
veteran soldiers from Belgium and France. Judge 
Thomas H. Noonan was chairman of the entertainment 
committee. The visitors came from all parts of Western 
Europe. They had lived so long in shell-shocking and 
nerve-racking war zones, that they were impelled to seek 
asylum where for a time they might enjoy the blessings 
of peaceful environment. The Chamber's greatest service 
to the community, however, was its success in securing 
important new industries. Throughout the year it car- 
ried on negotiations with scores of new enterprises, en- 
tertained their representatives in Buffalo, secured the de- 
tailed information they required and straightened out 
difficulties at Albany and Washington for them. The 
most notable achievement was the securing of Dunlop 
American, Ltd., which is expected to become the largest 
industry on the frontier. 

On December 23rd and 24th, the Lusk Legislative In- 
vestigating Committee held sessions in Buffalo and di- 
rected the searching by the police of the headquarters of 
the Communists. Thirty or more arrests were made, and 
these were followed by other arrests in the nation-wide 


raid on January 2nd, when 136 alleged radicals were 
taken into custody in Buffalo by the police and Federal 
agents. The Department of Justice served documentary 
evidence from Eussian sources showing that a world-wide 
Bolshevik programme was to be inaugurated. 


The first notable death to occur was that of the Rev. 
Samuel S. Mitchell, D. D., on January 7th. He was 
pastor of the First Presbyterian church for 23 years, 
from 1880 until 1904, and one of the ablest pulpit orators 
in Buffalo. His pastorate extended over the period when 
the church organization left its old edifice down town and 
located in its new building at the Circle which was opened 
on December 13th, 1891. 

On January 18th, Leo P. Frohe passed away. He had 
been engaged in stained-glass window and decorating 
business for 40 years and for 25 years was captain of 
Commandery No. 14 of the Knights of St. John. 

James F. Crooker, former City Superintendent of Edu- 
cation and later State Superintendent of Education, died 
in New York at the age of 84 years, February 1st, 1919. 
He was elected City Superintendent of Education in 1881, 
and served from January 1882 to 1891 when he was ap- 
pointed by Governor Flower, State Superintendent of 
Education and served in that position until 1894, when 
he returned to Buffalo and was for a time in the Water 
Bureau with the late Colonel Francis E. Ward. 

February 24th, William P. Goodspeed, business man- 
ager of the Buffalo Evening News, died as a result of in- 
juries received in an automobile accident. He was well 
and favorably known in the city and had been associated 
with the Netvs for 40 years. 

On February 25th, Sylvester E. Croll, the well known 
sales manager and director of the Fenton Fire Box Com- 
pany of Tonawanda, passed away. 


On February 26th, former Justice Thomas Murphy 
died. He brought many reforms to the Police Court 
where he served from 1901 to 1909. 

On February 28th, at her home in Honolulu, there 
passed away Mrs. William Alanson Bryan, formerly Miss 
Elizabeth Letson, who for 17 years before her marriage 
was associated with the Buffalo Society of Natural Sci- 
ences and director of the Museum. 

On March 6th, George L. Williams of New York, for- 
merly a Buffalo banker, passed away. He was for many 
years a member of this Society, and was treasurer of the 
Pan-American Exposition Company. His burial took 
place in Buffalo on March 8th. 

On March 18th, George W. Wilson, Treasurer of the In- 
ternational Railway Company, died, and on the same day 
Arthur B. Christey, former Deputy City Comptroller, 
died suddenly of paralysis. 

On April 5th, Margaret L. Wilson, widow of the late 
Robert P. Wilson, and daughter of the late Judge James 
M. Smith, died. She was the aunt of Charles R. Wilson, 
Vice-President of this Society, and was a member of the 
Historical Society. She held several positions of trust 
and was devoted to charities, literature, art and music. 

On April 10th, at Fort Wayne, Indiana, Simon A. Nash 
passed away. He had been Police and City Court Judge 
and County Clerk of Erie County. 

April 30th, Hon. Herbert P. Bissell, Justice of the Su- 
preme Court, and member of the Historical Society, died 
of heart failure while presiding at a trial in Lockport. 
He graduated from He Veaux College in Niagara Falls in 
1873. Thereafter he studied in Germany for two years 
and later entered Harvard University from which he 
graduated in 1880, with the degree of B. A. In 1913, he 
was appointed by Governor Dix, Justice of the Supreme 
Court in the Eighth Judicial District for the remainder 


of that year. At the November election that year he was 
elected for the full term of 14 years succeeding the late 
Justice Alfred Spring. Judge Bissell was an accom- 
plished gentleman of scholarly attainments, and for many 
years one of the favorite after-dinner speakers in this 
city. His successor, appointed by Governor Smith, is 
Hon. Philip A. Laing, then County Judge of Erie County. 

On May 21st passed away John G. Seeger, who had 
been in the furniture business since 1880. 

On May 21st, Edward Elden, for a long time connected 
with the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad Com- 
pany, passed away. He was well known in fraternal 
circles in Buffalo. 

On May 22nd, Mary Shepard Parke, wife of James B. 
Parke, died. She was a graduate of Elmira College and 
historian of the North Presbyterian Church. She was 
one of the founders of the Woman's Christian Temper- 
ance Union, a member of the Women's Educational & In- 
dustrial Union, of the Homeopathic Hospital, and was 
on the boards of many civic, philanthropic and educa- 
tional institutions. She was a graceful writer of prose 
and verse. 

On May 25th, after an illness of two years, Adolph 
Rebadow died at his home on Auburn Avenue. He was 
senior member of the law firm of Rebadow, Ladd & Brown. 
For a time he was Transfer Tax Appraiser in this city. 
He was one of the best known and most popular members 
of the Bar. 

William S. Wicks, a life member of the Historical So- 
ciety and the Buffalo Fine Arts Academy and a Fellow of 
the American Institute of Architects, died on May 30th. 
He was a member of the firm of Green & Wicks, archi- 
tects. He was a Park Commissioner of Buffalo from 1897 
to 1900. The firm designed many buildings in Buffalo, 
including the Albright Art Gallery building. 


On June 14th, Frederick A. Vogt, principal of the 
Hutchinson High School, died at his home. For 26 years 
he was principal of the old Central and Hutchinson High 
Schools, succeeding Henry P. Emerson of the former. He 
specialized in geology and natural history and received 
honorary degrees from Dartmouth and Colgate Colleges. 

Herman F. Gentsch passed away June 18th. He was 
superintendent of printing in the Matthews, Northrup 
Works and was associated with that business for 65 
years. He served in the Civil War in the 116th New 
York Infantry Regiment. 

On June 30th, suddenly passed away, while at his desk, 
John L. Daniels, for several years cashier of the Bank of 
Buffalo. For 36 years he had been identified with that 
banking institution and was one of the popular and ef- 
ficient bank cashiers of Buffalo. He was also a promi- 
nent member of the Buffalo Yacht Club. 

Martin Fisher, of the firm of Martin Fisher & Sons, 
died July 2nd. He established the heating and ventilat- 
ing business of the firm 50 years ago. 

On July 13th, George Joseph Meyer died at his home 
on North Street. He was appointed Postmaster on July 
2 ? 1916, to fill out the unexpired term of the late William 
F„ Kasting. He was one of the delegates at large to the 
Democratic Convention that nominated President Wilson. 
For many years he was engaged in the malting business. 
He was widely and favorably known in Buffalo. 

On July 23rd, William J. Forsyth of the firm of For- 
syth & Son, shoe dealers on Seneca Street, died after an 
operation. He had been in the shoe business 40 years. 
For 25 years he had been president of the Irish-American 
Savings & Loan Association. 

On August 6th, Police Inspector Charles N. Miller, 
well known in Buffalo, passed away at his home on Bird 
Avenue. He was formerly in the lumber business and 
the first president of the Lumbermen's Union. 


On August 6th, Dr. John A. Pettit passed away. He 
had been in active practice in Buffalo from 1874 until 
1917, when he met with an accident that incapacitated 
him for business. He was Deputy Health Commissioner 
under the late Dr. Ernest Wende. 

On August 11th, James B. McDonnell died after an 
operation. For 27 years he was the Great Commander 
of the Maccabees and was well known in other fraternal 

On August 12th, Thomas O'Brien passed away. He 
had been in the Police Department for more than 43 
years. He entered the Signal Corps service of the United 
States Army at the age of 14 and was the inventor of 
several improvements in telegraphic instruments. 

Judge William H. Cuddeback, Associate Judge of the 
Court of Appeals, died on August 16th, 1919, at Goshen, 
X. Y. He was chairman of the Democratic Committee of 
Erie County from 1895 to 1897 and Corporation Counsel 
for Buffalo for the years 1898 to 1902. He was elected 
Associate Judge of the Court of Appeals in 1912 and 
served thereon from January 1913 until his death. 

Captain Timothy W. Collins of the Central Park Police 
Precinct, died on August 29th. He was the second oldest 
captain in service, his term continuing from October, 
1899, and most of the time at the Austin-street station. 

Professor Adolf Duschak, for 36 years principal of 
Public School No. 9 on Bailey Avenue, died on Septem- 
ber oth at the age of 77 years lacking one day. He was a 
graduate of the University of Vienna. He was familiar 
with the Hebrew, Greek, Latin, German, French, English 
and other modern languages. He was an accomplished 
scholar. He knew the Bible and was a lecturer on scien- 
tific subjects. He was a member of the former Liberal 
Club and later of the Unitarian Club. 

On September 14th, Miss Martha T. Williams, daughter 


of the late Gibson T. Williams and Harriet C. H. Wil- 
liams, passed away at her home on Main Street. She 
was well known for her interest in philanthropic work. 
She and her mother founded the Children's Hospital on 
Bryant Street, 26 years prior to her death. 

On September 22nd, Albert G. Hatch passed away. He 
had been engaged in the real estate business in Buffalo 
for many years. He made a study of archaeology and 
left a fine collection. 

On October 14th, Mrs. Emily Babcock Alward, a life 
member of this Society, passed away. 

On October 17th, Miss Sophie C. Becker, a resident 
member of this Society, died. She was assistant superin- 
tendent of the Buffalo Public Schools. 

On October 18th, Edward J. Eisele died at the advanced 
age of 89 years. He was a member of the firm of King & 
Eisle, one of the best known jewelry firms in the country. 
Mr. Eisele had held many positions of trust in this city. 

On October 28th, William 0, Russell died at the ad- 
vanced age of 89 years. He came to Buffalo on a canal- 
boat in 1830, and was for many years engaged as a mem- 
ber of the firm of Felthousen & Russell, which dealt in 
ship supplies. He was a member of this Society. 

On October 30th, Charles H. Steinway, a life member 
of this Society, passed away in New York City. The 
firm of which he was a member, at the close of the Pan- 
American Exposition, presented this Society with the 
grand piano in the central court of this building. 

On November 5th, George W. Farnham of the George 
W. Farnham Company, died of heart trouble. He was 
prominent in the Buffalo Chamber of Commerce, and in 
other organizations, and a member of this Society. 

On November 9th, John Kam, formerly a maltster, died 
at his home on Linwood Avenue. 


On November 10th, Hon. Edward K. Emery died at his 
home in Argyle Park. Judge Emery was a member of 
the Assembly in 1887 and 1888, County Judge of Erie 
County from 1896 to 1906, and was then elected a Justice 
of the Supreme Court, where he served until his death. 


Andrew Langdon, honorary president of the Buffalo 
Historical Society since 1910 and president of the So- 
ciety from 1894 to 1909, inclusive, died on November 
11th at the age of 84 years. He was one of Buffalo's Park 
Commissioners from 1897 to 1903 and was one of its 
Grade Crossing Commissioners for a term of five years. 
He was one of the directors of the Buffalo Academy of 
Fine Arts and of the Board of Directors of the Buffalo 
Society of Natural Sciences. He was also an officer of 
the Buffalo Chapter of the Sons of the American Revolu- 
tion and of the Society of Colonial Wars. In all those 
organizations, when in health, he took an active part. 
His energy was untiring and his advice always welcomed. 
He did much for charity and especially for the Homeo- 
pathic Hospital. His gifts were unique, as shown in the 
bronze replica of David by Michel Angelo, the original 
being one of the two greatest productions of that sculp- 
tor, presented to the Buffalo Historical Society and to the 
City of Buffalo ; and also shown in the Medicean candela- 
bra at the north approach to the Historical Building, 
and in the bronze gates in its north entrance, also the 
gift of Mr. Langdon, which were specially designed for 
it He was president of the Society when this building 
was secured as its permanent home. He was unfailing in 
support of all projects undertaken to promote its wel- 
fare. On some other occasion his services to this and to 
other organizations may be recorded at greater length. 


In all his activities, he was devoted to art and sought 
out the true aud beautiful, as evidenced in the gifts al- 
ready referred to and in others to the Buffalo Academy of 
Fine Arts. He seemed to have been guided if not inspired 
by a true conception of art and was content only with 
the exemplification of its ideality in achievement as in 
the statue of David and in the landscapes of Corot. This 
Society and this city will miss him. 

Dr. William G. Bissell died on November 14th. He was 
the brother of the late Justice Herbert P. Bissell. For 20 
years Dr. Bissell was Surgeon of the 74th Regiment, N. 
G. of New York, and in late years he was affiliated with 
the 65th Regiment. He was a member of various medi- 
cal, hygienic and military organizations, and at the time 
of his death was City Bacteriologist. 

Major-General Samuel M. Welch, commanding the 
Fourth Brigade, National Guard of New York, died sud- 
denly on November 23rd at his home in Johnson Park. 
He was a lawyer by profession, but had devoted much of 
his time for nearly half a century to military affairs. He 
was a veteran of the Spanish War at which time he com- 
manded the 65th Infantry Regiment, N. G. of New York. 
He was president of the National Guard Association of 
the State and chairman of the Law Committee for 30 
years. He was commissioned as Major-General by Gov- 
ernor Odell in 1904, in recognition of 25 years' active ser- 
vice in the National Guard and assigned to the Fourth 
Brigade in 1911 by Governor Dix. He had the longest 
continuous active service in the National Guard of any 
commissioned officer in Buffalo. 

On December 6th, John Lyon died at the Homeopathic 
Hospital. He was well known in fraternal circles and 
has been secretary of the local Eagles for ten years. 

On December 11th, George F. Rand, executive and 
chairman of the Board of Directors of the Marine Trust 


Company was killed in an aeroplane accident at Cater- 
harn, Surrey, England. He was returning from Paris to 
London, when in a thick fog, the machine crashed into 
and through a tree down to the ground and Mr. Rand 
was pinned under one of the wings of the machine. He 
suffered a compound fracture of the skull and laceration 
of the brain and died very soon. The remains were 
brought to Buffalo and the funeral took place on Decem- 
ber 26th, 1919. The burial was in Forest Lawn Cemetery. 
Before leaving France, he gave 500,000 francs to commem- 
orate the heroism of the French battalion in the defense 
of one of the outer trenches near Verdun, which battalion, 
as it was about to charge the enemy, was overwhelmed 
and buried by the explosion of a shell. Ambassador Wal- 
lace described the affair to President Poincare as "soldiers 
standing with bayonets fixed to meet the enemy, 'an eter- 
nal monument of an immortal courage'." Mr. Rand was 
a financier and banker of distinction. He made liberal 
contributions to joint charities and to the Harvard, Tech- 
nical and Cornell endowments and to churches. The 
aviator, Lieutenant Bradley, piloting the machine in 
which Mr. Rand was riding from Paris, was so badly in- 
jured that he also died. 

On December 21st, at Lakewood, Ohio, Frank E. 
Dimick passed away. He had been in poor health follow- 
ing the Spanish influenza, for some months. He had lived 
in Buffalo many years and was a prominent member of 
the Knights of Pythias. He was well and favorably 
known in Buffalo. 

Major Walter F. Gibson and Charles Tagg were in- 
stantly killed in an automobile collision with a telephone 
pole and then with a tree on the Williamsville road short- 
ly before midnight on December 20th. It was a most de- 
plorable accident. Major Gibson was assistant sales man- 
ager of the Adam, Meldrum & Anderson Company and 


had served on the military staff of Governor Charles S. 
Whitman. He was also well known in masonic organi- 

The long list of Buffalo's heroes who made the supreme 
sacrifice in the great war is not included in this report, 
but will be printed in that being compiled by Daniel J. 
Sweeney, City Clerk of Buffalo. They are among the im- 
mortals, and generations will recall their names in grate- 
ful remembrance of the supreme sacrifice which they 
made, in order that free institutions might be preserved 
and that the progress of our civilization be not stayed for 
an indefinite period of time. In that struggle, that drew 
into its vortex the nations of the earth, about 18,000 Buf- 
falonians were engaged and were in training therefor in 
addition to the many more thousands engaged at home in 
various war-service activities. When the history of Buf- 
falo's part in the great war is written we may then the 
better understand what it cost to win the war, to do 
which it was necessary to crush the military despotism 
of the Imperial German Empire, a despotism that stifled 
individual and self-directed enterprises as well as free- 
dom of speech and subordinated all human activities to 
the will of the Kaiser, a despotism that devastated Bel- 
gium as completely as Samaria was laid waste by Shal- 
maneser and Sargon, 724-721 B. C. History thus repeats 
itself and the brutal instincts of frenzied rulers spare 
neither the innocent nor the helpless in their dash for 


The foregoing record of events and survey of some of 
the activities of Buffalonians must neessarily be incom- 
plete, owing to their multitude and the limited time and 
space at our command, in which to enumerate the mili- 
tary activities, historical events and notable deaths, that 


occurred in Buffalo iu the year 1919. All those and many 
others will find permanent record in this Society, whose 
mission is to discover, collate and preserve the essentials 
of the history of this region. They are accumulating 
rapidly, when history is being made as fast as it has been 
during the past three years. This Society is doing what it 
can to perpetuate all such matters that constitute the his- 
tory of Buffalo. 

The growth of this city due to its rail and water trans- 
portation facilities and to its electric power generated at 
Niagara to propel its wheels of industry, all contributing 
to the multiplication of its diversified industries and to 
its commercial expansion, has been unprecedented. Many 
changes in the city itself have taken place, new areas 
have been occupied and the city has had a remarkable 
growth in many directions. In the transformation of old 
Buffalo into the present growing industrial city, old land- 
marks are passing and their structures are becoming his- 
toric. The next generation will know the Buffalo of the 
eighties largely from matters of history. This Society 
must do what it may to preserve and perpetuate that 

The managers of the Society have under consideration 
a plan to interest the pupils in the schools of Buffalo, in 
its library, museum and collections, that they may famil- 
iarize themselves with local history, which is so inter- 
related to state, national and Canadian history as to 
open up fields of research of increasing interest to the 
ambitious student. Here may be found abundant material 
for such research in the fundamentals of local history. 
The library and archives are open to the public daily. 
They are frequented by students and Buffalonians in in- 
creasing numbers. 

Its lecture courses are edifying and well attended. It 
is one of the active educational institutions of the city, 


it is rendering a public service to Buffalonians of in- 
estimable value. Its publications are genuine historical 
productions and commended by the American Historical 
Association and others competent to speak on contribu- 
tions to historical literature. 

The properties of the Society are stored in this fire- 
proof building and during the year some insurance has 
been taken out as an additional protection. The build- 
ing is in good repair and everything is being done to con- 
serve and preserve the valuable collections of this Society 
as well as its funds, as shown by the treasurer's report. 
His accounts are examined annually by a certified public 
accountant and are approved. 

The Board of Managers of this Society, who adminis- 
tered its affairs during the year 1919, were: Andrew 
Langdon, Honorary President; Henry W. Hill, Presi- 
dent ; Charles R. Wilson, Vice-President ; Frank H. Sever- 
ance, Secretary-Treasurer; Albert H. Briggs, M. D., Lee 
H. Smith, M. D., John G. Wickser, William A. Galpin, 
Howard H. Baker, Dr. G. Hunter Bartlett, G. Barrett 
Rich, Henry W. Sprague, William Y. Warren, Henry R. 
Rowland, George R. Howard, Loran L. Lewis, George A. 
Stringer, Captain Evan Hollister, Edward S. Hawley and 
Carlton R. Perrine. 


Mr. President, Members of the Buffalo Historical Society: 
Generally speaking, the year 1919 was one of economies. 
While our institution has been well maintained, we have 
not undertaken work involving much expense, either for 
the library or museum. I will not here repeat what I 
have said in former reports, on the needs of these depart- 
ments. The needs still continue. Our main outlay, aside 


from the necessary routine expenditure for maintenance, 
has been for insurance and for protective installation. 
Thanks to the efficient care of Engineer Thomas Jones 
and assistants, the property is well looked after and is in 
excellent condition. 

Only minor repairs have been required by the building. 
An inventory of museum property has been begun, and 
will be carried to completion, so far as it is possible to 
indicate values. 


I beg to direct the attention of the Society to one need 
which has existed ever since we took possession of this 
building, and which steadily increases. I mean the need 
of a safety storage vault, fire-proof, damp-proof and burg- 


During the year we lost by death nine members, a 
smaller number than in any other recent year. The names 
of those who have died are: 


Apr. 5. Mrs. Robert P. Wilson Resident Member 

Apr. 30. Hon. Herbert P. Bissell 

May 30. William S. Wicks Life 

Oct. 14. Mrs. Emily B. Alward 

Oct. 17. Miss Sopnie C. Becker Resident 

Oct. 28. William C. Russell 

Oct. 30. Charles H. Steinway, N. Y. City Life 

Nov. 5. George W. Farnham Resident 

Nov. 11. Andrew Langdon Patron 

With the exception of Mr. Steinway, whose life member- 
ship was bestowed in 1901, in recognition of his gen- 
erous gift of the Steinway concert-grand piano which 
tv on first prize at the Pan-American Exposition, all in 
the list were well-known citizens of Buffalo and most of 
them were long-time members and friends of this Society. 


Our paramount loss during the year was in the death 
of Mr. Langdon, for fourteen years its president, for ten 
more years, to the time of his death, its honorary presi- 
dent, and, from his first participation in the work of the 
Society, in 1886, always one of its foremost upbuilders. 
The Board of Managers, in a Memorial adopted shortly 
after his death, have reviewed at some length the char- 
acter and value of his services, and have striven to ex- 
press their appreciation of what he accomplished and 
their regard for him as an associate. This Memorial will 
appear, with this report, in the published Proceedings of 
the Society. 

During the year 1919, we gained two life members and 
61 annual members. 


Having no longer a State appropriation, our modest 
purchases for the Library have been made with money 
from the General Fund, and much of this has gone for 
necessary binding, the cost of which has greatly increased. 
We continue to add Buffalo imprints and books and 
pamphlets relating to our region, as well as the work of 
Buffalo authors. Some effort has been made to secure 
rare early imprints of Western New York towns. We 
have bought very sparingly of genealogy, and not at all 
of general works which go into the Buffalo Public or 
Grosvenor libraries. We aim to avoid duplication with 
these institutions. Several fine opportunities to secure 
desirable material at auction sales, were lost through too 
low bidding. 

The library has been greatly enriched during the year 
by gift. Most notable were a number of books received 
from Mrs. James Tillinghast, whose valuable gifts to our 
library were noted in my report a year ago. Her more 
recent gifts include John Guillim's "Display of Heraldry," 
1638 ; "Armorial historique du Pays de Vaud," 1880 ; and 


Lyndsay's Heraldic Manuscript of 1542, as published 1878. 
Many of the accessions relate to the recent war, and are 
gifts from our own or foreign Governments, or from vari- 
ous war-work organizations. 

By gift and purchase we have added 610 books and 
pamphlets during the year, the total number now in the 
Society library being 27,481. The Lord library, which 
we care for, numbers 10,260 volumes. The care and daily 
administration of these libraries continues, as for some 
years past, in the faithful and capable hands of Mrs. 
Anna A. Andrews. 


In May, at the close of the annual meeting of the 
American Association of Museums, in Philadelphia, the 
Secretary availed himself of the opportunity to visit the 
Library of Congress in order to learn what manuscripts 
were preserved there which are of importance in the his- 
tory of Buffalo and the Niagara region. The collection 
of such material is one of the first duties specified by the 
Constitution of this Society and the discovery of such 
material has been the constant aim of the Secretary. 
Heretofore manuscript material in the Library of Con- 
gress has not been easy to discover without the possible 
expenditure of much time and patience. In 1918, how- 
ever, there was published a handbook of manuscripts in 
the Library of Congress, which is a most useful guide to 
the student. By the aid of this manual your Secretary 
was able to examine in one day all of the material con- 
tained in the Manuscripts Division relating specifically 
to our region. No attempt was made to copy the papers 
examined, since it is much more satisfactory and much 
more economical to have them copied by photostat pro- 
cess by one of the professional firms who are accredited 
to the use of the facilities in the Manuscript Division. 


Here follows a brief record of the documents examined. 

Miscellaneous letters of Millard Fillmore. In view of 
the publication by this Society of Mr. Fillmore's more im- 
portant writings and of a large part of his letters, the 
Secretary does not recommend that any of these which 
may be still unpublished should be copied, as they do not 
appear to be of special value. 

Letters and reports of General Jacob Brown. These 
include interesting memoranda of occurrences on the Ni- 
agara during the campaign of 1814. Also two letter- 
books of General Brown, one of which is almost wholly 
devoted to letters written from Buffalo and the Niagara 
in 1814-15. This material would be most appropriate for 
our Publications and should, in any case, be copied and 
preserved in our library. 

Papers of Sir William Johnson, bound in one volume, 
folio. These were secured by the Library of Congress 
with the Library of Peter Force, which was purchased 
by the Government in 1867. The Johnson papers in this 
volume do not apparently duplicate any which were pre- 
served at Albany. Although they cover the period of 
1755 to 1774, in which Sir William was actively engaged 
in matters affecting the Niagara region, there is very 
little in them which would be a valuable addition to our 
local history. This was a disappointment to the secretary 
who had hoped to find in them much of importance. It 
is not recommended that any of them be copied for this 

"A Memoranda of a Military Tour to Posts and Garri- 
sons of the Western Lakes," by Captain Roger Jones, May 
20 to July 18, 1819. Sixty-three pages. This, it is be- 
lieved, is an unpublished record of our region of prime 
importance and a good deal of interest. A copy of it has 
been secured by this Society. 


An Orderly Book of Captain Beamsley Glasier, second 
battalion, 60th Regiment, British Army, contains a daily 
record of routine at Fort Niagara, November 4, 1771, to 
March 13, 1773. It is of some interest to the student of 
that period, but its copying is not recommended. Ex- 
cerpts from it should be secured at some convenient time. 

A certificate of Messrs. Sill, Thompson & Co., merchants 
of Black Rock, for the transportation of Stockton's com- 
pany from Black Rock to Detroit on board the Steamer 
Walk-in-the-Water, July 6, 1819, was an item of some 
curiosity and a copy was taken of it by the Secretary. 

The papers of Amasa Trowbridge contain a consider- 
able correspondence with the historian Benson J. Loss- 
ing, also by Trowbridge; a long description of Fort Erie 
with a history of its siege, also other narratives and three 
pencil sketches relating to the general subject of opera- 
tions on the Niagara in the war of 1814. These appear 
to be of enough importance to warrant their being copied 
for our collections. 

A portfolio of military xDapers, most of them written 
during the year 1838 by Major Nathaniel Young, then in 
command at Buffalo, includes numerous facts regarding 
the disturbances on the frontier at that period. While of 
some value to the student of the Upper Canada Rebellion, 
the collection as a whole has not enough value to war- 
rant the expense of copying. A record of it, however, 
should be kept by our institution in order to refer stu- 
dents to it as occasion arises. 

In 1917 the Library of Congress acquired as gift from 
Miss Sarah Norton and Eliot Norton, of Boston, a mis- 
cellaneous lot of papers of Charles Eliot Norton, relating 
to the campaign to save the scenic value of Niagara Falls, 
1880 to 1897. These papers are of prime importance in 
the history of our region. Some of them, however, have 
been published in New York and other newspapers of the 


time. All of them deal with a period in our history just 
closed and of which this Society some years since pub- 
lished a very adequate review by the Hon. Thomas V. 
Welch, first superintendent of the State Park at Niagara. 
While, therefore, the Norton papers in the Library of 
Congress are of great value, it is not recommended that 
a copy of them should be secured, at least until our funds 
for the development of our library are more ample. 


Volume XXIII of the Society Publications, issued dur- 
ing the year, is entitled "The Life of Gen. Ely S. Parker, 
Last Grand Sachem of the Iroquois and General Grant's 
Military Secretary." It was written for us by Mr. 
Arthur C. Parker, New York State Archaeologist. With 
the main narrative were published as appendices, and 
editorial notes, a number of documents and other papers, 
supplied in part by Mr. Parker, in part by the Secretary, 
who edited the volume. The work is of distinct value, as 
a contribution to the Indian history of Western New 
York, and of the nation, and has proved so popular that 
the edition is exhausted. It will be — is already, in fact 
— one of the scarce books of our regional history. 

The very great advance in the cost of everything con- 
nected with the printing trades and publishing business, 
makes the issuance of an annual volume which shall go 
free to all our members, something of a problem. To 
cheapen the quality of the book is not to be thought of. 
Of the 23 volumes which the Society has sent out, 20 
have been prepared by the present Secretary. It has 
taken years to gain a reputation for good work in this 
field, but we have gained it, and now enjoy a wide reputa- 
tion for the worth and good workmanship of our Publica- 
tions. To cease work in this line, or to let it appear in a 
cheapened form, would be, in the writer's judgment, a 


grievous mistake. It has long been the aim of your Secre- 
tary to make this series of volumes, as fully and complete- 
ly as possible, the repository of attractively-presented, ac- 
curately written records of the essential history of our 
region ; to make it the great standard encyclopaedia of 
Western New York history, an authority to which ref- 
erence may be made with confidence. Such in fact our 
Publications have become. But there remains very much 
important material of the earlier years, as yet not proper- 
ly recorded, but of importance; and each passing year 
creates new material — as instance, the part this com- 
munity has borne in the Great War — which it is our 
proper function to record and make available for the 
future. Our publication work should not be curtailed, 
but rather enlarged, and there should be no difficulty in 
meeting the cost. 


It should be added, regarding records of the recent 
war, that much time and labor have been given to their 
compilation. Where possible, classified data of the war 
activities of Buffalo men and women have been compiled 
on cards, now numbering several thousand. This list is 
supplemented with references to the Official Bulletin, 
published by the Government, to the daily press of Buf- 
falo and other sources, with classified scrapbooks, and 
the collection of books, pamphlets, posters and maps. 
A copy of our casualty list was supplied to the City of 
Buffalo, for use in the war volume, which, it is an- 
nounced, will be issued under municipal auspices, and 
edited by the City Clerk, Mr. Daniel J. Sweeney. On its 
issuance, if there appears to be need of further publica- 
tion properly to record the participation of this com- 
munity in the Great War or any phase of it, the Buffalo 
Historical Society will not lack material for such work. 



The usual lecture course has been provided for mem- 
bers and such non-members as have desired to avail 
themselves of opportunities here offered. The lectures 
for the past season were as follows : 

Jan. 14 — Illustrated 'Lecture: "Ancestral England in City, 

Castle and Cathedral" Homer H. Kingsley 

Jan. 28 — Illustrated Lecture: "The Castle-bordered Rhine" 

Dr. Thos. E. Potterton 

Feb. 11 — Historical Address: "Personal Impressions of Lin- 
coln" George Haven Putnam, 

Feb. 25 — Illustrated Lecture: "Siam and the War" .Frederic Dean 

Mar. 11 — Illustrated Lecture: "Way Down South in Dixie" 

Dr. A. Eugene Bartlett 

Mar. 25 — Historical Address: "America and the Future". . . 

William J. Durant, Ph. D. 

Nov. 4 — Illustrated Address: "Theodore Roosevelt" 

William Webster Ellsworth 

Nov. 18 — Address: "Adventures in Altruism" 

Dr. Arthur J. Francis 

Dec. 2 — Address: "Yankees' Purges Johnson 

Dec. 16 — Illustrated Lecture: "The Seven Wonders of the 

Ancient World" '. Dr. Edgar J. Banks 


In May Mr. Henry K. Howland and the Secretary rep- 
resented this Society at the annual meeting of the Amer- 
ican Association of Museums, in Philadelphia. At that 
meeting Mr. Howland completed a two-year term as 
President, and your Secretary was elected a member of 
the Council for two years. 

The annual meeting! of the New York State Historical 
Association, held at Rochester in September, was attend- 
ed by several of our members, including Hon. D. S. 
Alexander, who as President of the State Association, 
presided at its sessions; Miss Jane Meade Welch, who 
had a prominent part in the programme; and your Sec- 
retary, who was elected a Vice-President of the State 

In this connection it may properly be noted that Presi- 


dent Alexander of the State Historical Association has 
named Dr. James Sullivan, the State Historian, Dr. Dix- 
on Ryan Fox of Columbia University, and Frank H. 
Severance of the Buffalo Historical Society, a committee 
to co-operate with representatives of other societies and 
organizations, in proper observance of the Centenary an- 
niversary of the landing of the Pilgrim Fathers and other 
outstanding events in American history, the 300th anni- 
versaries of which fall in 1920 and 1921. The various 
celebrations are to be carried out under the direction of 
an international organization known as the Sulgrave In- 
stitution. Hon. John A. Stewart is chairman of the 
Board of Governors of the American Branch Institu- 
tion, with offices in the Woolworth Building, New York. 

On August 16th, the 100th New York Volunteer Regi- 
ment Association held an anniversary meeting in the 
Historical Building, and presented to this Society cer- 
tain regimental records of interest. 

In December, Buffalo was represented at the annual 
meeting of the American Historical Association, held at 
Cleveland, by Dr. Augustus H. Shearer of the Grosvenor 
Library and by the Secretary of this Society. Dr. Shearer 
who is also a member of this Society, was chairman of 
the annual conference of historical societies, at which 
your Secretary opened the discussion with a short address 
on "The Preservation of War Material." 

Numerous other addresses were made by the Secretary 
during the year, including one before the Morgan Chapter, 
New York State Archaeological Association, at Rochester, 
December 19th. There have been, as usual, many talks 
to schools, and to classes visiting the building. 

The neighborhood branch of the Red Cross, made up of 
women from Nye Park and vicinity, to whom in 1918, we 
had granted the use of a room in this building, continued 
to use it for the making of garments and hospital sup- 


plies until May. Although it deprived us for a time of 
the use of our Board Room, the interests of the institu- 
tion did not suffer, and it was a pleasure to extend help, 
even so slight as was in our power, to so worthy a cause. 

The Secretary is also treasurer for the Society, but the 
routine duties of that office have been discharged, as in 
former years, by his assistant, Miss Helen F. Moffat, to 
whose helpfulness and constant devotion to the interests 
of this institution, it is a pleasure to testify. 

The Secretary can but repeat what he has said many 
times before in these reports: That in every field of its 
endeavor, the Buffalo Historical Society seeks to be of 
practical help and of real use in the community. 

Frank H. Severance, 


On January 8 the Board of Managers re-elected the 
officers of the preceding year to serve during 1920. 

Jn 4H?maruutt 


Resolutions adopted by the Board of Managers, Buffalo 
Historical Society, December If, 1919 

We, the members of the Board of Managers of the 
Buffalo Historical Society, deeply feel the loss of our 
long-time friend and associate, Andrew Langdon, whose 
death occurred November 11, 1919. 

Mr. Langdon became a member of this Society Jan- 
uary 5, 1886, and a life member in 1887. In 1894 he was 
elected President, and he continued as the executive head 
of the Society until 1909, when at his own request, he 
retired from the active presidency; but was continued as 
Honorary President from that time until his death. 

His term of service as President covered the most ex- 
acting and difficult period in the history of the Society. 
Early in his administration he realized that this institu- 
tion should have a home of its own; and with the Hon. 
James M. Smith, Hon. Henry W. Hill, Dr. Joseph C. 
Greene and one or two other associates, he undertook to 
bring about the erection of a suitable building. The 
undertaking was in a fair way towards fruition, when 
the Pan-American Exposition project opened new oppor- 
tunities, and the present home of the Society was se- 
cured. Established in the Historical Building, the 
Society became a public institution, with enlarged ac- 



tivities and a new conception of its relation and duties 
to the community at large. Much of this expansion and 
growth may properly be ascribed to the impetus given to 
the organization under the presidency of Mr. Langdon. 

The natural pride which was his in the fufillment of 
bis plans and hopes, and the great interest he took in 
the progress of the Society, were shown in many ways. 
He was indefatigable in securing new members, and he 
enriched the building with numerous gifts, of historic and 
artistic merit. The Board of Managers created a new 
class of membership, which it termed Patrons. The Hon. 
James M. Smith headed the list and Mr. Langdon's name 
followed. No other members have been thus designated. 

Throughout his long term of service for the Historical 
Society, Mr. Langdon saw many changes in the personnel 
of this Board. Many of his earlier associates and co- 
workers passed from earth; but as new men were called 
to take their places the group held steadfast the memory 
and knowledge of what his efforts and enthusiasm had 
achieved for this Society; held unabated a high personal 
regard and sincere affection. So long as the Buffalo 
Historical Society shall endure, the memory of Andrew 
Langdon will not fade, nor shall the appreciation of 
what he did for the cause of historical scholarship, be 
lost from this community. 

We, his associates in the Board of Managers of the 
Buffalo Historical Society, direct that this expression of 
our respect, our appreciation and affection, be entered 
in the Minutes of the Society, and that a copy be trans- 
mitted to his family. 






All who are familiar with the history of the Niagara 
region and the Great Lakes during the period of the War 
of 1812, are aware that General Jacob Brown bore a 
prominent and honorable part in the events of that time. 
In July, 1813, he was made brigadier-general in the regu- 
lar army of the United States, and on Jan. 24, 1814, was 
assigned to the command of the Army of the Niagara, 
with the rank of major-general. He at once opened a 
vigorous campaign that was an unbroken list of victories. 
He captured Fort Erie, repulsed General Riall at Chip- 
pewa on July 5, 1814, and came off at least with equal 
honors in the disputed engagement at Lundy's Lane, 
July 25th, and in the struggle at Fort Erie, where, in 
the engagement of September 17th, General Drummond 
was badly worsted. Congress gave to General Brown 
a vote of thanks and struck a medal in his honor. 
He continued to command the northern division of the 
army until March 10, 1821, when he was appointed gen- 
eral-in-chief of the United States army, which position 
he retained until his death, February 24, 1828. 

The Buffalo Historical Society is the possessor of Gen- 
eral Brown's sword, and of several letters written by 
him. His memory is cherished in the annals of this reg- 
ion, and should be kept green, for he was a man of blame- 
less life, a true patriot, and was a competent soldier and 
leader at a time when the service of his country suffered 
from inexperience and incompetency. 


In 1819, General Brown conducted an expedition of 
general observation, to the various military posts on the 
Lakes. A journal of the tour, kept by Captain Roger 
Jones, is preserved in the Library of Congress. It is be- 
lieved never to have been published, and follows here- 
with, as copied by permission for the Buffalo Historical 

The Ontario, claimed (by Americans) to have been the 
first steamboat on the Lakes, was built at Sackett's 
Harbor in 1816, making her first trip in April, 1817. 
Major Gen. Jacob Brown and Captain M. T. Woolsey of 
the United States Army, were part owners but soon dis- 
posed of their interests. In 1832 the Ontario was broken 
up, at Oswego. Canadian writers claim priority for the 
Frontenac, built at Finkle's Point, near Kingston, in 
1816, and put into service in 1817. From Buffalo west- 
ward the tour was by the Walk-in-the-Water, the first 
steamboat above Niagara Falls, built at Black Rock in 
1818, and wrecked on the beach at Buffalo, Nov. 1, 1821. 


May 30. It is a duty of every military commander, to 
be well acquainted with the country over which his au- 
thority, as such, is extended. A knowledge of the im- 
portant points, along the border of the interior frontier, 
adjacent as many are to savage tribes, who for the most 
part are in some manner connected with, or influenced 
by, the English fur company, and Indian agents, can but 
be of great use and consequence. 

The Government appear to appreciate this kind of 


knowledge, as evidenced in the exploring expedition, 
under Major Long; and the fact that several of our regi- 
ments have been recently pushed far into the interior — 
to Green Bay, Prairie du Chien, St. Peter's, etc., fully 
demonstrate the propriety of those whose duty it is to 
order them there, to possess, at least, some knowledge of 
their location, as well as of the adjacent country. Hence, 
the spirit which induces a visit, by the Major General, 
commanding the Northern division of the Army, to this 
remote and great western region. 

Brownsville, May 30. Desirous to pass some days 
along the Niagara Strait, and there to contemplate, at 
leisure, its sublime and wonderful cataract and the neigh- 
boring grounds, by War events rendered infinitely inter- 
esting to the American citizen and soldier, I anticipated, 
one week, the General's departure. I must own, and 
with just pleasure, that this forward movement was en- 
tirely on account of Mrs. Jones, who would in conse- 
quence, with much more satisfaction (because of more 
time), enjoy the scenery and the pleasures of the ex- 

Mrs. Gen. Brown and Mrs. Col. Wool accompanied us 
as far as Sackett's Harbor. We were hospitably enter- 
tained by Col. Brady, with whom we dined. We passed 
the night within the cantonment. 

Those who were acquainted with this well-known place, 
during the war, can but be pleasantly surprised, to see it 
at present, so respectable a village. The principal street 
on either side is well paved, and the general appearance 
of the place vastly improved. The barracks, called Madi- 
son Barracks, are the best in the country, very spacious 
and built of durable materials. The whole military estab- 
lishment exhibits a good deal of taste and much comfort. 
Here the remains of our valued fellow-soldier, Gen. Pike, 
are deposited ; and of my two friends Capt. Nicholson, his 


aide-de-cainp, and Capt. Spencer, aide to Major Gen. 
Brown. The former was mortally wounded at York, the 
latter, at the Battle of Niagara. 

Sacketts Harbor, May 31. We embarked on board the 
steamboat Ontario early in the morning, and at half past 
seven left the harbor. On leaving this beautiful basin, 
which is one of the finest and most spacious harbors I 
ever saw, I could but gaze with a sort of national melan- 
choly, on the decayed and decaying hulks which [illegible] 
the shore, and which composed during our late struggle 
with Great Britain, the celebrated navy under Commo- 
dore Chauncey. 

Whilst they present an awful monument of the wonder- 
ful folly of the time, they nevertheless exhibit a striking 
instance of the astonishing energy of American artists. 
Those ships were admirably built, and as to the dispatch 
with which they were constructed, it would appear almost 
incredible. It is a remarkable fact, too, from the little 
schooner called the Lady of the Lake, to the Chippawa, 
the great 120 gun ship, thro' the several classes, that they 
excel in dimension, in like denomination, every vessel in 
the world! Yet, strange to tell, the Madison, the first 
ship built after the war existed, was flat-bottomed. In 
less than 12 months, however, these waters, until then 
so little understood, bore on its [sic] bosom, two triumph- 
ant fleets composed of splendid vessels of every class. 

At 2 p. m. we reached Oswego, which is prettily situ- 
ated, upon the left bank of the river of the same name, 
and just within its mouth. Its chief article of commerce 
is salt, manufactured at Salina. Upwards of 40,000 bar- 
rels in one year has been shipped from the place. Ten or 
fifteen schooners belong to the port. It will probably 
continue to be a depot of some importance. Except a 
very few miles, boats navigate all the way to Albany, 
along the Oswego river, Oneida lake, Wood creek to 


Borne, thence to Utiea thro' the canal, connecting it with 
the Mohock. 

At 6 p. m. we got under way and proceeded to Gennes- 
see river, distant 57 miles, which we entered the next 
morning as soon as it was light. 

June 1. We debarked at 7 in the morning, at the land- 
ing-place four miles up the river, and having procured a 
stage — emphatically called stage waggon — proceeded to 
Kochester, three miles distant, where an excellent break- 
fast was served us. Here our travelling companion Miss 
Skinner, a relative of the Gen's who had accompanied 
us from his house, separated from us and continued her 
journey home. 

The beauty and the splendor of the various scenery I 
have beheld, have been surpassed only by the unparalleled 
catarac [sic] of the wonderful Niagara. I had heard 
something of the Falls of Gennessee, but more of the 
bridge at Carthage, 1 the principal object of the visit. On 
approaching this thriving village however what was my 
astonishment, when, unexpectedly, this brilliant water- 
fall bursted on the sight — dividing as it were the rich 
and impervious foliage which compass'd it! It is a bold 
representation of the fall of Magara, and only second 
to it, and I must confess, the pleasure I experienced in 
beholding it, was at least equal to the gratification in 
seeing the other — perhaps Mary Ann's being with me, 
added new interest to scenes of this kind. The perpendic- 
ular pitch is 95 feet. The bridge alluded to, is certainly 

i Carthage was on the east bank of the Genesee near the lower falls; its 
site is now a part of Rochester. The famous bridge at that point, built in 
i8iq, was a wooden single arch, "the chord of which was over 352 feet, the 
entire length of the bridge resting upon this being 718 feet, 30 feet in width 
and the roadway 196 feet above the surface of the water. Its span was 
longer than that of any other bridge in the world at the time, and though it 
was built in less than nine months, its strength had been so carefully tested 
that it was expected to last for ages, but there was fault in its construction, 
for in a year and three months it was destroyed by the springing upward of 
the arch. It was succeeded immediately by a bridge built on piers a little 
further down the river, and that by still another, which stood till 1835." — 
"Landmarks of Monroe Co., N. Y.", p. 73. 


a splendid specimen of American ingenuity. I will state 
its dimensions, the best commentary on it : from one end 
to the other, 714 feet; from the hand railing to the sur- 
face of the river beneath, 200 — and the whole fabric is 
sustained by one great arch, whose cord [sic] is 352 feet ! ! 

The river from this bridge is indescribably fine. Look- 
ing up the river, about 200 yards, the scenery is at once 
picturesque and sublime; the water tumbles over a preci- 
pice 75 feet high, but instead of an excavation from its 
summit, as at Niagara and Gennessee, the rocks are 
rather projecting, which in, some degree break the per- 
pendicular precipitancy of the water — and overspread by 
trees of the richest verdure, only increases the interest of 
the scene. At the same glance of the eye, some distance 
above this principal catarac, several others of much less 
magnitude, are seen, all of which contribute to render the 
more delightful, this enchanting spot. 

The most remarkable circumstance in contemplating 
this splendid scene of nature, is, that all you behold, is 
seen from this stupendous bridge, itself 100 and 60 or 70 
feet higher than the surface where the first break is made. 
Thus the work of man, if I may so say, seems to vie, with 
the works of nature. 

At 2 p. m. we re-embarked, and directed our course for 
Fort Niagara, distant 70 miles. 

(In my remarks of yesterday I entirely forgot to men- 
tion the old fortifications at Oswego, on both sides of the 
river, formerly erected by the French and English. The 
one on the right bank is the least demolished, and it is an 
entire ruin[ !] It was here my friend Col. Mitchell of the 
artillery distinguished himself in an action with the En- 
glish during the late war. He kept at bay for three days 
the whole British fleet under Sir James Yeo. At length, 
on the 5th of May, 1814, a landing was effected and after 
a gallant resistance by our little band of heroes, not ex- 


ceeding 300 men, the American commander was compelled 
to retire to the falls of Oswego. Lt. Gen. Drummond 
commanded the British forces and sustained a great loss ; 
he numbered nearly 3,000.) 

Fort Niagara, Wednesday, June 2. We left the steam- 
boat at 10 o'clock in the morning and immediately en- 
tered the fort. Capt. Gates the commandant was absent, 
but we were hospitably received by the gentlemen of the 
garrison ; we dined with Mrs. Gates, who was very kind 
[and] attentive to Mary Ann. 

The fort hitherto has been considered as a very im- 
portant point; from its situation however 'tis no longer 
so regarded. Three years ago a great sea-wall was com- 
menced, which has cost much money. The work is stop'd 
and probably will never be resumed. We crossed the Ni- 
agara river, at sunset, and slept at New-Ark, a consider- 
able village on the British side. 

Xew-Ark, U. C, Thursday, June 3. This town is now 
called Niagara. It was entirely destroyed in the fall of 
1813 by one Genl. McClure of the militia. It is now re- 
built; and has a pretty appearance, situated as it is on 
[an] extensive plain, which extends in one direction to 
the river and in a nother [sic] to the lake. The water 
prospect is very delightful, and the whole surface of the 
lake is in full view. This place and all the adjacent 
ground is very familiar to me. The 27th of May, 1813, 
our army under Major Gen. Dearborn, crossed from the 
American side, in three Divisions, commanded respect- 
ively by Generals Boyd, Winder and Chandler, and met 
the enemy on the water's edge. The attack was gallantly 
resisted 1 — we soon however gained the day and soon found 
ourselves in quite [quiet?] possession of Fort George and 
its dependencies. Col. Scott of Art'ry (now Major Gen. 
Scott) commanded the advance and chiefly sustained the 


After breakfast, we pursued our journey to the falls of 
Niagara, distant 16 miles. Before leaving the village, 
however, Lt. Dix (one of the Gen's aides who left Browns- 
ville with me) and myself called on the British com- 
mandment, Lt. Col. Grant of the 77th Kegt. We were 
very politely received, and after sitting a few minutes re- 
turned to the carriage, accompanied by the Scotch Col- 
onel, where we had left Mary Ann under the protection 
of Dr. Livingston of the American Army. The Col. pre- 
vailed on her to alight, and gallantly escorted her to the 
parade ground, just in season to behold the "turning off" 
of the Guards. Mary Ann, never having seen British 
soldiers before, was well pleased with what she saw. The 
band was ordered to play for our amusement — the music 
was excellent. 

Nothing can be more pleasant than the road we are 
now traveling; it follows the meanders of the Niagara 
river, as far as Queenston, which is situated 7 miles from 
its mouth, being the head of navigation. The prospect 
from the heights cannot be surpassed; the valley extend- 
ing some miles toward St. Davids, and the whole inter- 
mediate country to the lake shore, affords the richest 
scenery. I easily identified all our encamping grounds, 
and the very spot where my marquee was pitched the 
24th of July, 1814. From this place, Fort Niagara is 
distinctly seen — and the bold Niagara, smooth but rapid 
in its course, until it empties into Lake Ontario. The 
great elevation of this position, more than 300 feet higher 
than the water, enables the spectator to behold a vast 
extent of country — and all beneath, on the left bank, 
being well cultivated, the whole face of nature is softened 
into a beautiful and picturesque landscape. Lewistown, 
over against Queen stown, appears to be a thriving village. 
Tt was conflagrated during the war. We reached the 
cataract in season for dinner, before which, however, we 


obtained a hasty view of this wonderful waterfall. We 
again visited it in the afternoon. The brilliancy of the 
sun favored the visit. The Table rock, in my opinion, 
presents the fairest view — 'twas here, Mary Ann and my- 
self contemplated together, and with infinite satisfaction, 
the sublime Niagara. 

Niagara Falls, Friday, June 4th. We have determined 
to pass all this day in this neighborhood. Dr. Livingston, 
Lt. Dix and myself, crossed to the American shore, in a 
little skiff, just below the pitch. The boat was propelled 
by one person, and so near did we approach the fall, that 
the mist immediately penetrated our clothing. The cur- 
rent is rapid but not dangerous. The assemblage of 
buildings on this side, is called Manchester. Judge Por- 
ter is the chief proprietor. He has constructed a bridge 
from the main to Goat Island, in the midst of, and divid- 
ing the rapids. The lower end of this island which con- 
tains 70 acres is terminated by the great precipice, which 
on either side constitute the "Great falls of Niagara." 
We passed around the island — the land is fertile. Sev- 
eral admirable views are to be had from it. The Amer- 
ican and British commissioners, Gen. Porter and Col. 
Ogilvie, had their marquee pitched on this romantic spot. 

Here our young and pleasant companion (Dr. Living- 
ston) left us for Fort Niagara, and Lieut. Dix and my- 
self recrossed the Niagara, which requires about 10 
minutes' time. The banks are rugged, steep, and diffi- 
cult to descend or ascend, so much so as to render it 
dangerous for ladies to undertake the excursion, there- 
fore Mary Ann remained on the Canadian side until our 

It was immediately in this vicinity that one of the 
severest conflicts took place during the late war. I mean 
the celebrated "battle of Niagara" called by the British 
"Lundy's Lane," and as some will have it "Bridge- Water." 


In the evening we walked over this sacred ground and 
with a pleasing tho' melancholy satisfaction I pointed 
out the relative positions of the contending armies, and 
all the incidents, as well as I could remember, that oc- 
curred during the action. The adjacent trees and houses, 
still wear the mark of cannon and musket balls. I have 
already given an account of this battle in my "Sketch of 
the campaign on the Niagara frontier in 1814." 

Saturday, June 5th. Having sojourned two days at 
the Falls, we this morning departed for Buffaloe, where 
we arrived before dinner. The day was brilliant and ad- 
ditional lustre was imparted to the richness of the sur- 
rounding scenery. The road, like the one from Fort 
George to Queenston, winds along the margin of the riv- 
er, which immediately after leaving the Great Cataract, 
conducts the traveller, almost to the water's edge, whence 
even sitting in his carriage is presented one of the finest 
views of the rapids. The river here is a beautiful sheet of 
water and I imagine to Slaucher, 2 on the opposite shore, 
must be a mile and a half or two miles over : peaceful and 
tranquil in its course, as seen a little farther up, one 
would hardly think it possible the same current could be 
so suddenly changed into a turbulent and roaring flood. 

Two miles on the way is the village of Chippaway, 
which is situated on a creek of the same name, at its con- 
fluence with the Niagara. It was here the American 
army was encamped and whence it marched into action 
the 25th of July, 1814. Three quarters of a mile farther 
on, and we approached the plain, where was fought the 
battle of Chippaway, July 5th. Our army was posted on 
the south side of Street's creek, with its right contiguous 
to the river; it had therefore to march across the bridge, 
just at its mouth, to engage the enemy. The contest re- 
sulted in a decided victory to the American arms. 



The road all the way to Fort Erie is very excellent and 
the fertile fields on the one side and the river on the 
other, occasionally swelled into extensive bays, inter- 
spersed with islands, renders the whole of the excursion 
as pleasant and delightful as possible. We crossed over 
to Black Rock, and thence into Bulfaloe. 

Buffalo, Sunday, June 6. This village is pleasantly 
situated near to, and in full view of, Lake Erie. Every 
house was burnt by the British in 1813, but it is now re- 
built, and I should judge, tho' expensive still, of many of 
the dwellings, much beyond the just means of the occu- 
pants. It has three denominations of Christians, but 
without churches except a plain Methodist meeting- 
house. A handsome unfinished Court [house], a beauti- 
ful bank, perhaps without capital or credit, and a sub- 
stantial goail [ !] constitute its public edifices. The har- 
bor is very indifferent, formed by Buffaloe Creek — be- 
yond is the open lake. 

This morning Mary Ann and myself heard an excellent 
sermon at the Episcopal Church 3 : "The secret of the Lord 
is among them that fear Him" — 25th Psalm, 13th verse, 
was the text. 

Monday, June 7th. Tuesday, June 8th. Nothing has 
occurred on those days worthy of observation. The 
weather is unsettled — severe thunder storms, alternate 
showers and sunshine. 

Wednesday, June 10th. Mary Ann and myself were 
hospitably and elegantly entertained by Gen. and Mrs. 
Porter, with whom we dined. His mansion is handsome- 
ly situated, immediately on the Niagara, in full view of 
the ruin of Fort Erie, and the adjacent fields. These 
grounds, during the campaign of 1814, were the theater 

3 Our writer contradicts himself, having just said that the Methodist meet- 
ing-house was the only one in Buffalo. That house of worship was dedicated 
Jan. 24, 1819. The corner-stone of the first St. Paul's Episcopal Church was 
laid June 24, 181 9, 18 days after Capt. Jones says he attended service there! 
He probably wrote "Episcopal" inadvertently for "Methodist Episcopal." 


of many important military incidents. It was from this 
place (Black Rock) that Brigadier General Alexander 
Sm3 T th in 1812 unsuccessfully attempted the invasion of 

Gen. Brown and Lt. Kirby arrived today, and also 
dined with our old companion in arms. 

Buff aloe, Friday, June 11th. Still in Buff aloe. The 
steamboat remaining one day longer in port, I availed 
myself of the opportunity once more to visit the American 
encampment at Fort Erie in the summer of 1814. Ac- 
companied by Lieuts. Dix and Whiting, Major Dellafield 
and Mr. Brackenridge, we crossed immediately over to 
the position. We examined the field works of both armies, 
some of which are demolished, whilst others are quite in 
a perfect state. The surrounding wood still bears evi- 
dence of the duration and severity of the cannonade, by 
the destruction, yet visible, of some of the largest forest 
trees. In some instances they are as entirely prostrated 
by cannon-shot, as tho' they had yielded to the hand of 
the axman. 

The particulars of Erie twice beseiged, and of the two 
battles that were fought there, are narrated in my 
"Sketch of the Siege of Erie." 

Saturday, June 12. Having remained just one week at 
Buffaloe, which like all the places I've ever seen in all 
this section of the country is void of hospitality we gladly 
embarked at five o'clock, on board the Walk-in-the-Water, 
for Detroit. 

Sunday, June 13th. We reached Erie early this morn- 
ing, where several passengers embarked, among whom 
were two of my old Naval acquaintances, Capt. Deacon, 
the commandant on the lake, and Mr. Cass. The day was 
pleasant, and the wind fair, so we prosperously continued 
our voyage. Before sunset we reached Grand River, 


distant — miles. Two miles from its mouth is a village 
called Painsville. 

Monday, June 14th. Cunningham Island in sight. At 
11 a. m. reached Putin-Bay Harbor, celebrated for the 
rendezvous of Captain Perry's victorious fleet. The scene 
of action was in the Bay, a little further on towards the 
head of the Lake. The cluster of islands of the same 
name, affords an excellent and commodious port ; here we 
"came to," and whilst the crew were replenishing their 
stock of fuel, the passengers availed themselves of the 
opportunity to visit the remarkable cave found on the 
island. The apperture thro' which we enter into this 
great vaulted chamber of nature, is low and narrow; 
presently however, the difficulty is surmounted and we 
find ourselves in a spacious hall. Its ceiling is lofty and 
studded with innumerable petrefactions, and the light of 
our tapers, reflecting upon these crystalized particles, 
had a beautiful and brilliant appearance. Several ladies 
ventured along with us; vocal and instrumental music 
had an admirable effect. 

At 2 p. m. the party re-embarked and the vessel put in 
motion. We passed several beautiful islands, among 
which is one called the Middle Sister, where Gen. Harri- 
son's army assembled, before his descent into Canada. 
A little after sunset we reach'd the mouth of Detroit 
river, and about 9 o'clock came to anchor off Maiden. 

Tuesday, June 15. We reach'd Detroit, at y 2 past O 
[sic] in the morning, and after breakfast, visited the Post, 
inspected the troops, and dined with Major Gen. Ma- 
comb. The Governor and several others were also of the 
party. I met with several old acquaintances, among 
whom was Major Biddle, who had been one of my Lieu- 
tenants when I commanded a company [at] the beginning 
of the war. I passed the evening with him, and Mary 
Ann, who had been waited on by Mrs. Biddle, in the 


morning was kindly solicited to sojourn with her, until 
my return from the Western lakes. 

Wednesday, June 16. At sunrise we got under way 
for Michilimackinac, and after passing the river five or 
six miles, entered on Lake St. Clair, which is a handsome 
expanse of water, but of little depth. We soon reached 
the mouth of the river of the same name, which connects 
it with Lake Huron. This is really a beautiful river and 
the scenery rich and lovely. Occasionally for a mile or 
two in extent tolerably good settlements are to be seen; 
but the population is very inconsiderable. On the Ca- 
nadian side, we passed several Indian locations, who to- 
gether with the white people on either shore could but be 
amazed on beholding for the first time in their lives, a 
steam boat. It is very probable, if these inhabitants had 
ever heard of vessels of this description, they did not be- 
lieve there were such. 

About 5 p. m. we came to anchor a mile and half be- 
low Fort Gration [Gratiot] 70 [miles] from Detroit. It 
is situated at the outlet of Huron lake and the beginning 
of St. Clair river and — miles distant from Michilimack- 
inac. The Gen. and suit debarked, and visited the Post. 
He was received with a salute according to his rank. 
Lieut. Mellan of the Corps of Artillery commands. We 
embarked again in season for supper, after which the 
ladies and gentlemen amused themselves either in dan- 
cing, playing chess, or beggarman, or whatever happened 
to be passing. 

Thursday, June 17th. At day-light, the anchor was 
wayed, and we again steered for the island of Machina. 
We were detained one night, in order to procure more 
fuel, requisite for the voyage. 

Having passed the Fort, we find ourselves on the broad 
Lake, and still blessed with fair and pleasant weather. 
W T e are now at meridian, with all sail set, and not a wave 


to rudely dash against the bark gaily progressing at the 
rate of eight knot a hour. The wind continued fair dur- 
ing the day, and increased as the evening advanced. Just 
before sunset it became cloudy, and the atmosphere in- 
dicated an approaching storm. The appearance however 
was soon dissipated and nothing remarkable occurred, 
except an instantaneous and very sultry blast of wind 
from the northwestern shore of the lake. (Reflections 
by and bye.) 

Friday, June 18. The morning pleasant, but wind 
ahead — the company however in excellent spirits, and 
amusing themselves in a variety of ways. As the day 
advances the wind increases. It continues fresh and 
strong, and almost a gail. 

4 p. m. Heavy sea and blowing heavy ; scarcely exceed- 
ing iy 2 knots. Came to anchor under the island of bois- 
blanc, 24 miles from Machinac. The lee side of the island 
is smooth, and afforded an excellent harbor. 

Saturday, June 19. At sunrise weighed anchor and 
reached the Island of Machilimackinac at 9 o'clock. The 
appearance of the Fort, 150 feet above the water's level, 
had a beautiful effect on approaching the harbor. The 
Major Gen. and suite landed at 10. Inspected the garri- 
son at 12 and at 1 o'clock reviewed the troops on the 
plain adjacent to the village below. The ladies and 
gentlemen who arrived in the steamboat and all the citi- 
zens and Indians of the village, witnessed the spectacle. 
They manoeuvred in Battalion flanked by artillery, to the 
perfect satisfaction of the General. The firings were ad- 
mirable, and the spirit and precision with which the 
various evolutions were performed, evince the high state 
of discipline of the troops, and reflects the greatest credit, 
on all the officers, especially Capt. Pearce, who until the 
arrival a few days since of Lt. Col. Lawrence, has been 
the commanding officer of the place. 


The duties of the day having passed, at 4 we all re- 
embarked and partook of an excellent dinner, on board, 
to which the officers of the garrison had been invited, by 
the Major General. 

Sunday, June 20. After a cloudy, rainy morning, we 
were favored with a delightful day toward meridian. The 
usual garrison inspection took place at 11, to which all 
the strangers were invited. I never saw better interior 
police any where, and I have rarely met with as good. 
The rooms are tastefully and comfortably fitted up, and 
all the utensils, brilliantly clean and handsomely ar- 
ranged — the appearance of the men highly soldierly and 
healthful. In short, every thing that I saw, indicated 
method, and an excellent state of police and discipline. 
The strangers were delighted with what the} 7 saw, and 
until then, they said, they had no idea of the comforts 
attainable in a soldier's life. 

The garrison consists of one company of artillery, Capt. 
Tierce, and two of the 2d regiment, commanded by Capt. 
Green and Lt. Curtis, all of whom are married gentle- 
men. The Gen. and suite dined with the commanding 
officers. Mary Ann and myself accepted Captain Pearce's 
polite invitation, who offered me a room in his quarters. 

In the forenoon we visited Fort Holms, situated on the 
summit of the highest point of land, on the island, and 
little better than y± m. in the rear of Fort Machiuac, 
which it completely commands. It is 312 feet higher than 
the water. I never have seen a finer water prospect, 
either for extent or variety of natural scenery. The 
whole extent of the island is compassed at one view, and 
at the same glance, toward the right, is distinctly seen 
Lake Michigan, whilst on the left is embraced the now 
placid surface of Huron. The waters immediately dash- 
ing round the base of the island (not more than 8 or 
nine miles in circumference) are beautifully interspersed 


with islands of different magnitude, which add greatly to 
the picturesque scenery afforded from this position. 

The next object of our curiosity was the Arch Rock, on 
the eastern boundary of the island. Here the bank is 
very abrupt, and probably 100 feet high. The Arch ap- 
pears to have been formed by the action of the water at 
the base of this great clift composed for the most part of 
limestone, now in a decaying state. The abutments, near- 
est to the lake, which sustain this arch, being, I suppose, 
of harder material, resisted the encroachment of the 

Monday, June 21. Still at Mackinac, and blessed with 
heavenly weather. The climate is remarkably salubrious, 
but a great deal too cool for comfort or vegetation. The 
appletrees the day of our arrival, were just in full bloom, 
and fires at night vastly comfortable. June here reminds 
me of October in Virginia. White-fish and trout are 
greatly celebrated here, and they can be caught at all 
seasons of the year. 

At 12 o'clock, the steamboat was thronged with the 
citizens of the village, and many Indians, who had been 
invited to make a little excursion, previous to its depar- 
ture for Detroit. The scene was altogether novel : on one 
side of the deck, ladies and gentlemen were gaily leading- 
down country dances, and on the other side, the painted, 
fantastic Indians, decked in all their tinsel and savage 
costume, were equally happy, whilst they enjoyed their 
native dance. 

Ever and anon, a half-concealed, half-naked, tawney thygh, 
Was half uncovered, to white woman's lowering eye. 

After a few hours thus pleasantly passed, the boat re- 
turned to port. I dined on board, and now for the first 
time I was constrained to part with my beloved wife. 
The signal was given — I left her in tears, and sad and 


sorrowful enough, bade a dieu to the bark, that wafted 
from my sight, my soul's chief comfort. I followed in an 
Indian cannoe, manned with 14 hands, and for a little 
while kept way with the vessel. I saw my darling Mary 
Ann, sitting on deck — again bade her a dieu, and returned 
to the shoer. 

In the evening, I accompanied the Gen. on horseback, 
to the north end of the Island, and visited the ground 
where Col. Croghan engaged the English and Indians in 
1814. 'Twas here the gallant Holms fell, lamented by all 
who knew him. 

MacMnac, Tuesday, June 22. At 11 o'clock we em- 
barked on board the Revenue Cutter commanded by Capt. 
Knapp of the Navy, bound to Sous de St. Mary and Lake 
Superior. The day is brilliant and the little breeze we 
have, perfectly fair. With all sail set we are now at 
midday smoothly moving at the rate of 4 miles an hour. 

3 p. m. The breeze freshes and probably we [are] 
going 7 miles. Half an hour before sunset, we entered 
the mouth of St. Mary's river, leaving on our right Drum- 
mond's Island, where the English have a military and In- 
dian Post. At 9 p. m. the vessel was brought to anchor. 

Wednesday, June 23d. Got under way early in the 
morning, with a very light wind. Toward noon, the 
breeze freshened, and we handsomely pursued our course, 
except occasionally getting a ground, which we cared 
but little about. After sailing probably 27 miles we 
came to anchor, perhaps by an hour by sun. The Gen., 
myself and other officers for sake of some exercise, man- 
ned the boats, and seeing several small islands, some 
little distance a head, made for them. To our great sur- 
prise, on approaching them we discovered little or no 
depth of water, and very considerable rapids. After 
rowing backwards and forwards, we clearly perceived that 
this was no ship channel, and that the person who pre- 


tended to pilot the vessel, knew nothing of these waters 
— and then we returned to the vessel. 

Thursday, June 24. Agreeably to the determination of 
last evening, we rose early in the morning, at 5 o'clock 
left the cutter, with expectation of finding the Saut in 
our boats. With some little difficulty we ascended the 
rapids above spoken of, and continued our voyage, until 
within two miles of our port, when a nother obstruction, 
in the way of rapids, was to be surmounted. At 2 p. m. 
we arrived and pitched our tents. Mr. Johnson, an Irish 
gentleman, resides here, and is well known to every Amer- 
ican who visits this place for his politeness, urbanity of 
manners, and genuine hospitality. We dined and supped 
with him. A few hours after our arrival, we walked to 
the upper end of [the] portage, nearly a mile distant, 
which is the point where the outlet of Lake Superior be- 
gins. Here we saw the lake, and the southern bound of 
ship navigation. A British schooner was at anchor on 
the opposite side and perhaps is the only vessel belonging 
to this water: the broad lake is 15 miles off. 

Having a curiosity to descend the rapids, an Indian 
bark canoe was ordered up, in which the Gen., Col. Smith 
and myself embarked : we glided most rapidly and pleas- 
antly over this troubled surface, in six minutes, a dis- 
tance of % a mile or more, in which there is a descent of 
20 feet 8 inches. The water here is one continuous foam, 
violently rushing over a rocky bed, but such is the dex- 
terity of these Canadian and Indian boatmen, that they 
with perfect ease, evaded every danger, and steered clear 
of very rock. 

Whilst we were enjoying ourselves in conversation, 
after tea had been served, an aged Frenchman entered 
the room, and being introduced to the Gen., proceeded in 
his own language to unfold to Mr. Johnson, the object of 
his visit. What was the astonishment of our party, when 


we were informed, in a most impressive and earnest man- 
ner, hj our hoste, that the Indians, of the Chippawa 
tribe, who in some number encamped near the house, 
"had determined to attack, that night, the American offi- 
cers whilst sleeping in the tents." It was difficult for the 
General to believe, or the officers to believe, that these 
creatures, savage, as they are, could possibly be guilty of 
so black a deed. Their conduct however, as represented 
to us, by one [or] two Americans, who knew them well, 
by reason of their connection in trade (and marriage too) 
for a few days past, as well as from Mr. Johnson and his 
intelligent son, induced me, and the other gentlemen, to 
believe such an attempt by no means impossible. We 
were without arms — even those denominated side arms; 
the Gen. therefore, believed it best to send for the chiefs, 
and plainly tell them, what he heard. He did so, and 
confiding in their faith, sought repose in his tent — 
whilst the young gentlemen of his staff, from, in my 
opinion, wisely prudential reasons, kept watch, and with 
one or two fowling pieces, furnished by Mr. Johnson, 
caused a sort of guard to be mounted. 

Sault de St Marie, June 25th Friday. We rose in the 
morning neither scalped nor tomahaivked — but my opin- 
ion as to the disposition of these savages and as to the 
possibility or probability in the madness of intoxication 
of attempting so diabolical an act is by no means altered. 

After breakfasting, and surveying the adjacent grounds, 
best fitted for the talked-of fortifications, we struck our 
tents and made the best of our way to the cutter, which 
we reached at 2 o'clock. We immediately weighed anchor 
and presently, favored with a breeze, we sailed smoothly 
along, passing at sunset St. Joseph's on the Canadian 
side, and a little after dark, came to under Drummond's 
island, at the mouth of the river. 

Saturday, June 26th. Got under-way, stretched out in 


the lake, and found a strong head wind to contend with. 
At 1 p. m. wind still strong, and not making a great deal 
of headway, found a snug harbor behind a little islaud 
near the land. Here we abided the evening and night. 

Sunday, June 27. Got under way with a light breeze 
ahead, continued beating to windward. At 2 p. m. the 
Gen. & Col. Smith left us in the row boat for Fort Mich- 
ilimackinac, supposed to be 16 miles distant. At 9 p. m. 
a heavy squall struck us and the lake soon became 

Monday, June 28th. The Fort about 8 or 10 miles 
off, and a very light head wind. Capt. Pierce perceiving 
we made but little progress toward the post, had the 
goodness to send off his barge for us which we gladly ac- 
cepted and bade a due to Capt. Knapp and his brother. 
At 11 o'clock we landed and being once more refreshed, 
pleasantly passed the day and night. 

Thus in 7 days we accomplished our excursion to Lake 
Superior and back again. 

Tuesday June 29. Pleasant, delightful morning and 
some prospect of a fair wind. At 10 o'clock, the Gen. 
and suite, Col. Smith and family, embarked on board the 
schooner Tiger, for Green bay, supposed to be 200 miles 
off. Almost a calm. After meridian we had a pleasant 
favoring breeze, but the weather became squally and un- 
settled toward night. 

Wednesday June 30th. Clear weather, with a strong 
breeze; passed beever island in the night, and Fox island 
early in the morning, which is called 40 miles from louse 
island at the entrance of the water called Green Bay, and 
just half the distance to Fort Howard. At 10 every 
thing indicated a speedy and sure passage — but on ap- 
proaching this last island named the wind so increased 
and altered, as to render very doubtful our gaining the 


Bay. 2 p. ra. Blowing quite a gale and heavy sea running 
and the wind ahead. Put about, to make a harbor under 
the lee of the Manitou, or Devil's island, distant 40 miles, 
which was performed in less than five hours. 

Thursday July 1st. At anchor, about % mile from 
the island, & smooth water. We found the Jackson here, 
who like ourselves had three days before in consequence 
of adverse winds sought a place of safety. The wind 
favoring her, she got under way, for Detroit. I availed 
myself of the opportunity and wrote to Mary Ann. We 
all debarked for the sake of exercise and wandered about 
the island, nearly all day. A few good strawberries were 
found, which were acceptable to every body. The island 
is supposed to be between 3 and 400 feet above the lake, 
and for the most part is one great mountain of sand, bar- 
ren and desolate, in the extreme. The weather, towards 
evening, rainy and disagreeable. At sunset, got under 
way, with the hope of a fair wind. 

Friday July 2d. The morning is pleasant, but still an 
adverse wind; the Devils Island still in sight, and but 
little gained to windward, at meridian — Light, variable 
winds — and but little gained to day. 

Saturday July 3d. Entered the Bay this morning and 
a head wind. Cloudy, rainy, cold, raw, disagreeable 
weather — and no prospect of fairer. A surtout coat is 
not enough to make one comfortable. I would not live 
any where in this lake region for all the country border- 
ing it. 

Sunday July 4th. Light contrary winds, still prevail- 
ing. The first national birthday I ever passed without a 
celebration and appropriate manifestation of joy. No 
salute to startle the memory on revolutionary glory; no 
convivial meeting of friends to pass away the day in 
songs; nothing of patriotism to awaken the sentiment of 


liberty. On the contrary, cheerless and uncomfortable, 
with unpropitious winds are we striving to reach Fort 

Monday, July 5th. Still a head breeze and blowing- 
very fresh. About 3 O'clock we made the port, and came 
to anchor at the mouth of the River, nearly 3 miles from 
the Fort. At 4 we reached shore and a national salute 
was fired. 

Tuesday, July 6th. Having been politely received by 
Capt. Whistler and the other officers, the Gen. defered 
the review and inspection of the troops until the after- 
noon. In the mean time, horses having been furnished 
and accompanied by Capt. Garland, we crossed the river 
for the purpose of viewing the adjacent country. Six or 
seven miles along the river, on either side, embraces all 
the population and cultivation in this section of country. 
The lands are fertile and beautifully situated for farm- 
ing, and gradually rise from the waters edge. The first 
rapid is 6 miles, which terminated our ride, and the set- 
tlement on Fox river. The number of inhabitants are 
probably from 300 to 350. They, for the most part, are 
degenerate french Canadians, who have intermarried with 
the Indians and therefore greatly devoid of any thing 
like civil enterprise and domestic comfort. The climate is 
not objectionable and I am certain, with a race of people 
like the New England farmers, the settlement on Fox 
river, in a very little time, could be rendered desirable 
and pleasant as any section of territory so remote from 
the interior could reasonably be expected. The soil is 
warm and more congenial than that of Detroit; vegita- 
tion is rapid & luxurant and all kind of vines grow well 
— We'd peas on the 7th. The Latitude is probably 44-i/ 2 . 
At 5 p. m. the General reviewed the troops and inspected 
the quarters. They were in fine soldierly condition. Fort 
Howard is miserably situated 3 miles from the mouth of 


the river, on a low sandy soil. A mile and a half above, 
en the opposite shore, would have afforded a lofty, eliga- 
ble position. 

Wednesday July 7th. Pleasant weather and still at 
Fort Howard. 

Thursday July 8. The Gen. and suite, having bid adieu 
to the officers of the garrison, embarked at 8 in the morn- 
ing for Machinae with a light favoring breeze. At 1 it 
sprang up fresh and fair & at 11 p. m. cleared louse island 
reckoned 90 or 100 miles from the head of the Bay; we 
are now on lake Michigan. The wind has been highly 
favoring. We have sailed at the rate of 8, 9, 10 and near- 
ly 11 knots, for the last 9 hours. 

Friday July 9. Pleasant weather and a prosperous 
breeze. After a delightful passage of less than 35 hours, 
we came to anchor at Mackinaw. 

Saturday July 10. Not being blessed with a favoring 
breeze this morning we consented to remain till evening, 
and in the mean time accepted Capt. Green's polite in- 
vitation to dinner. We were quite delighted once more to 
return to our Machinaw friends, and after pleasantly 
passing the day bade them a final adieu. At y 2 past 3 on 
the signal being given from our vessel, that she was ready. 
Our friend Capt. Pierce, joined us for Detroit. The wind 
freshened and we had every prospect of being blessed 
with a speedy voyage. 

Sunday July 11. Clear serene morning — and off Thun- 
der Island. Pleasant breeze, but scarcely able to lay our 
course. On the approach of night, strong indications of 
bad weather. Much lightning in the S.W. and more rain 
than wind during the night. 

Monday July 12. Pleasant weather and a light air. 
About 7 o'clock the breeze freshened and became perfect- 
ly fair. All sail being set, we are now at 10 advancing 
at the rate of 9 & 10 knots an hour : Passed Fort Gratiote 


between 3 and 4 : reached lake St.Clair 3 hours & a half 
after, distant 45 or 50 miles ! The very strong current in 
St.Clair river, added to the highly favoring wind, ac- 
counts for this great velocity in sailing. 

About 12 at night, to my great satisfaction, and to the 
astonishment of us all, we reached Detroit, having in 8 
hours and 10 minutes passed from the out-let of Huron 
lake, always counted 75 or 80 miles ! ! 

Tuesday July 13. I immediately debarked and sought 
my beloved Mary Ann, from whom I had just been three 
weeks separated and had the extreme pleasure of finding 
her in perfect health and much delighted with her sojourn 
at my friend's Major Biddle's house. This happened to be 
the day fixed on by Gen. Macomb, to make an excursion to 
hog island, 3 miles up the river, where bowers and tents, 
and all things requisite being previously prepared, the 
ladies and gentlemen assembled at 1 o'clock and with 
great animation passed away the day, in the full spirit 
of rural felicity. An excellent repast was prepared, fruit 
and [Ms. defective] to us (who had for some [Ms. de- 
fective] had been exposed to a [defective] and confined 
boats) were very greatful. In the evening, country 
dances and cotillions were performed on the grass, very 
good music having been furnished from the military. 

At sunset we all embarked in three boats and pleas- 
antly glided down the river with banners waving and 
martial music sounding. 

Wednesday July 14. Charming weather and much de- 
lighted with Detroit and the adjacent country. At 12 
the Generals reviewed the troops and inspected the Post. 
We are with the hospitable Major Biddle; Governor Cass 
was one of the party. This evening boat arrived. 

Thursday July 15. At 12 we embarked on board the 
Walk-in-the-Water for Buffaloe, leaving behind us some 
friends and several pleasant acquaintances. Mary Ann 


and myself parted with Major and Mrs. Biddle, with 
much regret, esteeming them as excellent, hospitable and 
sincere friends. 

The weather is very pleasant and the scenery down the 
river beautiful and interesting. We successively passed 
Sandwich, Maiden, the Sister Islands, Put-in-Bay and 
Cunningham's Island — the latter between 9 and 10 p. m. 

Friday July 16. Very pleasant weather; early in the 
morning passed Cleveland and about 11 Grand River and 
at 9 o'clock arrived off Erie. 

Saturday July 17. Pleasant, delightful weather. At 
12 hove in sight of Buffaloe which seen as it is approach- 
ing it by water, is greatly magnified and appears re- 
markably well. At 2 p. m. we arrived at Black rock 
and bade adieu to the Walk-in-the-Water. Mary Ann and 
myself promised the elegant and hospitable Mrs. Gen. 
Porter to abide with her as long as we should remain in 
that Quarter, on our return. She however was absent 
and after a little refreshment and rest we quitted the 
General's generous mansion and sought lodgings in Buf- 

The celerity with which we have performed this ex- 
tensive military tour is unparalleled — certainly so far as 
the navigation of these internal seas are concerned. 

I will here subjoin a table of distance actually travel- 
led, and then state the time which they were compassed : 

From Brownsville to Sacketts Harbor 8 miles, Oswego 
50, Genasee landing 61, to Rochester and back 6, thence 
to Niagara 94 — making to Fort Niagara — via steam boat, 
(the direct distance would be 180). . . 4 

From Fort Niagara or Fort George to Queenston 8 
miles, to the Falls 8, to Buffaloe 21. . . 

From Brownsville to Buffalo via the lake. . . 

From Buffaloe to Erie 96 miles, to Grand River 75, To 

No figures in manuscript, 


Cleveland 30, Cunningham's Island 50. The mouth of 
Detroit River 37, to Detroit 21 miles. . . 

Making from Buffaloe via steam boat to Detroit. 

From Detroit to Fort Gratiote is 75 miles — to Michili- 
mackinac 275. . . . 

Making the distance from one to the other . . . 

From Machinac to the Saut of St.Marie (L.Superior 
outlet) is . . . 

From Machinac to Fort Howard (Green Bay) is . . 

Making the while distance as travelled, 
(double this 

Add 65 miles, being about the difference in travelling 
fr Buffaloe to Brownville by land & by water 

Making the whole no of miles. . .2,543. 

I have observed we left Fort Howard on Thursday the 
8th inst. We embarked after breakfast with a very light 
breeze and light as it was it was still less before we were 
without the mouth of the river, so that at 10 o'clock we 
had not progressed more than 7 miles. At that moment 
the wind sprang up fresh and fair. The next evening we 
reached Michilimackinac, where we remained till the next, 
when at 4 p. m. we re-embarked for Detroit, where we 
safely arrived at 12 o'clock, on Monday night. The whole 
distance was performed with extraordinary rapidity, but 
the last 75 miles with very uncommon celerity, to- wit, 8 
hours and a half; and of which the first 45 (from fort 
Gratiote to the entrance into lake St. Clair) was per- 
formed in 3 hours and a half. 

Thus in 8 days and a half we reach Buffaloe from Green 
Bay 893 [miles], having stayed a day and night at Mich- 
ilimackinac and two days and a half at Detroit, so that 
we passed but five nights on the water in performing the 
whole distance. 

July 18th. Early in the morning we left and having 
travelled all day slept at [illegible] Bridge, the village is 


called Avon. In [the] morning at an early hour [we] 
resumed our journey to Utica. 

Scarcely any section of the state surpasses the one we 
are now travelling [in] fertility and beauty of scenery; 
the whole [ex] tent, nearly 200 miles, beginning at Buffa- 
loe exhibits quite a phenomanon in the unparalled rapid- 
ity with which it [has] been settled and improved. Bata- 
via [is] the first villiage after leaving Williamsville 4 
miles from Buffaloe — it is quite respectable and appears 
to be improving. From this place innumerable villages 
garnish the highway almost the whole distance and so 
numerous are the farms and so neet the stile of buildings 
in general that to the [eye] of the stranger it has all the 
appearance [of] one continued chain of villages. 

We breakfasted at west Bloomfield — and nothing can 
be more luxuriant that the rich fields of wheat, beauti- 
fully waving their golden heads, on every side you cast 
your eye. This is what is called "the Genesee country" 
so greatly extolled every where. East Bloomfield is a 
pretty village, as is the other, and located as most of the 
villages are on pleasant sites, amid undulating grounds, 
and in view of cultivated lands and distant survey pre- 
sents the richest landscapes imaginable. 

Canandagua, a large villege, is handsomely situated on 
a gradual slope, near to and in sight of one of those 
beautiful lakes so often met with on this route. The stile 
of building is remarkably handsome and in some in- 
stances quite elegant. For the most part, the houses are 
all upon one street, perhaps a mile in extent, one or two 
having establishments and several handsome churches 
with lofty steeples add greatly to the appearance of the 
place. The dwelling houses are generally retired from 
the street, so that in front of each are very tasty courts, 
neatly arranged and fashioned, which greatly add to the 
beauty and uniformity of the village. 


We passed on to Geneva where we dined. This is a 
lovely place, situated as tho' by enchantment, in the form 
of amphitheatre, on the lake of the same name, whose 
banks regularly and beautifully rise from the waters edge. 
I think I have never seen so enchanting a scenery as 
this, the blue face of the water seemed to smile as if con- 
scious of its reflected charms. 


Sketch of His Military Career as Captain in the Second 

Regiment of Light Dragoons, during the 

War of 1812 

The original manuscript from which the following 
memoir is printed, recently came into the possession of 
the Buffalo Historical Society. It is not known to have 
been published, and is here printed as written. A sketch 
of the writer, Captain Samuel Devens Harris, and an ap- 
preciation of his services, are contained in a letter from 
Gen. E. P. Gaines to the War Department, which is 
printed at the close of the memoir. These documents 
are submitted as of some worth in the documentary his- 
tory of the 1812 period on the Niagara. 


A short time after Capt. Harris had received his ap- 
pointment, he was ordered to enlist a Troop, & having 
accordingly opened a rendezvous, in about three weeks he 
had recruited nearly a full complement. This Troop then 
marched to Pitsfield from Boston, & remained some time 
at the former place, waiting its armament, clothing & 
equipment; during this time Capt. H. was favorably 
noticed in orders by the commanding officer of the Post, 
for his exertions in disciplining his men, & his attention 
to the cleanliness & good order of the cantonment. Im- 
patiently desirous of joining the troops, that were pass- 



ing thro' Pitsfield on their way to the northern frontier, 
Capt. H. made repeated applications to the different offi- 
cers, whose duty it was to furnish the necessary equip- 
ments for his troop, but without success. Deprived of 
all prospect of joining the Army with his troop, & fearful 
that he might lose an opportunity of being engaged in the 
campaign then opened on Lake Champlain, he applied to 
Col. Tuttle for orders to report himself to Gen. Dearborn 
& to leave his troop under the command of his Lieutenant. 
Col. Tuttle not feeling himself authorized to give such an 
order, Capt. H. strongly solicited a furlough, intending, 
if obtained, to repair to Gen. Dearborn : this for the same 
reason was refused by Col. Tuttle. Disappointed of all 
hope from this quarter, Capt. H. addressed a very press- 
ing letter to Col. Conner, aid to Gen. D., praying him to 
use his influence with the General for his permission to 
Capt. H. to come on, proffering his services "even to a 
musquet in the line.'' Shortly after he received a letter 
from Col. Conner, saying the Army had received orders 
to go into Winter quarters. 

Gen. Dearborn returned to Albany. Capt. H. then wish- 
ing to join his regiment, in order that his men might be- 
come acquainted with its discipline, & presuming also, 
that the chance of being engaged in active service would 
be greater by being stationed near the quarters of the 
commanding general, obtained permission to inarch his 
troop to the regiment at Greenbush. Having remained a 
few weeks at this place, Capt. H. was ordered by Gen. 
Dearborn to take 100 men, dragoons & artillerists, armed 
with musquets, and proceed in sleighs to Sackett's Harbor, 
there to relieve the Militia, whose time of service had ex- 
pired. It was now, that Capt. H. had obtained his dearest 
wish & notwithstanding he had been nearly three weeks 
confined by a severe lameness he cheerfully obeyed the 
order. Arriving at the harbor, Col. Macomb, command- 


ing there, assigned to him the charge of the left flank of 
the Post, recently vacated by the militia. How he con- 
ducted in this situation was tested by the repeated ex- 
pressions of Col. Macomb's entire approbation. The win- 
ter passed in continual & vexatious alarums from the 
supposed approach of the enemy who, it was confidently 
expected, would have attacked the harbor. The left flank, 
much the weakest & most assailable point, required un- 
common care & watchfulness, & altho' Capt. H. could 
scarcely walk, he never suffered his indisposition to de- 
tain him from his duty. Gen. Dearborn, arriving with a 
reinforcement, & placing the harbor in a better posture 
of defence, relieved it from further danger. On the break- 
ing of the ice Capt. H. was ordered by Gen. Pike to march 
his troop to Utica, where his regiment was to be or- 
ganized. Arriving there he found to his great disappoint- 
ment, that his horses, during his separation from them, 
had been transferred to the Lt. Artillery, — being thus dis- 
abled from mounting his men, & feeling unwilling to take 
musquets & be transferred to the infantry, he volunteer'd 
to Capt. Bird of the dragoons to act as his Lieutenant ; he 
was however relieved from this humiliating resort by the 
opportune assistance of Col. Burn, who procured him 
horses for about two thirds of his men, the other third 
being transferred to Lt. [blank in original] who had a 
command of dismounted dragoons. 

Capt. H. was now ordered to Fort George with the 
squadron under Major Woodford. Arriving & remaining 
there some time, the Forage became scarce, & necessitated 
the grazing of the horses on the Common near the pickets. 
While engaged on this duty a report of Musquetry was 
heard on the third picket. Capt. H. immediately mounted 
his horse & galloped to the spot, where he found Maj. 
Malcolm, the officer of the day, rallying the guard, which 
had been suddenly attacked by a party of Indians & 


Britons from the woods. The enemy retired & formed 
themselves on the road. Observing this, he asked Maj. 
Malcolm, if he did not intend to pursue; to which he re- 
plying in the affirmative, Capt. H. offered his services. A 
few men being collected, in addition to the guard, & 
formed, an unwillingness appeared among some of the 
men to advance ; Capt. H. then dismounted, seized a Rifle, 
& led them on, fighting with the Rifle until the enemy was 
driven back to a wood. Beyond this it was deemed im- 
prudent to pursue them, as our force was not adequate 
to their capture, & they were retiring on their encamp- 
ment, & probably leading us into an ambush. Orders 
were therefor given to retire to the piquet station. This 
affair was by far the most bloody & destructive of all the 
piquet fights on the frontier, costing us in killed & 
wounded upwards of forty men, including Lt. Eldridge & 
his party, who, in coming to our relief, was surprized & 
massacred by the Savages. 

Capt. H. participated generally in the principal skirm- 
ishes on the Piquets during the summer, which passed 
away without any other very important events. 

Gen. Wilkinson having arrived at Sacket's Harbor, Col. 
Burn was directed to move his regiment by easy marches 
to the interior, for the purpose of recruiting the horses, 
preparatory to the descent on Montreal. Having in con- 
sequence arrived at Utica, Capt. H. found himself obliged 
to keep his room by reason of being much reduced by the 
sickness then prevailing on the frontier. Col. Burn now 
received orders to inarch for the Black River, & altho' 
strongly dissuaded by him, Capt. H. resolved to accom- 
pany the regiment. After the most toilsome & hazardous 
marches about the country on the Black river, the regi- 
ment finally joined the army in Canada, opposite Hamil- 
ton on the St. Lawrence, whence it took up its route to 


On this march Capt. H's troop was detailed for the 
rear guard, with orders from Gen. Wilkinson not to leave 
the ground, until the whole army had passed, & all the 
boats had moved down the river; & particularly to be 
careful that nothing should be left behind. The execu- 
tion of this order detained Capt. H. two hours, during 
which he was obliged besides to deceive the enemy who 
had presented themselves on the rear, by manoeuvering 
his troop in such a manner, as to magnify its apparent 
force. He is not without confidence that by this measure 
& by the destruction of a number of Bridges, that he in 
some degree impeded the advance of the Enemy. 

The Battle of Chrystler's Fields, Capt. H. feels per- 
suaded, reflects on the 2d regt. Dragoons the highest hon- 
or. Consisting of 240 men on the morning of the Battle, 
it was reduced thro' the day by repeated details for ex- 
presses, officers' guards &c to 130 men. The Infantry, 
retiring from the field, left 4 Field pieces, under the or- 
ders of Capt. Craig & Lts Irvine & Smith with a bare 
sufficiency of men to work them, exposed to the enemy. 
Noticing their unprotected situation, they advanced upon 
them with their whole force in three columns "en 
echelon." At this critical moment the handful of dra- 
goons alone were left to save the Cannon & the Honor of 
the Army. The enemy's first column, of about 450 men, 
had reached almost within grasp of the pieces, when Col. 
Walbach who stood with a number of Staff Officers in a 
ravine, asked Maj. Woodford, the comg officer of the 
dragoons, if a charge of cavalry were practicable. Wood- 
ford applied to Capt. H., as senior captain, for his opin- 
ion; to which he immediately answered, that "not a mo- 
ment should be lost." The charge was made, the enemy 
turned, the artillery rescued, & the reputation of the 
Army snatched from dishonor. In this affair, of 130 


dragoons, 18 men were killed & wounded, & 25 horses. 
Capt. H. had his coat twice pierced by inusquet balls. 

In his report of this battle, Gen. Boyd states, that the 
dragoons were early on the field but had no opportunity 
to act ! ! ! 

The Army having embarked on board the boats for 
Cornwall, the rescued artillery was ordered down by 
land, under escort of the dragoons. They all reached 
Cornwall at daylight the next morning, making their way 
thro' the woods, the bridges on the public roads having 
been destroyed. The dragoons had then been 24 hours 
on horseback. 

At Cornwall it was announced, that the campaign had 
closed. Gen. Swartout & Col. Walbach called on Capt. 
H. & informed him, that the dragoons must cross to the 
American shore, & proposed that the horses should be 
swimmed across. To this method Capt. H. objected as 
impracticable. It was however persisted in, & the ex- 
periment being made, it failed. He was then permitted 
to use his own means of passing, which he did, & suc- 

The dragoons were now ordered by Gen. Wilkinson 
into winter quarters at Greenbush. Having arrived at 
Utica on their way thither, they met a counter order from 
the Sec. at War directing them to dismount, send the 
horses to Greenbush & the men to St's [Sackett's] Har- 
bor Approaching that place, the regiment halted a few 
miles short of it, while barracks could be prepared for 
their reception. Here Col. Burn offered to Capt. H. a fur- 
lough, presuming he would be desirous of visiting his 
home; but altho' no officer could have stronger need of 
nor better title to such an indulgence, Capt. H. still fear- 
ful of missing any opportunity of active service, which 
might have presented in his absence, preferred remaining 


with the Army; & at one time during this winter he was 
the only Captain of his regiment on the frontier. 

The enemy was occupied at this time in reinforcing 
himself in Kingston, & Col. Smith, comg. officer at the 
Harbor, apprehensive of an attack, directed Col. Burn to 
collect all the public horses, & establish a patrol guard 
on the road to Kingston. About thirty were collected 
& Capt. H. solicited & obtained the command of them. 
The laborious & perilous character of this duty can 
hardly be properly appreciated, but by those, who, in the 
midst of winter, experienced its severity & danger. 

The fear of an attack increasing, as the enemy were re- 
inforced, additional troops were called into the defence 
of the Harbor. Among them were about forty mounted 
dragoons, which, added to Capt. H's guard, gave him a 
respectable force. This winter, however, as the last, 
passed without any offensive movement on either side. 

The succeeding Spring opened with a new campaign. 
Gen. Brown was assigned to the left division of the Army, 
stationed on the Niagara. Capt. H. eager to be actively 
employed waited on Gen. Brown & requested to be or- 
dered to that frontier; & the General departing soon 
after for his command, fearful his request might not be 
remembered, Capt. H. obtained the promise of an Aid, 
that he would remind the General of it, & endeavor to 
obtain his assent. Meanwhile he occupied himself in 
disciplining his troop, & shortly after was gratified by 
the reception of the much desired order. Being directed 
to proceed by easy marches to the Niagara, he departed, 
with the permission of Gen. Gaines, then commanding at 
the harbor. He had advanced however only to the Gene- 
see river, when he met an express from Gen. Brown, or- 
dering him to return with all speed to the Harbor, in con- 
sequence of a request to that effect from Gen. Gaines, 
who had strong apprehensions of an attack from the 


enemy. Capt. H. accordingly measured back his steps & 
reported himself again at the Harbor. 

Advices now came to Gen. Gaines from Col. Mitchell, 
commanding at Oswego, where were deposited the arma- 
ment & equipment of the Fleet building at the Harbor, 
stating the appearance of the enemy's fleet off that place, 
& the probability of an attack. Gen. Gaines then ordered 
Capt. H. to proceed, with his troop & a company of Rifle- 
men, by a forced march to the support of Col. Mitchell. 
Unfortunately the notice came too late. Oswego was 
distant 60 miles & the enemy commenced his attack on 
the morning Capt. H. left the Harbor. On his march he 
met an express, informing that Oswego had fallen; he 
pushed on however to within a few miles of Col. Mitchell, 
who had retired, & from him received orders to return to 
the Harbor. The enemy having evacuated Oswego, the 
Naval armaments were shipped in boats, guarded by the 
Riflemen under Maj. Apling, to be transported to the 
Harbor. This expedition was chased into Sandy Creek 
by a detachment of Gunboats from the enemy's fleet under 
Capt. Popham. Gen. Gaines, apprized of the exposed 
situation of the property, dispatched Capt. H. with his 
troop & a company of Lt Artillery to reinforce Maj. Ap- 
ling. The glorious result of this affair is well known. 
Capt. H. participated largely in it, but, from perhaps im- 
proper delicacy, declined being mentioned in Maj. Apling's 
report. 1 

The probability that Sir James Yeo would send in an- 
other detachment for the attainment of an object, on 
which depended the equipment of our Navy, & for the re- 
capture of his boats, so discreditably lost, Gen. Gaines & 
Com. Chauncey ordered additional troops to Sandy Creek. 

l Daniel Appling, a gallant young Georgian, who entered the army in 1808. 
He had numerous promotions and was brevetted colonel for distinguished ser- 
vices at Plattsburg in September, 1814. He died at Montgomery, Ala., in 181 7, 
aged 30 years. 


Capt. Harris was directed to remain with half his troop 
& to send the other half to escort the prisoners to 

It was then determined to transport the Navy materials 
by land, during which Capt. H. remained at the Creek. 
Still extremely anxious to join the left division on the 
Niagara, he kept his eye on its movements. Not being 
honored by any commands from Gen. Brown, & afraid 
that the division of his troop might occasion the defeat of 
his wishes, he wrote to Gen. B.'s aid pressing for the order 
to join the General's division. 

The public property having been all transported from 
the Creek to the Harbor, Capt. H. returned to the latter 
place. Here he waited in anxious expectation of hearing 
from Gen. Brown, & meeting the return from Greenbush 
of the absent part of his Troop. At last he had the joy on 
the same day, of receiving the long solicited order & seeing 
the return of his detached men. 

The next day Capt. H. once more took up his march for 
the Niagara. A confidential note had come to him along 
with the order, informing him, when the army would 
cross the Niagara. This gave him only five days to reach 
Buffaloe, a distance of 250 miles. On the fifth evening of 
his march however he waited on Gen. Brown, who re- 
ceived him with much civility, & expressed in flattering 
terms his surprize, as well as gratification at the rapidity 
of his march. Capt. H. halted his troop within two miles 
of Buffaloe for refreshment, & so long had his men been 
deprived of sleep, it was with difficulty they could attend 
to their horses. 

The Army commenced crossing the Niagara on the even- 
ing of Capt. H.'s arrival at Buffaloe. Seeing no prepara- 
tion for passing his troop, he applied to the General on 
the subject, being apprehensive that he should not be 
passed in time to share in the expected conflict with Ft. 


Erie. The General assured him he should cross, before 
any offensive operations took place. Accordingly the next 
morning he crossed, & was present at the surrender of 
[Fort] Erie. 

The Army marched on the day following for Chippewa, 
having Capt. H's troop in advance. In approaching Chip- 
pewa, the enemy sent out a party to meet us, which was 
soon compelled to retire. The Army encamped for the 
night on Street's Creek, about a mile & a half from the 
enemy's works in the village of Chippewa. At this time 
the services of Capt. Harris were most particularly re- 
quired. Commanding the only regular dragoons with this 
army, the whole duty of patroling, reconnoitering, & of 
mounted pickets devolved on him & his troop. Having 
but one officer, a cornet, the service became extremely 

On the 5th July the enemy shewed his whole force on 
the plain in front of our encampment, throwing his Sav- 
ages & Militia into the surrounding woods. These were 
met by our forces of a similar arm, fought in their own 
way & driven back to the Chippewa. Meanwhile, Gen. 
Scott displayed his brigade on the field opposed to the 
British under Gen. Riall. Capt. H. was ordered to check 
the flight of a few of our Indians, who were retiring from 
the woods. He performed this duty, & seeing no prospect 
of employ for his Troop he ordered it to the rear in charge 
of the cornet, & volunteered his personal services to Gen. 
Scott. The enemy beaten from the field, fled to their 
works in Chippewa. Capt. H. being then with Gen. Scott 
in advance of his line, was consulted by him on the pro- 
priety of suspending any further operations, & returning 
to Camp ; to which he replied, that he thought it would be 
too hazardous & very destructive to attempt following the 
enemy over the bridge, under the fire of their battery. Of 
course it would be prudent to return. The General then 


asked, if he had seen Gen. Brown, & on his replying in the 
negative, requested him to go to him & say, that he, Gen. 
Scott, thought it advisable to retire to the Encampment. 
Gen. Brown coming up, some conversation ensued between 
them, & the Army was ordered into camp. 

Gen. Scott, in his report of this action, speaking of the 
Officers, says: "Major Wood & Capt. Harris of the dra- 
goons, whose troop could not act, came up & very hand- 
somely offered their services. The latter had his horse 
shot under him." — Capt. H. remained on the field, recon- 
noitering the enemies works, & observing but few men in 
the village, & that the battery appeared to be evacuated, 
he returned to camp, & informed Gen. Scott of his belief, 
that the enemy had retired from the village. He was 
then directed to take his troop, & endeavor to ascertain 
that fact, but not to expose his men. Capt. H. therefor 
securing his men in the woods, & taking with him a cor- 
poral, proceeded on to the plain in front of the enemies 
battery. He closely viewed their works, & discovering 
but few men in the entrenchments, & no appearance of 
men or guns in the battery, concluded, that the principal 
part of their force must have retreated on Queenstown, 
more particularly as he was not fired upon from the bat- 
tery. Almost confirmed in the opinion already given, he 
was on the point of returning, when it occurred to him, 
that the guns might be masked, & that the enemy did not 
chuse to waste his ammunition on an individual, or from 
some other motive remained silent. Unwilling to make a 
report, founded on uncertainty, he resolved on an expedi- 
ent, which might remove all doubt. Presuming if the 
guns were really in battery, he should induce the enemy 
to betray it by presenting to their fire his whole troop, 
& conceiving that the advantage obtained would com- 
pensate the risk of losing a few men, he sent his corporal 
to order the cornet to bring up the troop. As soon as 


they came Capt. H. displayed them before the battery. 
The enemy thereupon instantly shewed themselves, run 
out their guns, & opened a brisk fire. The object obtained, 
Capt. H. filed off his troop & returned to camp. Report- 
ing this affair to Gen. Scott, he said in joke "did you 
march your men into the battery?", which Capt. H. mis- 
understanding as a hint, that he had not thoroughly done 
his duty, replied to, by offering to attempt it. "No Sir, 
your report is quite satisfactory, & the act was performed 
in a gallant manner." The General afterwards frequently 
spoke of this affair. 

The following day Gen. Ripley moved up the Chippewa, 
in order to ford the river & attack the enemy in his works. 
The enemy marched out to meet him. During this Capt. 
H. was ordered to reconnoitre the village. Gen. Ripley 
drove them back & as they repassed thro' the village, Capt. 
H. observed them to leave a field piece & some dragoons, 
to cover their retreat. He then became eager to pass the 
river, & lead in the pursuit of the flying enemy ; but they 
had that morning destroyed the bridge. Without other 
resource, he entered the river with part of his troop, but 
finding his horses unaccustomed to the water, he returned, 
& ordered such of his men, as could swim, to dismount & 
follow him. With a few men he re-entered the river, & 
gained the opposite shore by swimming. Gen. Ripley 
making his appearance at the same time, the enemy fled 
the village, & our Army, passing over in boats, encamped 
therein that night. For his conduct on this occasion 
Capt. H. was honored by the approbation, warmly ex- 
pressed as he understood, of Gen. Brown ; & by having his 
name given to the army for the countersign of that night. 
The next morning the army took up its march in pur- 
suit of the enemy. Capt. H. was directed to proceed, in 
advance, & reconnoitre. He pushed down the Queenstown 
road & reaching the heights in advance of the army, 


found the enemy had fled to his strong holds in Newark. 

On Queenstown heights the army remained some time 
encamped, & here again a most harassing & dangerous 
duty devolved upon Capt. H. in the line of patrolling & 
reconnoitering the country in the vicinity of the heights 
& of the enemy at Newark. Gen. Brown frequently called 
on Capt. H. in his tent & represented to him, that he relied 
upon him, to guard the encampment from being surprized. 
Stimulated by this responsibility to increased exertion, 
day & night he patroled the country about St. Davids, a 
duty rendered extremely hazardous by its immense woods 
& intricate pathways being always ambushed by regulars, 
militia & savages. In the daily skirmishes, which occur- 
red in this neighborhood Capt. H. was always present. 
Not a day passed, but he was engaged with the enemy. 

At one time reconnoitring with his cornet & four men 
the village of St. Davids, at the close of the day he was 
suddenly set upon by about seventy men, who rushed from 
the woods. His cornet's horse being shot under him, he 
was made prisoner, but the ground was maintained by 
Capt. H. until three of his horses were so badly wounded, 
that he was obliged to retire. 

The Army broke up from Queenstown heights, leaving 
an officer to blow up the fort, with Capt. H's troop to pro- 
tect him, & marched upon Fort George, under which it 
encamped for the night. Eeturning thence to Queenstown 
heights, Capt. H's troop, as usual, was ordered in ad- 
vance. On this march he was opposed by some regulars 
& militiamen, of whom he made thirteen prisoners. 

The enemy having in the absence of the Army reoccu- 
pied the heights of Queenstown, fled thence on the reap- 
pearance of our force, & Gen. Porter with his volunteers 
was ordered to pursue. He in a short time sent for the 
dragoons & Capt. H was ordered to join him. 

The enemy having escaped from the force under Gen. 


Porter, Capt. H. proposed to him to allow him to lead 
his troop, by a cross road thro' the woods to St. Davids; 
where he expected to fall in with a detachment of the 
enemy, which had been stationed there. 

Taking up his route thro' the woods over a pathway, 
which admitted of moving only in single file, & being dis- 
tant about 2 miles from Gen. Porter, himself riding in ad- 
vance of his troop, Capt. H. discovered a British Officer 
standing by the side of his horse near a log-house. He im- 
mediately hid himself in the woods, until the officer re-en- 
tered the house; then selecting 6 men from his troop he 
galloped up, & surrounded the house, which to his sur- 
prise he found occupied, as he thought, with soldiers. Call- 
ing upon them to surrender, they opened upon him a 
spirited fire from the windows. The body of his troop, 
hearing in the wood, the report of musquetry, rushed up, 
& the enemy, finding it useless to resist any further, sur- 
rendered. Instead however of soldiers, as at first sup- 
posed, they proved to be one officer of the regular army, & 
five of the most active & influential officers of organised 
militia. Here Capt. H had a narrow escape from a mus- 
quet, which was levelled at his breast & fired at the dis- 
tance of a few feet from him. One of his men was killed 
& several horses wounded. For this affair he was merely 
noticed in general orders, while the credit of it was given 
to Gen. Porter in the official reports to the War Depart- 
ment. Capt. H. was advised by Col's Wood & Hindman 
to make a written report on the subject to Gen. Brown, 
in order that he might receive the credit of it at Washing- 
ton. This he declined, as he had already stated it verbally 
to Gen. Brown, & presumed, he would take such notice of 
it as it might deserve. It attracted largely the attention 
of the public, having made its way into the principal ga- 
zettes, tho' still unaccompanied with the name of Capt. 


The next affair, in which Capt. H. was engaged, was 
the Battle of Bridgewater. Here he led the advance of 
the Army & was the first to discover the enemy's line on 
Lunda's heights. He was exposed to their fire for some 
time before the Army came up & was actively engaged on 
the field from the commencement to the close of the battle. 
He at one time fell into the hands of the enemy, but was 
fortunate enough to extricate himself, & escape; at an- 
other he had again nearly been made prisoner from gal- 
loping upon the enemy's line, which, in the obscurity of 
the night & the action, he mistook for our own. From this 
danger he was rescued by the timely voice of Oapt. 
Ritchie of the Artillery. His horse was pierced thro' the 
body by one musquet ball & the seat of his saddle by an- 

Capt. H. has been told, that Gen. Scott, during his con- 
finement by the wound he received, frequently spoke of his 
zeal & gallantry in this battle. When it had closed, by 
order of Gen. Ripley, he took up with his troop the duty 
of rear-guard. 

The Army afterwards retired upon Ft. Erie, having as 
usual Capt. H's troop in advance. Gen Gaines arriving 
to assume the command, a siege commenced, during which 
Capt. H whose troop had become reduced to a mere 
subaltern's command, served in the General's family, as 
acting aid, by his particular invitation. On this service 
he was necessarily much exposed during the siege & in the 
assault made by the enemy on the works. In what man- 
ner he acquitted himself will appear in the subjoined ex- 
tract from Gen. Gaines' report of the battle : 

To Capt. Harris of the dragoons, Vol. Aid de Camp much 
credit is due for his constant vigilance & strict attention to every 
duty, previous to the action; & the steady courage, zeal & activ- 
ity, which he manifested during the fight. 

Shortly after this action Gen. Gaines was severely 


wounded by the bursting of a shell in his room, which 
compelling him to cross to the American shore, Capt. H 
accompanied him to the hospital at Williamsville & then 
returned to Erie. 

At this place Gen. Ripley was pleased to observe to 
Capt. H. that he had not till then been thoroughly ac- 
quainted with his military character & that he should cer- 
tainly recommend him for a Lt. Colonelcy in one of the 
new regiments. 

Gen. Gaines, having recovered so far as to be able to 
travel, addressed a polite note to Capt. H. requesting his 
company on his journey to the interior. Being at this 
time, by the great reduction of his troop left without a 
command & receiving also advice of the sudden death of 
bis father, Capt. H. accepted the invitation. 

He thus quitted the Army, after being constantly with 
it during two years, all which time he was strenuously & 
laboriously engaged in the duties pertaining, not only to 
his particular command but to any other service, with 
which it pleased his superiors to honor him ; & was pres- 
ent in all the principal skirmishes & battles inclusively, 
from that of Chrystler's field to the assault on Fort Erie. 

The day of his departure an officer called upon Capt H. 
to inform him, that he had just seen Gen. Brown, who had 
recovered from his wound & returned to the frontier, to 
whom he had stated his surprise, that the services of Capt. 
H. had not been noticed in his official reports. At which 
the General also expressed his surprise & assured him 
that Capt. H. stood at, or near, the head of his confiden- 
tial report to the War Department and spoke in the most 
flattering terms of the military character & conduct of 
Capt. Harris. 

To shew the opinion of that distinguished engineer Col. 
McRea 2 the following extract of a letter from an officer at 

2 William McRee, afterwards U. S. Surveyor-general. 


Erie is given : "all your friends ask me frequently, if I 
hear from you; you are much esteemed & beloved with 
this Army. Col McRea said lately in presence of Gen. 
BrOwn & many officers of rank, 'had I the bestowing of 
brevets, I would immediately give Capt. Harris two.' " 

Col. Brooke says also, in a letter to Capt. H. : "the neg- 
lect you have experienced is often the subject of regret 
with your friends, in this army." 

Capt. H. on his route to his home in Boston tarried 
some time with Generals Gaines & Scott in Albany & on 
their departure from Albany, the latter said to Capt. H 
that he must have a higher rank in the Army & that on 
his arrival in Washington he should make exertions to ob- 
tain him a regiment. At the same time Maj. Belton, aid 
to Gen. Gaines, gave Capt H. a copy of a letter, written by 
that general to the War Department, which is subjoined. 
This was not solicited by Capt. H., nor did he suggest to 
the General a wish, to engage him in his interests. 

Returning to Boston, Capt. H. reported himself to Gen. 
Dearborn, by whom he was immediately invited to enter 
his military family, as Aid. Here he remained, until the 
new organization of the Army & in the mean time was en- 
trusted by the General with the settling of certain claims 
for vessels captured, made by the British against the in- 
habitants of the District of Maine. Repairing to Castine 
to meet the British commissioner & he not making his 
appearance, Capt. H. conceiving the claims to be unfound- 
ed, returned to Boston. 

Recently, Gen. Ripley having received instructions to ap- 
point an officer to make, conjointly with an Agent of the 
Commissary department, an inventory of all the military 
stores in his department & to dispose of the surplus by 
public sale, selected Capt. H. for that service; thus from 
the commencement of the War to the present hour he has 
never been off duty. 


Copy of a letter from Gen. Gaines to the War 

Albany, Sep 21 1814 
Sir. — I deem it my duty to inform you, that Capt. Har- 
ris of the regiment Lt Dragoons has served with the 
Army on the Niagara since 1st July & participated in 
each of the battles & several skirmishes with a degree of 
skill & gallantry, which I am persuaded from what I 
have heard & what I have seen has not been surpassed by 
any officer of any corps in the Army. His troop has been 
much reduced & dismounted & being under the impression 
that he will be more useful in the Infantry I take the lib- 
erty to request that he may be attached to one of the 
North Eastern regiments, with such rank as his excellent 
qualifications & distinguished services entitle him. I am 
of opinion, that he would do honor to the rank of a Field 
officer. Should there be any new corps raised, I beg you 
would be pleased to name Capt. Harris to the President 
for the appointment of Lt. Colonel. The appointment of 
Major, in a regiment now in service, would probably be 
as much as could be given him at this time without com- 
plaint ; but if intelligence, honor, zeal, activity, discipline 
& courage are taken into view in settling rank, his name 
would stand below few field officers within my knowledge. 
I have the honor &c 


E. P. Gaines. 

The Hon. Secretary of War 



With Notes on Other Calendars and Weather 
Forecasters of Buffalo 

By Frank H. Severance 

In preceding volumes of this series have appeared vari- 
ous "Contributions towards a Bibliography of the Niag- 
ara Region.'' 1 As a further contribution in this field, the 
following notes are submitted. They constitute, it is 
true, but a foot-note to history, but they are entitled to 
a place in the bibliographical records of our region, and 
they relate to men of high standing, and to a unique and 
long-continued enterprise. 

We refer to Elihu Phinney, and to his sons Elihu and 
Henry; to the third generation; and to their long-con- 
tinued annual known as "Phinney's Calendar or Western 
Almanack," which from 1850 until its discontinuance was 
published in Buffalo. Some sketch of the history of this 
enterprise, and of the men who carried it on, is here 

Judge Elihu Phinney used to be styled "the pioneer 
editor and publisher west of Albany." He came from 
Connecticut to Cooperstown, N. Y., in February, 1795, 
and on April 3d of that year issued the first number of 
the Otsego Herald or Western Advertiser, the second 

1. In vol. v, "Bibliography of the Upper Canada Rebellion"; vol. vi, "Buf- 
falo Imprints before 1850"; vol. vii, "A book that grew: Editions of 'Life ot 
Mary Jemison' "; vol. xi. "Fillmore Bibliography"; vol. xix, "Bibliography of 
the Writings of J. N. Larned"; vol. xix, "The Periodical Press of Buffalo", 
with supplementary list in vol. xxii. 



journal published in this state, west of Albany. Coopers- 
town was at that time regarded as "western." 

Most famous of all the many publications of the press 
he established, was the long-continued "Phinney's Cal- 
endar or Western Almanack/' which appears to have been 
first issued in 1797, and which later became a Buffalo 

The elder Phinney, who was for several years a judge 
of the Otsego County court, died in July, 1813, leaving 
two sons, Henry and Elihu Phinney, who for many 
years carried on the business their father had founded. 
Tn 1821 they discontinued the Otsego Herald, but "Phin- 
ney's Calendar," which the sons had carried on since 
1807, was continued by them and their children until 
about 1861, and by other publishers, but with the same 
old name, until 1887. 

In this long period it was issued annually at Coopers- 
town, down to 1850 ; except for the years 1807 to 1812 in- 
clusive, when the imprint is Otsego, N. Y. In 1849 
Henry F. Phinney married a daughter of James Feni- 
more Cooper, and removed to Buffalo, where he estab- 
lished a book and publishing business under the style of 
Phinney & Co. Here it was, in January, 1850, that this 
house sent out the 53d annual calendar, under the old 
name of "Phinney's Calendar or Western Almanac" — the 
final "k" having been dropped from "Almanack" in the 
gradual evolution of the language. On the earlier issues 
had appeared the statement: "Calculated for the West- 
ern District of the State of New York," the astronomical 
part being furnished by "Gabriel Goodweather," who was 
probably Andrews Beers, as disclosed by the following 
card which appeared in the "Almanack" for 1803 : 

to the public. 
I am impelled by justice to acknowledge that I made two mis- 
takes in the astronomical calculations, &c for Phinney's Calen- 


dar, for AD. 1798; but I still supposed he would employ me 
again. When I found that he had employed that great astron- 
omer Andrew Beers, in preference to me, there was not a little 
envy excited in my mind; and I determined to criticise all Mr. 
Beers' -calculations, and, if I found an error, to expose it: hut 
finding everything perfectly correct, I do voluntarily make this 
declaration to the public in order to avoid a suit in slander, 
which I understood Mr. Phinney contemplated instituting against 
me, on account of several envious expressions against the ac- 
curacy of the astronomical part of his Almanack; and I further 
declare that I believe Mr. Beers to be the greatest Astronomer 
(excepting myself) that can be found north of the Potomac. 

Gabriel Goodweather. 
Witnesses : 

Thomas Trueman. 

Bridget Brandliar. 

If "Gabriel Goodweather" was not Andrew Beers, he 
was at any rate a humorist of quality. Andrew Beers 
continued in charge of the astronomical part of Phinney's 
Calendar until 1826, in which year it was performed 
"By a Gentleman of New York." In 1827 it was calcu- 
lated by Edwin E. Prentiss, who was perhaps the afore- 
said "gentleman." Mr. Prentiss had it until 1832, when 
he was succeeded by Prof. George R. Perkins, in whose 
capable charge it continued for many years. 

The astronomical calculations were at first made, as 
above stated, "for the Western District of the State of 
New York," but it will be borne in mind that at the 
close of the eighteenth century Western New York was 
chiefly an unsettled wilderness, and Otsego County was 
regarded as "western." In 1803 the almanac was "cal- 
culated for the meridian of Albany," by "Andrew Beers, 
Philom," presumably "philomath," a lover of learning. In 
1805 the almanac was "calculated for the horizon and 
and meridian of Albany," but in 1806, and for many 
years following, for the horizon and meridian of Otsego. 
In 1850, when Phinney's Calendar began to be published 
in Buffalo, George R. Perkins, who was professor of mathe- 
matics at the New York State Normal School at Albany, 


was still making the calculations; but in that year they 
were made for the meridian of Buffalo, which was given 
as latitude 42 degrees 53 minutes north; longitude 78 
degrees 55 minutes west from Greenwich. There was 
much discrepancy in the earlier years, as to the exact lo- 
cation of Buffalo. The reader is referred to volume xxii 
of these Publications for an account of observations made 
in 1860, with a view to determine the latitude and longi- 
tude of Buffalo. It was then established as latitude 42° 
53' 03.18", longitude west of Greenwich 78° 52' 41.83". 
For a good many years it was given on the title-page of 
the Western Almanac as lat. 42° 53' North, long. 78° 55' 

The Western Almanac continued to be published in 
Buffalo by Phinney & Co., at 188 Main street (old num- 
bering) and to be edited by Professor Perkins, for a num- 
ber of years. The bookstore, which also had an entrance 
from Seneca street, had been conducted by F. W. Breed, 
who became a member of the firm of Phinney & Co. In 
the early 50's it consisted of Elihu and Henry F. Phinney, 
Elihu Phinney, Jr., and Fred. W. Breed. They were en- 
terprising publishers, and some of the most notable books 
ever produced in Buffalo were manufactured by them. 
Conspicuous in the list is the quarto Bible, issued in 1850. 
There are also copies with the title-page dated 1851. It 
was a handsomely-printed edition, but is rarely to be 
found now-a-days. Among the early publications of 
Phinney & Co. were many schoolbooks, including Young's 
"Civil Government," Town's series of School Readers 
and Spellers, Hale's "Premium History of the United 
States," Jane Taylor's "Physiology for Children," Mar- 
vin's "Intellectual Arithmetic" — a stumbling-block for 
more than one generation of youngsters — and many mis- 
cellaneous and popular works. Phinney & Co. were for 
years the publishers of the copy-books of Spencer's sys- 


tern of penmanship, perfected by Prof. P. R. Spencer. 
Buffalo has no publishing house today which ranks with 
this old establishment of 70 years ago. And regularly as 
New Year's arrived, appeared the old familiar "Western 
Almanac," to find a place, with its quaint predictions, its 
jokes and miscellany, on a nail at the side of desks in 
store and counting-room, or in farmhouse kitchen, the 
land over. 

The senior member of the firm, Elihu Phinney, died at 
Cooperstown Feb. 5, 1863, in his 78th year. Prior to his 
death, the publishing firm of Phinney, Blakeman & Ma- 
son had been formed in New York City, and also the 
house of Iveson, Phinney & Co., publishers of school and 
college text-books. In Buffalo, Phinney & Co. were suc- 
ceeded, about 1861, by Breed, Butler & Co., which about 
1867 became Breed & Lent. In 1871 the firm style was 
Breed, Lent & Co. ; in 1873, James M. Lent, who was 
succeeded in 1877 by Peter Paul & Brother. Each of 
these firms in turn took over Phinney's Calendar, and 
issued it without material change in style. It continued 
to be published by Peter Paul & Bro. until 1887, when 
it was discontinued, having been issued without a break 
for 90 years. 

Prof. George R. Perkins made the astronomical calcu- 
lations for it, until his death, Aug. 23, 1876. It was then 
carried on by Herman Poole of the "Buffalo Practical 
School," and from 1881 to its end by Lester Wheeler of 
Heathcote School. 

It does not appear that either of the brothers, Elihu 
or Henry Phinney, ever resided in Buffalo. Elihu's life- 
long home was Cooperstown, where he died Jan. 26, 1863. 
His brother Henry, who with him had built up the pub- 
lishing business at Cooperstown, and saw it established 
in Buffalo, died at Cooperstown, Sept. 14, 1850. It was 
men of the third generation who carried on the business 


in Buffalo : Henry Frederick, eldest son of Elihu, had 
been a partner in the firm of Phinney & Co. since 1839. 
The destruction of their establishment by fire, in 1849, 
led to the removal of their printing and publishing busi- 
ness to Buffalo, where the family was represented by 
Henry F. and Elihu (third). Their place of business was 
always, during its continuance here, at No. 188 Main 
street. In 1851 and '52 the brothers resided at No. 87 
East Swan street. Elihu's name is not in the Buffalo 
Directory for 1852. He was married, June 12, 1851, at 
Riverside, Ulster Co., N. Y., to Sarah L. Stewart of that 
place. In 1854 he was boarding with Miss Clare Cutler 
at Nos. 303-305 Washington street; and from 1855 to 
1860 his residence is given as No. 99 Niagara street. After 
the book-selling and publishing business had passed to 
Breed, Butler & Co., Elihu Phinney (third) continued 
for a time to be a member of the firm. Apparently none 
of the family resided in Buffalo after 1860. 

Elihu the third — the only member of the Phinney fami- 
ly who was actively identified with the interests of Buf- 
falo — seems to have inherited from his father and grand- 
father, along with other excellent qualities, a certain 
dry humor which sometimes was so subtle as to baffle 
dull matter-of-fact people, who never quite knew how to 
take him. The sincerity, not to say the scientific basis, 
of the weather predictions in the old almanac may very 
likely have been questioned, or even derided, by users of 
that ubiquitous publication. In the very early years 
there was less prognostication of coming weather, than 
a giving of homely advice. Thus, scattered through the 
calendar for 1798 are such remarks as these: "Storm 
about this time." "Turn out and break roads" (this in 
January). In February: "Tough times for cattle." 
"Perhaps a thaw about this time." In April : "Bad walk- 
ing abroad; the fair lady slips her delicate feet into san- 


dais, and steps cautiously over the mud." "Flurries of 
snow — take care of your lambs." There were many pre- 
dictions that the weather would be fair, or cloudy, or 
dull — which might be termed, "playing it safe." The 
moral advice that accompanied all these precious prognos- 
tications, tended as much as anything to make Phinney's 
Calendar famous. "When you are married, study Addi- 
tion, practice Multiplication, and avoid Division," was 
worthy of Poor Richard himself. So, too, "Go not to the 
Doctor for every Disease, to the Lawyer for every Quar- 
rel or to the Tavern for every Thirst;" and countless 
more of the same sort. 

Often the weather was predicted with caution: "It 
may rain, or perhaps snow" (Apr., 1803) ; "Expect a 
change" (Sept., '03) ; "Disagreeable, homely weather" was 
promised in November of that year; while for December 
we read: "Some snow and some rain, and many cold 
fingers before this month is out." Year after year the 
seasons' variations were foretold in this fashion, some- 
times with a pleasing lapse into rhyme, — as when, for 
August in a by-gone year, we read : "About now, thunder, 
or I shall wonder"; and three generations of Phinneys 
had been held responsible for it. From time to time 
new features were added, such as notable dates and his- 
toric anniversaries; but the characteristic weather pre- 
dictions were continued to the end, except for one year. 
The Calendar for 1877, the first year in which it was 
published by Peter Paul & Bro., contains not a single 
prediction or prophecy! In 1878 however, they were re- 
sumed, and it continued to be cold in January and hot 
in August, in the old approved fashion, until the vener- 
able almanac went out of business. 

Just how far the younger Phinney was responsible for 
this time-worn if not time-honored feature, one cannot 
say; but oddly enough, he took it upon himself to de- 


fend it, in a letter which, though no doubt in a degree 
Pickwickian, is still so expressive of an unusual person- 
ality, that it may well be preserved here. In May, 1879, 
when the Western Almanac was being published in Buf- 
falo by Peter Paul & Bro., Mr. Phinney sent the follow- 
ing communication to the Freeman's Journal of Coopers- 
town : 

Phinney's Calendar or Western Almanac. — Mr. Editor: The 
intimation thrown out in your issue of the 24th ult. that this 
time-honored periodical had been virtually superseded by Her- 
riek's ephemeral and altogether pretentious imitation, 'has ex- 
cited my just indignation. 

The late Mr. Geo. A. Starkweather, (peace to his ashes, never- 
theless!) not many years ago, before a large audience in our 
court-house, took occasion to remark, quite seriously, that the 
exact fulfillment of one of my most remarkable prophecies — that 
of a snow storm in August — was a matter of pure accident. This, 
too, stirred a feeling of (resentment which was repressed at the 
time, and I shall therefore avail myself of the present oppor- 
tunity to dispose thoroughly and finally of both these disparag- 
ing charges. 

If, since my retirement, certain slight irregularities have 
crept into the management of the Calendar, neither you, Mr. 
Editor, nor the public at large, have any right to complain, 
much less to hold me responsible. If, thro' incompetence and 
charlatanry, the late snow storm was too vaguely predicted, the 
fault must not be laid at my door. Wihat I claim is — and I 
claim it against all comers — that during my administration and 
that of my predecessors, embracing a period of nearly or quite 
70 years, the prophecies contained in that little annual were ful- 
filled with an exactitude wholly unexampled, and that the weath- 
er was, upon the whole, taking year in and year out, such as his- 
tory "has never before recorded, and may very iprobably never 
record again. The larger part of it indeed, although exceedingly 
stale, being now more than half a century old, is to j day, on that 
very account — having stood the test of time — regarded by many 
intelligent persons as more reliable, more available, and there- 
fore more practically useful, than any we have 'had since 1862 
— the year in which my personal supervision ceased. 

Some go so far as to demand that on account of its great 
moderation and generally conservative character, it should be 
adopted and sanctioned by Congress as the national standard 
for the next fifty years, ignoring entirely all the new-fangled 
theories, whose only practical results thus far have been to 
sweep our western border with hurricanes, and to submerge 
one of the finest cities of 'Hungary. As to the general principles 
upon which the weather calculations were made, although dif- 


faring materiality- ifirom those upon which eclipses, astral show- 
ers and cometery phenomena were based, T can only, within these 
brief limits, make the assertion that they were strictly scien- 
tific. Take for example such a prediction as the following, 
which may be found on almost any page of the Calendar, and 
which frequently extended over half the month: "About — these 
days — you — may — 'look — ifor — a — change — of — weather." Now to 
this and all similar prophecies, which a good many ignorant 
people profess to regard as mere wild conjecture, the annexed 
purely mathematical formula was invariably applied: "As the 
latitude (reckoned from the discretion given) is to the longitude 
(.reckoned from the time covered) so will the atmospheric 
changes be." Or, more briefly still: "As the 'latitude is to the 
longitude, so is the weather" — which is simply the "Rule of 
Three, direct," as every school-boy knows; and accordingly, 
since "figures cannot lie,' it turns out as a matter of fact, that 
during seventy long years, not one single prediction failed of 
exact verification! There is the Calendar; there is the weather, 
down in black and white, to speak for itself, and I challenge any 
man to dispute the record. 

In forecasting, however, the more majestic and stupendous 
phenomena — such as eclipses, sun-dogs, sidereal changes, crimson 
auroras, meteoric flights, snow and hail storms at the summer 
solstice, cyclones, monsoons, earthquakes, water-spouts, tidal 
waves, volcanic eruptions, marine ebullitions, millennial periods, 
&c. — an "Alligational and Aerial Calculus" of my own invention, 
was uniformly employed, the powers and possibilities of which 
seem to be well nigh illimitable, and the secret of which I do 
not propose to divulge. 

During my residence in Buffalo, however, some twenty-odd 
years ago, where Gen. Myer ("Old Probabilities") was also then 
sojourning, he managed in some surreptitious manner to possess 
himself of a sufficient number of these secrets upon which to 
found his present famous system, and I affirm, without fear of 
contradiction, that there is not to-day a single drawer in his 
miserable old weather-beaten ^Bureau" at Washington, that isn't 
crammed with invaluable memoranda clandestinely abstracted 
from my own private pigeon-holes. 

So at last, between the selfish greed of the Government on the 
one hand — which has wickedly connived at these shameful prac- 
tices — and the inordinate ambition of Gen. Myer on the other 
(who is willing, with a good fat salary, to build himself up on 
another man's reputation,) I find myself, in the evening of life, 
stripped, not only of all the honor to which my valuable inven- 
tions and profound meteorological investigations might justly 
have entitled me, but also of the pecuniary emoluments which 
their universal approval and adoption would have been certain 
to produce. 

Worse than all this, my reputation as a Scientist has suffered. 
Mr. Starkweather began the assault. You, sir, have continued 
it. The farmers, too, of the north, who formerly sowed their 


grain and cut their hay "by Phinney's Calendar," have deserted 
me in a body. Members of my own immediate family even 
(which is the "most unkindest cut of all,") have come to be ex- 
ceedingly distrustful of my predictions. 

In fact, "my occupation's gone." I am entitled to heavy dam- 
ages. And yet the great vital secrets of this calendar are still 
my own. "In the deep bosom" of the "Alligational and Aerial 
Calculus'' above mentioned, they all "lie buried." With that 
omnipotent engine, supplemented toy an original system of volatile 
logarithms, bringing all terrestial, atmospherical and sidereal 
phenomena into the relentless grasp of the mixed mathematics, 
it is rendered possible not merely to predict, but, what is of in- 
finitely greater moment, to avert, the direst of all physical calam- 
ities, such as the great earthquake at Lisbon, or the late fright- 
ful inundation in Hungary. But, Mr. Editor, I am done. 

Unless the Government shall make suitable reparation for the 
wrong it has done me, and unless "Old Probabilities" shall haul 
down his flag and surrender at discretion that stolen "Bureau," 
these secrets — which would have proved invaluable to the Gov- 
ernment, to the country and to all mankind — shall die with me 
and my family. 

Respectfully yours, 

E. P. 

This letter, which has a touch of genius akin to that of 
Mark Twain, was no doubt, taken with solemn serious- 
ness in some quarters, but probably not by General 
Myer, who must have enjoyed the joke that he owed his 
fame in any degree to "Phinney's Calendar or Western 

A few words about "Old Probabilities" will not be in- 
appropriate in this connection. Albert James Myer, born 
at Newburg on the Hudson in 1828, graduated in 1847 
from Hobart College, and received the degree of M. D. 
from the Buffalo Medical College in 1851. He joined the 
army, and shared in Indian campaigns. It was during 
his service on the plains, that he devised the signal sys- 
tem, which, modified and extended, is still in army use. 
Gen. Myer has said that he got the idea from watching 
the Indians waving their hands; it was suggested to his 
mind that a system of motions, with flags by day and 
torches by night, might be utilized as army signals. It 


is an idea which has been adopted by the armies of many 

During the Civil War Gen. Myer was Chief Signal 
Officer, was brevetted brigadier-general in 1865, and re- 
tiring from the army, settled in Buffalo, where in Au- 
gust, 1857, he had married Miss Kate Walden, daughter 
of Judge Walden, whose fine old home occupied the site 
of the Teck Theater at Main and Edward streets. It 
was during his Buffalo residence that he prepared his 
manual of signals for the U. S. army and navy. It was 
at this time, too, that his interest in meteorology led him 
into experiments, regarding which we summarize from 
an account based on official reports. 

The Smithsonian Institution had begun a system of 
weather observations, authorized by Act of Congress, Feb. 
7, 1870, in various parts of the country. On the basis of 
these observations, Gen. Myer elaborated a plan of fore- 
casting meteorological probabilities. Weather conditions, 
temperature, direction and velocity of the wind, etc., were 
observed at points on the Great Lakes and in the inter- 
ior of the country. Arrangements were made with the 
telegraph companies, and on Nov. 1, 1870, under the 
superintendence of Gen. Myer, the first simultaneous re- 
ports of weather conditions at many points, were made. 
When these were assembled and correlated, an absolutely 
scientific prediction was possible. Gen. Myer established 
signal stations at lighthouses, life-saving stations, and 
elsewhere, wherever they would further his purpose. The 
success of his system attracted wide attention, and many 
countries followed the United States in establishing a 
system of simultaneous observations. Gen. Myer became 
known the country over as "Old Probabilities," soon 
shortened into "Old Probs." In his later years he repre- 
sented his Government at various international con- 
gresses. He died at Buffalo, Aug. 24, 1880, and his re- 


mains rest in a beautiful mausoleum in Forest Lawn 

During its long career, "Phinney's Calendar" was gen- 
uinely a product of the press of Cooperstown, and of Buf- 
falo. But oftentimes, editions were printed for cus- 
tomers or publishers in other towns, with their imprint; 
so that copies of the little old annual are likely to be 
found, bearing a great variety of publisher's names and 
places. Of these imprints we note the following : Otsego, 
Foster & Co., 1819. New Berlin, Levi Blakeslee, 1820; 
in the '30's, Blakeslee, Toby & Matteson. Otsego, Mven 
& Co., 1827. Little Falls, Sprague & McKenster, 1828. 
Utica, H. E. Phinney & Co., 1829. Little Falls, J. C. 
Dann & Co., 1829. Little Falls, J. C. Smith & Co., 1830. 
Oxford, George Hunt, 1831; Williams & Hunt, and also 
Ransom Rathbone, 1835. Monroe, Mich, Edward D. 
Ellis, 1835. Cazenovia, Mills, Crandall & Moseley, 1851. 
Syracuse, R. G. Wynkoop & Co., several years, but the 
stereotype plates for this and many other small publishing 
houses were made by Beadle & Brother, Buffalo, who 
made the plates for Phinney & Co. Binghamton, H. E. 
Pratt & Bro., 1854, 1855, and following years. Syracuse, 
Hall & Hopkins, 1855. Utica, Tiffany & Arnott, 185G. 
Little Falls, W. H. Waters, 1859, and later. In 1865, 
when it was being published in Buffalo, there was an 
edition imprinted "Cooperstown, N. Y., W. H. Ruggles, 
publisher." In 1866 and years following, it was similar- 
ly sent out by J. B. Galpin of Oxford; by R. Steere of 
Toddsville; Utica, Davis, Gilbert & Plant, 1869; Nor- 
wich, N. Y., Barber & Whitcomb, 1881. No doubt there 
were others. 

When he become publisher of "Phinney's Calendar," 
the late Peter Paul of Buffalo made an effort to secure 
copies of it for as many years as possible. Recently his 
collection was presented to the Buffalo Historical So- 


ciety. With a few issues previously owned by the So- 
ciety, the Paul collection makes up a remarkably full 
series, lacking only the years 1797, 1799 to 1802, 1823 and 
1886. The Society also has numerous duplicates. 

As matter of bibliographical record, we note here some 
other Buffalo almanacs, with no assumption of complete- 

In 1824, Oliver Spafford was publisher and H. A. Salis- 
bury of Buffalo was printer of the "Astronomical Calen- 
dar, or Western Almanac," the astronomical calculations 
being by Loud & Wilmarth. It was calculated "for the 
meridian and horizon of Buffalo," the location being given 
at Lat. 42 deg. 50 min. north, Long. 3 deg. 48 min. west 
from Philadelphia ; and this, the reader was assured, "will 
serve any part of the Western District and Upper Cana- 
da." So far as known to the present compiler, this was 
the first almanac published in Buffalo. 

In 1826 appeared the "Farmer's Calendar or Western 
Almanack," the astronomical calculations for the meri- 
dian of Buffalo locating the town in Lat. 42 deg. 30 min. 
north, Long. 2 deg. min. west from Washington. This 
was published by R. W. Haskins & Co. In 1832, Haskins' 
"Farmer's Almanack" located Buffalo in Lat. 42 deg. 52 
min. north, Long. 1 deg. 55 min. west from Washington. 
Loud's calculations were the basis of early almanacs pub- 
lished at Rochester and elsewhere; but before him (1824) 
Edward Giddins had calculated the "Niagara Almanac," 
the astronomical work purporting to be reckoned "for the 
horizon of Niagara Falls." This was printed and pub- 
lished at Lewiston, N. Y., by Oliver Grace, and is today 
one of the scarcest of the Frontier pamphlets. 

In the decade of the '30's, Steele's almanac was a genu- 
ine Buffalo institution. The earliest we have seen is 
"Steele & Faxon's Buffalo Almanac for the Year of Our 
Lord 1832," printed by Steele & Faxon at 214 Main 


street. In 1834 and '35 this appeared as "Steele's Buffalo 
Almanac," published by Oliver G. Steele, Charles Faxon, 
printer. It is superfluous to remind readers who know 
old-time Buffalo that Mr. Steele was our first Superin- 
tendent of Schools and a notable figure in many phases 
cf the early community life. In 1837 his almanac had 
become "Steele's Western Almanac," and employed the 
astronomical calculations of William W. McLouth. In 
that year it was published by T. & M. Butler, and in 
1838 by Steele & Peck. Some years later— 1844— we find 
it entitled simply "Steele's Almanack," the calculations 
by George R. Perkins, and printed by Steele's Press. 

In 1842 appeared Wilgus' Farmers' Almanack, calcu- 
lated for the meridian of Buffalo, by George R. Perkins 
of Utica. A. Wilgus was the publisher. 

Steele's Press in 1843 sent out a "Free Almanack." Bris- 
tol's "Free Almanac" was published that year at Batavia, 
but from 1845 on for several years it was published in 
Buffalo (Thomas, printer), becoming in 1848 "Bristol's 
Sarsaparilla Almanac," the calculations by Horace Mar- 
tin. It was more elaborate than its local predecessors, 
having 64 pages, with numerous wood-cuts. 0. C. Bristol, 
the publisher, was a manufacturing druggist whose medi- 
cines, as well as his almanac, were long famous. 

The early almanacs were primarily calendars ; but soon 
they became advertisements for enterprising firms. Dud- 
ley's Almanac, in the '40's was published by T. J. Dudley, 
who at 105 Main street sold "patent hot air cooking 
stoves" and, presumably, other hardware. His almanac 
used the calculations of Prof. George R. Perkins. The 
only issue of this almanac in the Historical Society li- 
brary is for 1848 and is marked "eighth edition." 

At least two other Buffalo almanacs were issued in 
1848: "Breed's Western Almanac," published by F. W. 
Breed at 188 Main street — afterwards occupied by Phin- 


rey & Co., and "The Buffalo Almanac," printed and pub- 
lished by Ansel Warren at the Courier office. 

In 1849 "The Franklin Almanac," with a portrait of 
Benjamin Franklin on the cover, and calculations by 
Samuel H. Wright, was published by Parmelee & Had- 
ley, who kept the "Buffalo Lamp Store" at 119 Main 
street, where they sold solar lamps, camphene lamps, 
girandolles and "a variety of patterns for burning Por- 
ter's composition burning fluid ;" all of which is reminis- 
cent of the days before kerosene. 

Weed's "Hardware Almanac" began about this time, 
or perhaps a little later. The Historical Society's file be- 
gins in 1858. In that year it was issued by DeWitt C. 
Weed & Co., and printed by George Reese, No. 5 West 
Seneca street. There were slight changes in the name 
from time to time ; in 1862 it was not issued. In 1878 it 
was styled "Weed & Van Deventer's Western Almanac ;" 
and later, when the firm became Weed & Co., it was en- 
titled "Weed's Calendar or Western Almanac." A strik- 
ing feature of these old annuals is that so many of them 
were styled "western." Weed's almanac was continued 
until 1883. 

In recent years the almanac field has been chiefly left 
to medicine makers, insurance companies and the news- 
papers. "Mathews' Universal Almanac" was issued by A. 
I. Mathews, a druggist at 220 Main street, and in 1860 
printed by Sanford, Warren & Harroun. A. I. Mathews 
was for a time publisher of the Buffalo Medical Journal. 
"Crumb's Almanac and Reference Book," issued by the 
Niagara Pharmaceutical Co., was a Buffalo publication of 
1872, and probably of subsequent years. D. Ransom & 
Co., long established in Buffalo, for a number of years 
published "The Magnetic Almanac," a medium of adver- 
tising their medical preparations. The Historical Society 
has it for 1867 and 1868. Foster Milburn & Co., of But- 


falo have issued the "Burdock Blood Bitters Alniauac aud 
Key to Health" (iu the '80's, etc). "F. S. Pease's Alma- 
nac," or "Pease's Annual," was a familiar visitor in the 
decade of the '80's. It belongs however to an increasingly- 
large group of such publications, which possess little local 
interest — from a bibliographical viewpoint — because the 
plates were made elsewhere, or the sheets printed else- 
where by wholesale, only a local imprint being added. Of 
this class, apparently, is the "North America Almanac," 
which for 1871 has the imprint of Matthews & Warren, 
Buffalo, but which is primarily devoted to the interests of 
a Philadelphia insurance company. And so are, or have 
been, many of the almanacs issued by Buffalo newspapers. 
The only thing local about many of them is the adver- 
tisements, which gather interest with the lapse of years. 
Notable among them has been the long-continued "Illus- 
trirter Familien-Kalendar," in recent years "Der Haus- 
freund," sent out annually for well nigh half a century by 
the Buffalo VolJcsfreund. Perhaps the most elaborate 
local publication in this class was the Buffalo Courier 
and Buffalo Enquirer Almanac for 1898, an encyclopaedic 
compilation of 450 pages, issued as vol. i, No. 1, of a quar- 
terly series. It is not known to have been continued. But 
the evolution of the old-time almanac into elaborate year- 
books, or picture albums or advertising pamphlets, has re- 
sulted in large degree in the disappearance of the old 
familiar form. Nowadays the world hangs up a handy 
wall calendar, and turns to the newspapers for its jokes. 


Notable among gifts recently received by the Buffalo 
Historical Society are a marble bust and a fine framed 
portrait of the late Hon. William F. Sheehan, presented 
by his widow. 

Mr. Sheehan, notwithstanding his too early death — 
in his 58th year — had been long in public service. He 
had been a member of the New York State Assembly, 
Speaker of the Assembly, Lieutenant Governor of the 
State and a member of the Constitutional Convention of 
1915. He was an unsuccessful candidate for United 
States Senator in 1911. Born in Buffalo, Nov. 6, 1859, a 
poor boy, but with a rich endowment of native ability, 
and a winning way that made him very popular, and 
early an influence in local politics, he was admitted to 
the bar at 22, and elected to the Legislature at 25. His 
death occurred in New York, March 14, 1917. 

At the State Capitol, on the evening of January 21, 
1919, unusually impressive exercises were held by the 
Legislature, in memory of Mr. Sheehan. The Hon. Amasa 
J. Parker presided, and the Governor of the State, mem- 
bers of the Assembly and the Senate, and many dis- 
tinguished men were in attendance. After an opening 
prayer by the Kt. Rev. Mgr. M. J. Lavelle of St. Patrick's 
Cathedral, New York, there were addresses and appre- 
ciative tributes by the Hon. Andrew T. Beasley, repre- 
senting the district formerly represented by Mr. Shee- 
han; by Hon. Jacob A. Cantor, who was President pro 
tern, of the Senate during the period that Mr. Sheehan 
served as Lieutenant Governor of the State; and by the 
Hon. John Woodward of the Supreme Court of the State, 



for many years, although not of his political party, a 
close personal friend of Mr. Sheehan. 

Next to Millard Fillmore and Grover Cleveland, Jus- 
tice Woodward ranked Mr. Sheehan as Buffalo's most 
notable contribution to public life. The scholarly ad- 
dress embodied so much of recent New York State his- 
tory, much of it of peculiar local interest, that it is 
deemed appropriate to include the following extracts in 
these pages : 

As a leader of his party on the floor of the Assembly, 
as Speaker and as Lieutenant-Governor he won his office- 
holding laurels. The times were stormy and he was the 
storm center. But he stood a four square" and dealt 
blow for blow, never asking quarter or quailing before 
opposition, no matter how fierce. Here those attributes 
of courage and fidelity which gave the coloring to his 
life were displayed, and now, as time has enlightened and 
softened the judgments of men, it is within the bounds of 
truth to say that as a party leader he displayed sagacity 
and courage of the rarest sort; and that as Speaker and 
Lieutenant-Governor he ranks among the able few who 
have presided over the legislative bodies of the State. 
As a parliamentarian he has not been surpassed. 

I heard him deliver his farewell speech when his suc- 
cessor relieved him of the duties of presiding officer of 
the Senate. His party had met a signal defeat. His 
great chieftain, David B. Hill, then a United States Sena- 
tor, was forced to head his party ticket and run for 
Governor in 1894. His defeat and that of his party 
was a rout ; it did not, however, faze the young Lieuten- 
ant-Governor and his speech was forceful, hopeful, de- 
fiant — characteristic, and delivered in that determined 
style which was his. 

Mr. Sheehan's legislative career was without a spot or 
blemish of a financial sort. There was no sordid element 


in his composition. He never mixed business with his 
politics, so now at the age of thirty-five he found himself 
utterly without fortune and he determined to devote him- 
self to professional labors in the metropolis; so, sever- 
ing strong neighborhood ties which had existed from his 
birth and grown stronger with the years, he gave up his 
Buffalo residence, removed to New York and centered his 
enthusiasms, his energies and his great abilities on the 
task of winning a place in the legal profession there. 

That unconquerable spirit accompanied him in his new 
field of endeavor; he grasped his new opportunities firm- 
ly, and, step by step, he made his way to professional 
prominence and leadership and financial independence. 

Mr. Sheehan might have excelled as an advocate before 
juries, for he had the power to persuade and convince; 
or before the Appellate tribunals, for he grasped as by 
intuition all the subtleties and fine shades of meaning of 
the law. In the complexity of modern life, however, it 
fell to him to assume the role of counselor and organizer. 
He possessed in large degree the organizing faculty, and 
made the law firms with which he was associated, factors 
in the industrial, financial and legal life of his time. He 
typified a, new development in the practice of the law 
which came in with the industrial enlargement of modern 
life. He was the sagacious counselor of men dealing 
with large affairs. He comprehended their problems and 
could skillfully and wisely solve them, whether legal, in- 
dustrial or financial. 

Men have to compete in their own times, and must 
submit to the comparisons presented then. More talent 
of the first order is attracted to the New York City bar 
than elsewhere in this country. In this environment Mr. 
Sheehan attained a position among the very first in pro- 
fessional importance and standing. 

In 1892 as a delegate to the national Democratic con- 


vention, he co-operated with the friends of Governor 
David B. Hill and sought to bring about that statesman's 
nomination for the presidency. That was, however, not 
to be, and instead Grover Cleveland became for the third 
time the party's choice for that high honor. 

Chairman of the campaign committee during the con- 
test that followed Mr. Sheehan gave such energetic, in- 
telligent and effective support to the cause, that he won a 
nation-wide reputation as a political manager who com- 
prehended in the largest sense the issues which were at 
stake. This was the beginning of that reconciliation be- 
tween Mr. Sheehan and Mr. Cleveland which finally led 
to the bestowal by the latter of this cordial and sympa- 
thetic praise: "I do not know of any other man in our 
politics who has grown more rapidly, shown himself 
more independent, or has impressed me more with his 
capacity for usefulness if he should ever return to pub- 
lic life." 

While Mr. Sheehan devoted himself assiduously to the 
law after removing to New York City, he could not alto- 
gether sever his connection with politics, and the up- 
heaval in the Democratic party in 1896 greatly moved 

The only time in his career that he refused to abide by 
the action of a Democratic convention was after the na- 
tional convention of 1896. His strong business sense led 
bim to the belief that the financial policies to which Mr. 
Bryan had by matchless courage and eloquence committed 
his party could but lead to national disaster, and he 
boldly proclaimed, "My duty is clear to me. When the 
Democratic roll of honor is called I desire to be among 
those who had the courage to refuse to follow the ban- 
ner of Populism, falsely labeled Democracy." 

I am not here to thresh out the conflicting views of 
members of the Democratic party, but I know that Mr. 


Sheehan was so intensely imbued with the thought that 
the historic party to which he belonged should be turned 
from the path of what he deemed financial heresy, that 
prior to the national convention of 1904, by untiring and 
intelligent effort, he made himself the undisputed national 
leader of the gold-standard Democrats and brought about 
the nomination of Alton B. Parker, the able Chief Judge 
of the New York Court of Appeals, for President, on a 
gold-standard platform. 

It was in this campaign more than at any other period 
that Mr. Sheehan displayed, what all impartial men now 
admit he possessed, that wide and deep understanding 
of the large problems of national life, which entitled him 
to rank as a statesman of a high order. 

Mr. Sheehan was a most useful member of the Con- 
stitutional Convention of 1915, but, though he did not 
realize it, his health was then being undermined by the 
insidious disease which caused him so much suffering, 
which he so patiently bore. I saw him once during that 
long final illness. I shall never forget it. He was weak 
and emaciated and a shade of sadness was in that won- 
derful smile, but no word of complaint or bitterness 
escaped him. He loved life. He wanted to live, but he 
did not fear the end or shrink from it. His courage and 
faith were alike supreme. 

In an address to his fellow citizens of Buffalo years 
after he left there, when his political fortunes were in 
the balance he said of his early career: 

"Thirty-five years of my life were spent with you. You 
saw me enter political life with every thing a young men 
desires except money. You saw me leave it ten years 
later with nothing but political scars." 

This was written in connection with his honorable as- 
pirations to represent the State of New York in the 
Senate of the United States and at a time when the op- 


position to his candidacy had assumed formidable pro- 
portions. Personally, I do not regard Mr. Sheehan's fail- 
ure to be selected for the Senate to haye materially les- 
sened his prestige, although it might be said that in the 
stirring times which were to confront the country, his 
great abilities might have been of incalculable service to 
the Nation and the world. It will be recalled that at 
once, upon the breaking out of hostilities in Europe, he 
grasped their full significance and boldly took his place 
with the radical element of the country who felt that the 
entrance of the United States into the war was not only 
necessary but most desirable. 

In 1910, his party had come into power in New York 
by the election of John A. Dix as Governor and an un- 
expected Democratic Legislature. The legislative result 
was not so unexpected to Mr. Sheehan, however, as he 
had frequently remarked that his political intuitions and 
calculations led him to believe that the Democrats would 
gain the Legislature as well as the governorship that 
year. Immediately after this result was assured. Mr. 
Sheehan's name was constantly in the public mind and 
press as the most available successor to Chauncey M. 
Depew. At once, those forces of opposition and of dis- 
cord, which so frequently characterize great political 
parties, were aroused, and, despite the time, energy, and 
talent which Mr. Sheehan had devoted to his party, it be- 
came apparent that he could not receive this high office 
and honor without a vexatious contest. The large pro- 
portions which the struggle was to assume were not, how- 
ever, fully appreciated until the night before the meeting 
day of the Legislature of 1911, when it developed that a 
minority of the Democrats in the Senate and Assembly 
would, under no circumstances, consent to his selection. 
To his honor and credit it may be said that there was 
not the slightest suggestion of opposition based upon any 


question affecting the character, integrity, or ability of 
Mr. Sheehan. It was purely the expression of the rival 
forces within his party and the intense opposition to po- 
litical control by an organization which for generations 
had given the up-State Democrats a rallying slogan for 
unity against the statewide domination of its leaders. 
This situation was in no wise lessened by the fact that 
in association with David B. Hill, Mr. Sheehan had been 
for many years the most virile opponent of Tammany 
Hall, nor is it inconceivable that had the New York 
leaders selected Mr. Edward M. Shepard as their candi- 
date, the Independent forces would have rallied to Mr. 
Sheehan's standard, just as occurred in Greater New York 
when Mr. Shepard was the regular Tammany candidate 
for mayor and thereby suffered the loss of the support 
of the old-time Independents with whom he had enjoyed 
life-long relations. Two days before the Democratic 
caucus chose Mr. Sheehan as the party candidate for 
Senator — appreciating the intensity and formidable 
character of the opposition — he offered in the interest 
of harmony to retire if the other candidate would do so. 
This proposal being ignored or declined, after a large 
majority of the members of the Legislature — by a vote 
of sixty-two to twenty-nine — had selected him, he re- 
fused to withdraw. In this connection, it will be re- 
membered that it was seriously proposed that a minority 
of Eepublican members would join with the Democratic 
majority in electing Mr. Sheehan, but that he discounte- 
nanced such a plan and positively refused to be the 
recipient of its execution, thus revealing his party fealty 
?nd his personal delicacy of feeling. In analyzing the 
forces of opposition, Mr. Sheehan argued that, 

"The votes I am now receiving outside of Greater New 
York represent more than one-half of the total Demo- 
cratic representation from up-State districts, the re- 


mainder of the up-State votes being scattered among eight 
other Democrats." 

In answer to the charge made by other corporation 
lawyers that he was a corporation lawyer, he replied 
with vigor, enunciating the highest ethical conception of 
professional and public service in this sentence: 

"It should be no bar to public office that a lawyer 
faithfully serves his client, corporate or individual; the 
only lawyer who should be barred from public office is 
the one who betrays his client, individual, corporate, or 

He clearly revealed his understanding of the training 
required and the humanitarian instincts which should 
be inspired if a public man would be of real service to 
the government and the people when he declared that : 

"No man in this country should aspire to high public 
station who has not studied the history and development 
of popular government; no man is fully equipped for 
great public service whose heart does not cry out against 
wrong and oppression and whose soul does not dwell in 
the midst of struggling humanity wherever it is found." 

His truly Democratic conception of popular govern- 
ment is clearly discerned in his statement, that 

"I believe that the principal development of legisla- 
tion should follow the intelligent, matured, and deliber- 
ate convictions of the people." 

Notwithstanding this, he frowned upon all demogogic 
appeals, and that he appreciated their sinister effects 
was made clear in this bold declaration : 

"I have no respect for the man whose official acts are 
timed for the applause of the moment, but I admire the 
official who has the intelligence and courage to forego 
the applause of the hour for the commendation of the 
future. I admire the public servant who, regardless of 
consequences, attempts to lead the public away from the 


worship of false doctrines and from the approval of ill- 
considered action. Such men are becoming more neces- 
sary every day as specious but false doctrines are being 
disseminated through the increasing facilities of the 
printing press, the telegraph, and the telephone. I love 
the man who loves politics in its best and fullest sense, 
no matter to what party he belongs." 

It having been impossible to reconcile the opposition 
to Mr. Sheehan he voluntarily released his supporters in 
the Legislature from further obligation to vote for him, 
and retired with undaunted spirit from the contest. It 
comes from the lips of many of the men associated in op- 
position to him in that memorable contest, that Mr. 
Sheehan grew in their estimation by the firmness of his 
purpose and the modesty and courtesy of his bearing, and 
that had he lived he undoubtedly would have received 
from or through them a recognition which at that time 
was withheld. Curiously, Mr. Sheehan always felt that 
his defeat for Senator was brought about by those whose 
political views, financial relations, professional standards, 
and national aspirations were similar to his own. 

He harbored no malice toward those who opposed him ; 
yet he never ceased to feel a certain contempt for some 
who during the contest gave patriotic reasons for what 
he thought an unmanly course. 

With such a closing of his active public life, for such 
it was save for his service in the Constitutional Conven- 
tion, some might say that there is an incompleteness 
which adds to the sense of shock and loss, but I am sure 
it would not have been his wish that his eulogist should 
touch a doleful chord on his memorial day. To be sure, 
he "passed beyond our horizon" at what seemed only the 
midday, but his philosophy and religion had taught him 
that we live in achievements, "not in figures on a dial." 

Mr. Sheehan loved books and read much, especially of 


history and biography. He made a special study of the 
career of Napoleon Bonaparte, and had the most minute 
knowledge of his life. He possessed many volumes of 
Napoleonic literature and the autographs and souvenirs 
of that great man which he had collected he jealously 

Mr. Sheehan's reading, however, was characteristic 
of him. When in the later years and especially during 
his long illness he read to pass the time pleasantly he 
turned to old authors that he knew in his youth and read 
over again the works of Walter Scott, Washington Irv- 
ing and Charles Lever. 

In 1904, LaSalle, the Christian Brother College at St. 
Louis, conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Laws. 

For all his years of political and professional activity, 
his industry was marvelous, his magnetism unfailing, 
his integrity unquestioned. The fidelity of his friends in 
good fortune and in dark days attested the quality of 
loyalty in himself which, and only which, can insure the 
faithfulness of others. 

Governor Hill had early admired the force, the win- 
ning personality and the exceptional ability of Mr. Shee- 
han, and with his genius for drawing young men to his 
standard, he early received the homage of Mr. Sheehan. 
That he should have espoused the cause of Mr. Hill for 
President in 1892 and should have become in large de- 
gree the political legatee of that eminent statesman and 
strategist in the affairs of his party in New York State 
was most natural. Both of these men looked upon poli- 
tics as something not to be ridiculed, but something to be 
studied as the very science of government, and both had 
the same notion that the only way to understand govern- 
ment or to learn the law is to study the one and practice 
the other. Mr. Sheehan was, above all, a practical states- 
man, leader, and lawyer, and understood the art of 


accomplishing results with the least possible circumlo- 

A high testimonial to his vision is revealed in an ad- 
dress in the fall of 1910, in which he stated that out of 
the contention of the times he hoped there would be 

"An International Court that will settle controversies 
between nations as our own Supreme Court disposes of 
disputes between these States." 

Had his views of international duty and relation been 
as deeply and generally appreciated then as now, the 
world might have been saved from the horrors of the 
greatest war in history. 

It would be indelicate to discuss the ideal family rela- 
tion which Mr. Sheehan bore, which, like his religious 
life and experience, was his sacred possession, untainted 
by hypocrisy and beautiful in its simplicity and nobility. 

Proud of his Americanism he was also proud of the 
race from which he sprang, and who better than he illus- 
trated its shining and sterling qualities, or possessed 
more strikingly that sense of humor, command of wit, 
eloquence of expression, and gift of achievement which 
have made the Irish name beloved throughout the world? 

And what better than his career illustrates the true 
grandeur of America in affording opportunities for 
growth in spirit and character to work out a high 

The maturity of his powers and the perfection of his 
manners qualified him for any legislative, diplomatic, or 
executive post, and the strength, kindliness, and sim- 
plicity of his character will make his memory revered 
among that multitude of friends who knew and loved him. 


Letters of John Haddock. — The Buffalo Historical Society 
recently received from Mrs. Elizabeth H. Mulligan, of Auburn, 
Cal., the original manuscript of the first letter which follows. 
It is headed "Buffalo, County of Niagary an State of N. York," 
the date having been apparently first written "January 7th, 
1815," then changed to the 15th; and then — the writer evidently 
being in doubt as to the day 'of the month, these figures were 
crossed off and no correction inserted. 

The writer of these letters was John Haddock, a pioneer of 
Buffalo. His father was Charles Haddock of Haverhill, Mass., 
and among his children were C. C. Haddock, Joseph E. Had- 
dock, and Mrs. S. M. Judson of Buffalo. John Haddock's bake- 
shop, in December, 1813, when the village was burned, was on 
the site afterwards covered jby the first and second American 
Hotels, iand now by the southerly end of the American Block, 
occupied by the Adam, Meldrum & Anderson store. His house, 
at the time of the burning, was on Pearl street north of Eagle, 
his store was on the west side of Main above Eagle and his hat 
store on the southeast corner of Main and Swan streets. 

The letters which follow were written to his brother Daniel, 
at Lynn, Mass., and were long preserved by the firm of Had- 
dock, Lincoln & 'Foss, Boston, Mass. About 60 years ago they 
came into the possession ot Lorenzo K. Haddock, nephew of 
John Haddock. The present whereabouts of the second letter is 
not known to the editor of this volume. It is here reprinted 
from the Buffalo Commercial Advertiser of April 7, 1866. The 
first letter is one of the most vivid accounts we have of condi- 
tions in Buffalo consequent on the burning. The second letter 
admirably supplements) this with a picture of recovered ■pros- 
perity. John Haddock died in Buffalo (September 30, 1818. In 
printing the first letter, here copied from the original, many 
peculiarities of spelling, etc., have not been followed: 

Bxjffalo, January — , 1815, County of Niagary an State 

of N. York. 
Dear Brother — It is now a long time since I have either heard 
or seen you or any ether of my own brothers and perhaps it is 



not the desire of any of my brothers to hear from me. However 
be that as it will I shall now take the liberty to trouble you with 
a few sketches of my life and position since I last saw you 
which was in April 1811. 

At that time I had the idea and had made my arrangements 
to traverse this western world and find some place where I 
should get red of the law & lawyers who had almost sacrificed 
all the remains of my little property which I sold at Bath, N. 
H. and together with my partner at Connecticut and some bonds 
at the bank & some bonds to my old Father Opt Kimball I de- 
termined to give them all a final ifarewell which I did on the 
15 day of May 1811 and laid my course for Buffalo at the out- 
let of Lake Erie which has become the seat of war & bloodshed. 
It is about 18 miles above the Great Niagara Falls. Here I 
calculated to spend my years and days if possible. I arrived 
here with my family the 10th of August with 18 dollars only 
left and immediately set up the chair making business for a 
living and finding the business very good I hired hands & drove 
it on until October 1812 when the war raged in this part and 
every thing on to Detroit and along the lake shore was in such 
commotion that I thought best to quit the chair making busi- 
ness and accordingly did and took up baking and keeping a 
small grocery with a capital of only 3 ibarrels flour, my family 
being all well & work enough to do cooking victuals & washing 
for clothes for 6 ipence per piece. 

In the course of one year we had gained a very handsome 
property, a decent house and together with what clothing & 
bedding & other articles we were in a very handsome way once 
more of living. Had plenty of everything to live on and had a 
small grocery besides worth $500 and about $300 cash although 
we had all this time lived in constant alarm and fear of the 
enemy & their allies the savages who were continually harrass- 
ing our frontier and every other distress which are the general 
consequences of or in any place where troops and hospitals 
&c, together with sick & the wounded continually coming in to- 
gether with an epidemic disorder which in 1812 prevailed to 
such a degree that some days I made from 6 to 8 coffins iper day. 

We all stood the times with a determination to stand it out, 
knowing that we had no other place of abode under heaven. 
We tarried here in Buffalo until that fatal day in the morning 
of the 30th of December 1813 when those infernal hell hounds 


with all the Indians they could raise crossed the Niagary river 
and our militia which was then about three thousand fled before 
the enemy and they advanced into the town of Buffalo and my 
family just being out of bed I left my bake house and together 
with my family we all fled leaving everything we had in the 
world to the mercy of those merciless British troops & Indians 
Who were killing and scalping everything they met. We left 
our house about 20 minutes before the savages entered it and 
after pillaging everything they set the house on fire and con- 
sumed everything in town and now behold a brother of yours 
with a wife & six children in a cold severe day driven out from 
their home and traveling on foot on the ^beach of the lake where 
the sharp sands soon cut out my wife's shoes and I was obliged 
to pull off my own to keep her from suffering. 1'5 miles this 
cold day with my little family did me out, carrying in my arms 
my youngest child and after being wearied almost to death I 
had one of my knees so lame I could not stand upright nor 
move it the next day without the greatest pain. Here for the 
first night in a stranger's house we encamped on the floor with 
only two blankets which was all we had saved from the fire & 
sword. Nothing but poverty appeared before us & nothing but 
death and destruction in the eompletest degree behind us. 
What a thought. Rising in the morning and taking a poor 
breakfast not knowing which way to steer our course, nor what 
to do for our support. However after deliberation, knowing 
that industry never fails of giving support we all set out again 
on foot, not knowing where to go, but only to get further off 
from the Indians & British, we travelled all that day together 
with many of our neighbors. One of my little children, about 
3 years old, was carried off and we did not see her for 3 weeks, 
& put up in a log house with a igood fire and plenty of pork & 
potatoes & Indian Johnny cake. 

Here I left my family and the next day I returned to Buf- 
falo to view the ruined town. I that night about 12 o'clock 
with another young lad went carefully into the town where the 
fire had not yet quite done burning and the dead inhabitants 
and soldiers lay all over town and no one had yet been picked up. 
In looking round where the hat factory had been burnt I found 
a hat which I gladly put on my head for I had none on. The 
weather was exceedingly cold. I then went to my house and 
dug up in my cellar bottom what little cash I had buried which 
was all we had to buy everything we stood in" need of and not 


having a second shift of clothing for any one of my family nor 
myself what we had was soon spent and gone. IDut thank God 
and secondly good friends we got an opportunity of baking for 
the army and it now gives us ia tolerable good support & by the 
dint of industry and good fortune am able to live in pretty good 

I have now just moved my family home again. For the sec- 
ond time they have been gone from me five months. We come 
into Buffalo to live last April and the gallant army under Gen- 
erals Brown & Scott encamped in town until the 4th July when 
they crossed the river & took Fort Erie and advanced down the 
Niagara to Chippewa and had a battle, very severe. Immediate- 
ly after on the 25th July another battle was fought & the next 
day the British received reinforcements which our troops thought 
proper to retreat back to Fort Erie. Again the alarm spread 
through town. Everything in motion. I had two days previous 
been apprehensive of what would take place and to be on the 
sure side I sent my family on to the eastward of Buffalo 80 
miles and everything of value winch we had got since the fire 
and I myself staid behind and have not seen them until last 

Everything at present seems to be tolerable peaceable. The 
British got such a drubbing this season that I think we shall not 
have a visit from them this winter. We have now about 3000 
troops here, and I expect they will guard us this winter. 

It is uncertain whether I ever shall visit that place which we 
so many times have enjoyed ourselves together. Those youthful 
days were days which we never can see again. Time passes rap- 
idly on and I am now 38 years old and an expensive family to 
support by industry. I should be very glad to hear from you 
& from James and your families and from my old townsmen & 
mates. As for William I do not expect he either knows or cares 
for me. I owe "him nothing nor never will since he pres'd me in 
Law to gratify his Federal neighbors. I shall write to James, 
for perhaps one or the other may fail of getting to you. If it 
should, show this to James & his family. My love and friend- 
ship to you and your family & to James & his family. Tell me 
who is dead & everything that is strange and you will much 
oblige your friend and brother. My family all send their love 
& compliments to you & family 

Adieu dear brother 

John Haddock. 


Buffalo, September 8, 1817. 
. . . I have been in trade since the war. I have a good 
stand and go twice a year to New York, which is about five hun- 
dred miles, to purchase goods. I generally have on hand, twice 
a year, when my goods arrive, about ten thousand dollars worth. 
I think my trade as good with one or two exceptions as any in 
the district. I have always been able to keep my credit good 
and in New York, and have the vanity to believe I shall do so 
if no unforeseen accident should happen. I have a good house 
and lot well furnished, worth in cash $5,000, and a good decent 
store worth, say $1,500; two five acre lots situate on Main 
street of the village, worth, I suppose, $3,000 ; an out lot, one 
mile and a fourth from the village, containing 85 acres, will 
fetch $2000. Have a small farm, 8 miles from 'Buffalo, of 100 
acres, 20 under improvement. Raised this year about 100 bushels 
of wheat; cut 10 tons of hay; shall probably have 300 or 400 
bushels of potatoes. Keep three cows and two horses. We are now 
in the greatest expectation of having our loss made up to us by 
the Government the next session; Should that take place, I 
shall probably get rising of $4,000, which will come in good time 
as money is scarce. I shall calculate to come to see you next 
summer, if I get my claims on Government. . . . 

John Haddock. 

Early Travel on Lake Erie. — The following is a portion of a 
letter by James Wetherell, dated "Detroit, Sept. 15, 1815: 

I arrived at Buffalo on the 19th of August [1815], and was de- 
tained till the 21st, for want of a vessel. On that day I sailed 
in a little vessel called the Experiment. The little dirty cabin 
was crowded with several women, six men and a dog. During 
the night we ran past Presqu' Isle — Erie — some 20 miles, and 
as some of the passengers were to have Ibeen landed there they 
chose to be put on shore opposite the vessel and get back as they 
could. They were landed. Among them was the famous Barne- 
bas Bidwell. On the 20th we ran into the mouth of the Grand 
River in a gale of wind. The mouth of the river was then three 
or four rods wide. The wind changed, and soon raised the 
sandbar at its mouth, which prevented the vessel getting out, 
and in this condition we lay till the 6tih of September — 16 days 
— when Major Marston, and Lieut. Ballard of the army; Messrs. 
Bell and Kane, of Buffalo, and myself — as the prospect of getting 


out within the next 10 or 15 days was uncertain — concluded to 
hire a man to take us in the wagon to Cuyahoga — Cleveland. 

Our baggage was sent on shore to the wagon, but in going my- 
self I was jostled out of the boat into deep water and was com- 
pelled to swim some distance. Of course I was thoroughly wet. 
It was about sunset and we had several miles to go. The team- 
ster said the road was plain, and I walked on ahead. When I 
had gone far enough to feel sure that I was not on the right 
road, being surrounded by a dense wilderness and no habitation 
to be seen, I began to retrace my steps. I had walked several 
miles. The cold night air and my dripping clothes had be- 
numbed my shivering limbs. After a while I discovered a light, 
and procured a boy for my guide, and after seven or eight miles 
walking over a very soft muddy road, I found the wagon. 

Arriving at Cleveland, I found that there was but one way to 
proceed to Detroit, and that was to charter a small schooner, 
which we did for forty dollars and sailed next morning, Sep- 
tember 8th. We ran to Black River, stopped about an hour, and 
sailed again about ten o'clock at night, some 20 miles towards 
Sandusky; but the captain not knowing the coast, was obliged 
to run back to Black River on account of head wind, where we 
remained till the 12th of September. On that day we sailed to 
the mouth of the Vermillion, but could not enter on account of 
a sand-bar. We ran into a small creek and lay till daylight. 
On the 13th we reached the islands. Here a violent storm of 
thunder and lightning, wind and rain, set in, which placed our 
little bark in imminent peril. Here we found ourselves out of 
provisions, and in attempting to leave, the wind drove us back. 
We went on shore to look for food, but the island being unin- 
habited, and we having no guns or fishing tackle, we got nothing 
but a few small hard peaches, which were divided among us. 
At night two men were sent on shore to get some sassafras 
bark or spice bush, to make a drink of, but the men found none. 
The captain then advised that some buttonwood bark should be 
procured, which was done, and ibeing boiled an hour or two in 
an old ash kettle, we fell to drinking. To me it was serviceable, 
as I was suffering from fever, occasioned by long fatigue and 
exposure. In the course of the night the wind became favor- 
able to lay our course to Maiden. After being two hours under 
way a violent storm arose and our vessel sprang a leak in a 
place where it could not be stopped; and after our sails had 
been split to pieces by the wind, we were driven on the Canada 


shore, near the new settlement below Maiden. Here we found 
a house, and stayed all night, and in the morning we hired a 
man to take us up to Maiden, and there another was employed 
to take us up the river, and we landed at Captain Knaggs' on the 
19th of September." 

Tihe writer of the above letter was a native of Mansfield, Mass., 
where he was born in 1759. He served in Washington's army 
during the Revolution, fought at Saratoga and Monmouth, and 
was adjutant of the Eleventh Massachusetts regiment when the 
army was disbanded in 1783. In 1803 he was appointed a Judge 
of the Territory of Michigan, which office 'he held some 20 years. 
At the time of the incidents above related he 'was 56 years old. 
Judge Wetnerell had served a term in Congress, being elected in 
1807. His death occurred Jan. 8, 1838. 

Mail Service in 1812. — Among old-time documents in the keep- 
ing of the Buffalo Historical Society is the following, relative 
to mail delivery between Buffalo and Erie in 1812: 

Articles of Agreement made & concluded the 26th day of Sep- 
tember, 1812, between Caleb Hopkins of the one part, & Richard 
Williams & James Adkins of the other part: — Whereas the said 
Hopkins has contracted with the Post Master General, to carry 
& convey tne mail from Buff aloe in the State of New York, to 
Erie in the State of Pennsylvania & to return from Erie to Buf- 
faloe twice in each week during one year from this date: — And 
Whereas the said Williams & Adkins, in consideration of One 
thousand three hundred dollars, to be paid to them by the said 
Hopkins, a® hereafter mentioned have engaged to carry & con- 
vey the mail as above mentioned 

Now therefore, This Agreement witnesseth that the said Wil- 
liams & Adkins ihave agreed, & by these presents do covenant, 
promise & agree, in consideration of the said sum of One thou- 
sand three hundred dollars, to be paid as hereafter mentioned, 
faithfully to carry & convey the mail, twice in each week, dur- 
ing one year from & after this date, from Buffalo aforesaid to 
Erie aforesaid, & to return with the mail from Erie aforesaid 
to Buffaloe aforesaid, twice in the same week, during the said 
year, according to the contract, which the said Hopkins shall 
make with the Post Master General or his Agent. The said 
Williams & Adkins have received of said Hopkins, three horses 
& one saddle, amounting to One hundred and ninety four dol- 


lars, in part payment of the aforesaid sum. And the said Hop- 
kins hereby promises to pay the said Williams & Adkins One 
hundred dollars, in twenty days from this date; and the resi- 
due of the said sum first mentioned, viz. One thousand and six 
dollars, in quarterly payments as the same shall be received 
from the Post Office Department. To the true & faithful per- 
formance of all & singular the covenants promises & agreements 
aforesaid the said parties do hereby bind themselves, his & their 
heirs, executors & administrators, each to the other, his & their 
heirs, executors, administrators & assigns, in the penal Sum 
of One thousand dollars firmly by these presents Witness 

our hands & seals the day & year first above written. 

The above agreement was witnessed by I. Houghton, Caleb 
Hopkins, Richard Williams, James Adkins and one other whose 
signature is illegible. 


Buffalo in the World Was. — The municipal government of 
Buffalo appropriated funds for the publication of a history of the 
participation of Buffalo and Erie County in the World War. 
The work was prepared by a committee of one hundred, edited 
by Daniel J. Sweeney, Buffalo City Clerk, and issued in 1919 
under the somewhat misleading title, "History of Buffalo and 
Erie County, 1914-1919." The scope of the work includes only the 
participation of this community in the war, or an account of 
activities related to the war. As such, it is an admirable record, 
handsomely printed and made still more valuable and attrac- 
tive by a wealth of illustrations. It may be questioned, whether 
any American city produced a finer or more creditable record 
of its part in the great struggle. 

CProm the beginning of America's participation in the war, the 
Buffalo Historical Society kept a card list of Buffalo men and 
women engaged in war activities. For the lists of killed, gassed 
and wounded, died in hospital, etc., the Society's lists were 
checked up with the official lists as published at Washington. 
These and other records were placed at the service of Mr. 
Sweeney and his assistants. At the close of the year 1919, in 
response to an enquiry from the President of the Historical 
Society, Mr. Sweeney wrote as follows: 

City Clerk's Department, Buffalo 
December 29, 1919 
Hon. Henry W. Hill, 

President, Buffalo Historical Society: 
My dear Senator — In conformity with your suggestion I have 
outlined here just what the City did in the matter of obtaining 
a record of the men and women of Buffalo who served in the 
Military and Naval branches of the United States Government 
during the World War. The total number of whom we have a 
definite record is 18,959. We have draft (board records which 
tend to show that possibly a few more than two thousand in 
excess of that number entered the service from Buffalo, but as 
we have been unable to find any record of their residence or of 



relatives here, we have concluded that, for the most part, they 
were men employed temporarily in Buffalo, or working on the 
Great Lakes who happened to be here at the time of the regis- 
tration under the Selective Service Act, commonly known as the 
Draft Law. Those of us who were closely connected with that 
draft work can readily appreciate that a large number of men 
whose residences were outride of the City registered here; in 
fact, upwards of seven thousand men were registered at the City 
Clerk's Office and their registration cards were forwarded to 
addresses outside of this city. 

Inasmuch as the Federal Government has made no effort to 
localize its records, it will probably be some time before the 
actual, definite, number of men, bonafide residents of Buffalo, 
will be set down, but for present purposes it is sufficient to say 
that approximately 21,000 men entered the service of the Army, 
Navy, Marines and Red Cross from the City of Buffalo, and, of 
that number, we have the complete record of 18,959, divided 
as follows: 

Army 10,624 

108th Infantry 793 

106th Field Artillery 527 

U. S. Marines 1,173 

U. S. Navy 3,791 

Killed in Action, Died of Wounds or Disease. . 951 

Red Cross 1,100 

We have included in the 108th Infantry those who served over- 
seas with that regiment through the Mt. Kemmel, Hindenburg 
Line and St. Souplet engagements, and have included in the 
106th Field Artillery, the Buffalo men who went overseas with 
that regiment and, particularly those wiho took part in the artil- 
lery's co-operation with the 33rd Division in the Meuse-Argonne 
engagement, in the vicinity of Verdun. 

In the Red Cross we have included the T. M. C. A., K. of C, 
and Jewish Welfare Secretaries, and the Buffalo Chaplains. 

We have this roster in a card index giving the service of each 
individual, so far as that has been obtainable. Every effort was 
made to complete this roster, return postal cards being distrib- 
uted by the police to every home in the City, and a publicity 
campaign conducted through the local newspapers, urging rela- 
tives and friends to send the desired information to the City 
Clerk's Office. The News and Times published, on several oc- 


casions, blank forms indicating the information desired, but 
we believe that with the completion of the War History and 
the general distribution of that publication, an additional num- 
ber of names will be obtained and possibly the Washington 
records will shortly be in such shape that a comparison may be 
made and an historically accurate record established. 

Very truly yours, 

D. J. Sweeney, 

City Clerk. 
The report of the local navy recruiting office for 1919 showed 
that a total of 2356 men were accepted for service. More than 
2000 Who applied for enlistment were rejected for failing to meet 
physical requirements. 

War Memorials at St. Paul's. — Notable among memorials of 
the World War which have been erected in Buffalo are three 
tablets, unveiled and dedicated at St. Paul's Episcopal Church 
on Trinity Sunday, May 30, 1920. Relics of the war, set in the 
wall, accompany two of the tablets. The inscriptions on them 
are as follows: 

Stye Ityetma Sublet 


Sty* f prw ©abtet 



ilitjr #aibtrrfl' UJrmorial QJabbt 








Memorial of the 100th N. Y. Vols. — Buffalo has not hitherto 
been rich in public monuments and memorials, but in recent 
years several notable ones have appeared and more are in 
preparation. One simple but effective monument which is pic- 
tured in this volume is the memorial boulder set up at the 
Front, adjoining the grounds of Fort Porter, in memory of the 
100th Regiment, New York Volunteers, Buffalo's "Board of Trade 
Regiment" during the Civil War. It wa6 dedicated and unveiled 
Sept. 25, 1916, by the 100th N. Y. Veteran Association. It is a 
rough-dressed granite block set in a circular granite curb, and 
bearing bronze tablets on its two principal sides. One of them 
reads as follows: 

"To commemorate the patriotism of the 100th New York Vol- 
unteer Infantry, Civil War, 1861-1865, organized at Fort Porter, 
Buffalo, New York, January 7, 1862, Colonel James M. Brown in 
command. Departed for active service March 7, 1862, numbering 
960 men, rank and file. Participated in the Peninsular Campaign 
with heavy losses, among them Colonel Brown, killed at Fair 
Oaks, Virginia, May 31, 1862. Regiment adopted July 29, 1862, 
by Buffalo Board of Trade, who recruited and sent to regiment 
956 men. Colonel George B. Dandy, U. S. Army, took command 
in August, 1862. At the fall of Petersburg, April 2, 1865, Major 
James H. Dandy, in command, was killed while planting the 
colors on Fort Gregg. The regiment was mustered out of ser- 
vice at Richmond, Virginia, August 28, 1865. 


"Erected by survivors and' friends. Dedicated at annual re- 
union of the 100th New York Veterans Association September 
25. 1916. See other tablet and historical record in Historical 
Society Building." 

The tablet on the opposite face gives the regimental record as 

"In memory of 100th New York Volunteer Infantry, Civil War, 
1861-1865. Battles and losses, from 'Pox's History of the Re- 
bellion': Yorktown, Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, Bottoms Bridge, 
White Oak Swamp, Malvern Hill, Virginia; Folly Island, Cole's 
Island, Morris Island, night assault on Fort Wagner, seige of 
Fort Wagner, South Carolina; Bermuda Hundred, Walthall Junc- 
tion, Proctor's Creek, Drury's Bluff, Strawberry Plains, Deep 
Bottom, Seige of Petersburg, Chamn's Farm, Darbytown Road, 
Second Fair Oaks, Fort Gregg, Appomattox. Killed 120; wounded 
498; missing 288: total 906." 

A tabulated statement of losses, follows, and a reference to the 
historical data preserved by the Buffalo Historical 'Society. 

Periodical Press of Buffalo. — In Vol. XIX of these Publica- 
tions was published a list of Buffalo periodicals from 1811 to 
1915. A supplementary list, in Vol. XXII, gave a few early pub- 
lications not noted in the preceding list, and made note of pub- 
lications started since that volume was issued. Of the starting 
of new periodicals there probably never will be an end, at any 
rate while our present social system continues. The following 
list, therefore, makes record of such local papers and magazines 
as have been learned of, which are not already listed in these 
volumes. Nearly all, it will be observed, have been launched 
since the volume for 1918 was printed; and already, it may also 
be 'observed, a goodly number of them have passed into the 
limbo of departed journalistic spirits. The "*" indicates that 
the publication is preserved, though sometimes by only one or 
two issues, in the library of the Buffalo Historical Society. 
*The Arrow. 1918. Monthly, "In the interest of the members 
of the organization of the Pierce-Arrow Motor Car Co." Allan 
C. Werner, ed. 4to, ill. In 1919, W. M. Baldwin, ed. 
^Association Forum. July, 1920. Quarterly, under auspices of 
the executive committee, North American Employed Officers, 
Assn, Y. M. C. A. Publication office, Y. M. C. A. bldg, 45 
West Mohawk st. A. H. Whitford, editor-in-chief. 


*The Bulletin. Mch, 1920. "A monthly fraternal magazine," suc- 
ceeding the Odd-Fellows' Bulletin. Louis Debo, publisher, The 
Hampshire Press, 319 Hampshire st. 4to. 

*The Bulletin, by the University Club of Buffalo. Mch, 1920. 
Occasional. O. B. Bruce, Jr., ed. Half-sheet at first. 

Bulletin of the Buffalo College of Pharmacy. May, 1916. Quar- 
terly, by the Dept. of Pharmacy, Univ. of Buffalo. 

^Buffalo Scout Trail. Jan. 1, 1917. Weekly. Official publication 
Buffalo Council, Boy Scouts of America. M. H. Reehtenwalt, 
ed., 206 D. S. Morgan building. 

*The Build for Buffalo Bulletin. Daily or occasional; Vol. vi., 
Oct., 1920; published by the Publicity Dept., University of 
Buffalo Endowment Committee in the interest of the "Build- 
for-Buffalo" campaign. 4to, colored heading. 

*The Central Parte News. Aug. 14, 1919. Weekly. W. H. Wil- 
liamson, ed. and pub., 319 Hampshire st. 4 pp., 6 col. pr. page. 

Chat. By the Buffalo Assn of Credit Men. 

*The Buffalo Chatterbox. Jan., 1920. Every Saturday <by the 
Citizens Pub. Co., 503 Brisbane Bldg. 

*The Community Chorus. Nov., 1918. A weekly accompaniment 
of the "community chorus" meetings at Hutchinson High 
'School and elsewhere, Harry Barnhart, director. 8vo. 5 cts. 
Miss Grace Viele, 218 Highland av. 

*The Curtiss Fuselage. 1918. Weekly. A shop paper published 
by the educational dept. of the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor 
Corporation. Fay L. Fayrote, editor. 

Erie Co. Farm & Home Bureau News. 1914 [?]. Vol. VI, No. 5, 
June, 1920. Monthly. 70 W. Chippewa st. 

*Fort Porter Reporter. Jan. 31, 1919. Weekly, for men in service 

at U. S. A. general hospital iNo. 4, Fort Porter, Buffalo. 4to, 

ill. 1st Lieut. Frank A. Stockwell, et ah, eds. First issue 

had interrogation point for heading. Pictorial heading 

adopted Feb. 14. Last issue Oct. 3. 

*Genesee Conference Deaconess. Vol. 1, new series, March, 1920. 
Published bi-monthly in the Interests of the Genesee Confer- 
ence Deaconess work. Rev. Henry A. Reed, Elma, ed. Publi- 
cation office, 484 Delaware ave., Buffalo. 12mo, with cover. 

*The Grosvenor Library Bulletin. Quarterly. Sept., 1918. 8 vo, 
pp. 32. Published by the Grosvenor Library. George Hibbard, 

* Hearthstones. 1920. Monthly. Illustrated trade publication by 
Hersee & Co., Ellicott st. 


♦Buffalo Hirado (Buffalo Herald). July, 1920. "A Hungarian 
weekly for the Magyars of Buffalo and vicinity." Published 
every Saturday at 1978 Niagara st. by A. G. Meyers and 
Michael Kosztin. Editor, Michael Kosztin. Pp. 8, 6 col. per 
page, engraved heading showing a bison. 

*Hobbies. June, 1920. Monthly, by the Buffalo Society of Natur- 
al Sciences. 8vo, ill. Public Library building, Buffalo. 

*The Jewish Review. Oct., 1920. Monthly by the Jewish Re- 
view Co., Brisbane Bldg. Formerly the American Jewish Re- 
view, started as a weekly at Atlanta, Ga., 1913; removed to 
Buffalo where it first appeared Nov. 9, 1917, that issue being 
vol. ix, No. 1. The first issue under the style, The Jewish 
Review, was vol. xii, No. 2. 

Knights of Malta Bulletin, State of New York. Sept., 1918. 
Monthly, by Sir Knights of Ancient Malta. Joihn J. H. Meier, 
man. ed., 1729 Amherst st. 

*The Buffalo Leader. The People's Paper. Nov., 1916. Every 
Saturday, by the Leader Pub. Co., 628 Ellicott Sq. G. J. 
Wayne, ibus. man. Short-lived. 

*The Ledger. 1845. Weekly, Edwin A. Rathbun, editor and 
printer. Curious early juvenile amateur paper; size of form 
4x3% inches. 

*The Longshoreman. Founded at Erie, Pa., 1910 [?]. Removed 
to Buffalo, March, 1918. (vol. viii, No. 17.) Monthly, by the 
International Longshoremen's Assn. T. V. O'Connor, ed., 702 
Brisbane Bldg. Printed at the Catholic Union office. 

*The Buffalo Magazine of Arts. Nov., 1920. Monthly. The art 
journal of the Niagara Frontier. Carl Lothar Bredemeier, 
ed. and pub., 56 Bedford ave; printed by the Roycroft Press, 
East Aurora. 8vo, ill. 

*The Marine Trust News. 1919. Quarterly, by the Marine Trust 
Co. of Buffalo. 8vo, ill. 

Nature Calendar. Oct., 1920. Quarterly, in the interest of the 
Museum, Buffalo Society of 'Natural Sciences, and Hayes 
iSchool of Natural Science. Public Library Building, and 1231 
Elmwood ave (new museum). 

*The Odd Fellows' Bulletin. April, 1918. Monthly, by the C. R. 
Smith Press, 319 Hampshire st. Claude R. Smith, editor. De- 
voted to Odd-Fellowship. 4to, ill. Succeeded Mch., 1920, by 
The Bulletin, q. v. 

"Ourselves. 1909. Monthly, by the Larkin Co. Pp. 16, 4 cols, 
to the page, ill. Chas. R. Wiers, editor; Helen A. Rosen- 
stengel, asst. ed. 


* Plymouth News. Dec. 18, 1920. Weekly, <by the Bancroft Bible 

Class, Plymouth M. E. Church. $1 per year. 

*School and Community. Dec. 4, 1919. Semi-monthly, by the 
Public Education Assn of Buffalo, 706 Niagara Life Bldg. 
"Devoted to stimulating a well-informed public interest in 
the educational activities of Buffalo." Frederick E. Shap- 
leigh, ed. and director. Discontinued Oct. 7, 1920. 

*The School Magazine. Oct., 1918. Monthly "in the interest of 
closer cooperation in the public schools of Buffalo." Printed 
for the Department of Public Instruction by the boys of the 
Elm Vocational School, Buffalo. 8vo, ill. 

*Telegram. (Polish, daily and Sunday). Oct. 1, 1920, succeed- 
ing Polak w Ameryce (Polish Daily News.) Published by the 
Buffalo Telegram, Inc., 935 Broadway. 

The Teller. May 11, 1918. Monthly, by the Bank of Buffalo 
Club. Thos. H. Work, editor. 

* Trust Company Service. July, 1917. Monthly, by the City 

Trust Co., Erie Co. Savings Bank Bldg. 8vo, pp. 8 and cover. 

University of Buffalo Studies. Sept., 1919. Quarterly or oc- 
casional. Published under direction of the committee on Pub- 
lications, College of Arts and Sciences. 8vo. 

*The Western New York Pythian. Jan., 1919. Published under 
auspices of the Past Chancellors' Ass'n of Western New 
York. Monthly. 

*The Whirlwind. Sept., 1919. Fortnightly by Eighth Grade 
pupils of Public School 53. 4to. 

Old Buildings that are Gone. — We continue our pictorial rec- 
ord of notable Buffalo buildings that have disappeared, with a 
few views of notable scenes, especially those of Lafayette Square 
in various transitory phases of war-time activities. The object 
in publishing Buffalo views of this character is to make an his- 
torical pictorial record of the aspect of the city as it changes 
from year to year. The general pictorial record contained in 
our "Picture Book of Earlier Buffalo" has been continued in 
several subsequent volumes. 

Lafayette Square had a varied aspect during the Great War. 
It was used for various recruiting stations; a tent was pitched 
there for the sale of war-savings stamps; and many patriotic 
gatherings were held there, notably the Victory Loan meeting 
of May 2, 1917, which we picture. 

The old Buffalo Savings Bank building, at Broadway and 


Washington! streete, was torn down in November, 1920, to be 
succeeded by a modern business structure. It was erected m 
18G5-'6 and from 1867 to 1901 was the home of the Buffalo Sav- 
ings Bank. For many years — 1868 to 189'2 — the second floor was 
occupied by the Grosvenor Library, which moved wit on the 
completion of its present building at Franklin and Edward 
streets. The bank building was of brown sandstone, in general 
character resembling the buildings of the Western Savings 
Bank and the Liberty Bank building, the last-named originally 
built for the Erie County Savings Bank. These three handsome 
structures for a good many years gave a pleasing and creditable 
architectural character to the vicinity of Lafayette Square, upon 
Which they looked. As our picture shows, the vanished build- 
ing originally had a balustraded approach to an entrance on the 
Broadway side, leading upstairs to the Library. This feature 
disappeared after the bank moved out, when the whole building 
was remodeled for theater purposes. 

The former home of the late William H. Gratwick, west side 
of Delaware above Summer, was torn down in 1919. It was a 
costly, handsome and quite modern mansion. No new structure 
replaces it, the site being added to the grounds: of the Good- 
year and Clement properties, adjoining. 

Of an earlier period was the still fine house formerly the 
home of Gibson T. Williams, at Main and Barker streets, in 
recent years the home of his daughter, Miss Martha T. Williams, 
who specified in her will that no other family was ever to live 
in the old home. The large and valuable lot where the house 
stood extends from Main street to Linwood avenue. 

The handsome home of Mr. Carl A. Lautz on West Ferry 
street was torn down, 1919, to be replaced by a more modern 
structure. The building of the Knights of the Maccabees at 
1271 Main street, near Northampton, which, with its fine pillared 
portico was for some years a pleasing prospect in that vicinity, 
now given over to automobile sales-rooms, was torn down in 
1919, the fraternal association moving to ampler quarters on 
Delaware avenue. 

The construction of a theater at the northwest corner of Wash- 
ington and Mohawk streets brought about the demolition of 
several old buildings, none of them notable, but more or less 
typical of an earlier Buffalo. 

Carnival Court, bounded by Main, Jefferson and East Delavan 


streets, after an existence of several years, with the usual ups and 
downs of an amusement enterprise, finally went out of business 
and the grounds were wrecked and stripped in the fall of 1920. 
Our picture shows a portion of the Main street front and en- 

A genuine landmark disappeared in 1920 by the demolition of 
the old Niagara Square Baptist Church, built 1848. In 1881 it 
was sold to the First Congregational 'Society, which used it 
until 1897, when it became known as the People's Church. That 
organization abandoned it in 1910, since which time it stood 
unused until torn down. It was a red 'brick structure with two 
low towers. Our picture shows it as it appeared for many 
years. At the right, on the Delaware avenue corner, is seen 
the Sizer residence, since transformed into an office building. 

A Famous Old Law Office. — Few buildings in Buffalo have 
been more vitally associated with its history than the structure 
which stood for many years on the south side of Erie street be- 
tween Main and Pearl. When erected, in 1856, it was No. 8 
Erie street, but in recent years its entrance was No. 28. It was 
built for the law firm of Rogers & Bowen, which had evolved 
from the historic firm of Fillmore, Hall & Haven, one of whose 
members became President of the United States, another Post- 
master General, and the third, Solomon G. Haven, became Mayor 
of Buffalo and was three times elected Member of Congress. 
This famous law firm had its offices in iSpaulding's Exchange, 
still standing south of the Terrace. Dennis Bowen in 1842 !had 
formed a partnership with Nathan K. Hall, their offices in 1845 
being at No. 123 Main street. Later Mr. Bowen formed a part- 
nership with Henry W. Rogers, bought the Erie street property 
and on the completion of the building which we picture, 'the firm 
of Rogers & Bowen established themselvesi there. It is inter- 
esting to recall that the senior member of the older firm, Mr. 
Fillmore, was the first president of the Buffalo Historical So- 
ciety; and the senior member of the later firm (Rogers & 
Bowen) was its second president. From the foundation of the 
Historical Society to the present day, that old law-firm, through 
its many changes, has shared in its membership; and today five 
members of the firm are on the list of the Historical Society, as 
have been most of the men formerly in the law firm. 

Some of tbe changes in the personnel of the firm are here 
noted. Grover Cleveland had entered the office of Rogers & 


Bowen, as student, in 1855, and helped to move the office furni- 
ture to the Brie street quarters. Later he became managing 
clerk, succeeding John Girard Johnson, and being followed in 
turn by Franklin D. Locke, now senior member of the firm. 
The list of those who have been students and clerks with the 
firm is a long one; it includes the late Manley C. Green, Charles 
B, Wheeler and Wesley C. Dudley, who became Justices of the 
Supreme Court; Lyman K. Bass, United States District Attor- 
ney; Charles iP. Norton, for many years Chancellor of the Uni- 
versity of Buffalo, and many others. 

Soon after removal to the Erie-street building, Mr. Rogers' 
nephew, Sherman S. Rogers, was admitted to the firm, which 
became Rogers, Bowen & Rogers. In 1860 S. S. Rogers with- 
drew and the firm was again Rogers & Bowen. in 1864 Henry 
W. Rogers went out and S. S. Rogers came in again, the style 
then becoming Bowen & Rogers. In 1868 Mr. Franklin D. Locke 
became a member. Mr. Bowen died in 1877, but the firm name 
of Bowen, Rogers & Locke was continued until about 1883, when 
on admission of Mr. John G. Milburn, the style became Rogers, 
Locke & Milburn. The Hon. S. S. Rogers died in 1900, but the 
firm name was unchanged until 1904, when Mr. Milburn re- 
moved to New York, and Messrs. Louis L. Babcock, Albert E. 
Jones, Edward McMaster Mills and Evan Hollister became mem- 
bers of the firm, under the name of Rogers, Locke & Babcock. 
Charles B. Sears, now a Justice of the Supreme Court, became 
associated with the firm about 1910. With the admission of Mr. 
Maurice Spratt the style again changed to Locke, Babcock, 
Spratt & Hollister. 

In May, 1913, the firm moved to new offices in the Fidelity 
building, and later the old building was torn down. It was an 
exceptionally well built brick structure, three stories above a 
basement and area-way. The upper floor, being provided with 
skylights, was occupied in the earlier years by several local 
artists. Thomas Le Clear, Lars G. Sellstedt and Alfred Wilgus 
had their studios there. A feature of the interior was a nar- 
row tortuous stair leading up to the library on the second floor. 
The firm was conservative in its tastes, and was satisfied with 
old-fashioned fireplaces, old furniture and fittings. This char- 
acter, in a way so un-American, especially pleased Lord Chief 
Justice Coleridge, on the occasion of his memorable visit to 
Buffalo in 1883. 



Adams, Gilmer Speed, Louisville, Ky. Lincoln photo, from last 
portrait painted of him; painting made two weeks before 
Lincoln's death; owned by Gilmer Speed Adams. Painted by 
Matthew Wilson (1814-1892) for Joshua F. .Speed. Also, 
papers and pamphlets. 

Adams, W. W., Union Springs, N. Y. 111. list of articles found in 
Indian grave, Cayuga, N. Y., by W. W. Adams, May 2, 11888. 

Alward, (Mrs.) Chas. F., 446 Potomac ave. One of two Corinth- 
ian pillars originally on either side of the pulpit of the 1st 
Presbyterian Church, Buffalo, built 1827. 

Andrews, J. W., 286 Parker ave. N. Y. Legislative Red Books, 

Armbruester, Rud. A., Buffalo. Pocket atlas and guide to Buf- 
falo; map, New Poland (1920). 

Avery, Samuel P., Hartford, Conn. "The Avery, Fairchild and 
Park families," 1 vol., Hartford, 1919. 

Balch, Thomas Willing, Philadelphia. "A world court in the 
light of the U. S. Supreme Court." 1 vol. 

Ball, Sarah B., Detroit. Maps. 

Bame, (Miss) N. J., 225 Allen st. Misc. books. 

Bank of the Manhattan Co., N. Y. City. "A collection of more 
than 400 autographs of leading citizens of N. Y. at the close 
of the 18th Century." 1 vol. folio. 

Barnett, Geo. J., 123 Waverly st. The Buffalo Evening News, 

Barnett, J. Davis, 'Stratford, Ont. Pamphlets. 

Bartlett, (Dr.) G. lHunter, 1083 Delaware ave. Souvenirs of 
the Civil War, pictures, lantern slides, misc. papers. 

Barton, F. H., 1200 Main st. Specimens of U. S. fractional cur- 

Batchelder, (Mrs.) J. A., 345 Fargo ave. Framed engraving, 
"Lincoln and Family"; misc. 'books. 

Bean, F. A., Ft. Wayne, Ind. Civil War souvenirs of Capt. Wm. 
H. S. Bean, 109th Regt., N. Y. Vol. Inf., including his uni- 
form as Zouave, insignia, records, etc. 

Bertrand, M. W., 86 St. James PL Pamphlet. 


Bidwell, (Mrs.) Emma Crary, 48 'Bidwell Pk'y. Gen. D. D. 
Bidwell's commissions as 2d lieut, capt., brigade major, col- 
onel, brigader general; and other docs. 

Bidwell, Frederick D., Albany. "Bidwells in the World War," 
1 vol. 

Bleistein, (Mrs.) Geo. Mexican hat, embroidered with silver 
and gold, formerly worn by one of Buffalo Bill's Wild West 

Boynton, (Rev.) R. W., 105 Norwood ave. Simms' "History of 
Schoharie Co," 1 vol. 

Brauer, John, 801 Amherst st. Old newspaper, The Pennsyl- 
vania Packet or General Advertiser, Aug. 29, 1774, and other 

Briggs, (Dr.) A. H., Blma, Misc. books, bulletins, etc., relating 

to the Selective Service system. 
Brown, Harold C, 605 Linwood ave. Articles from E. Africa; 

photographs of American Indians, views from Egypt, ancient 

Rome, etc.; misc. books. 
Bryan Wm. G., 23 North st. Framed photo Buffalo Evening Post 

building, about 1875. 
Buck, (Miss) Harriet M., 513 Franklin st. Framed portrait, 

Roswell R. Buck. 
Buckenham, J. E. B., Philadelphia. Pamphlets, reports, etc., 

of the Penna. Soc. War of 1812. 
Buffalo Pottery, by L. H. Bown, Supt. Collection of Blue 

Willow, Deldare and other wares made at the Buffalo Pottery. 
Buffalo Public Library, by Walter L. Brown, Mbrn. Maps, 

ibooks, annual reports, etc. 
Bureau of Railway Economics, Washington. Pamphlets and ry 

Caldwell, (Mrs.) Stephen D., New York City. Goldheaded cane 

made from wood of Perry's flagship Lawrence, given to 

Stephen D. Caldwell (former mgr. of Union Steamship Co., 

and Western Transit Co.) by (L. L. Hyde. 
Carr, John W., Detroit. Facsimile bill of lading, July 14, 1796. 
Catholic Union & Times, Buffalo. Vol. XLVI, bound. 
Caudell, Wm. M., 397 W. Utica St. Model of Lehigh Valley 

bridge over Seneca st., made by Wm. M. Caudell. Model of 

ship Buffalo, made 1856 by Richard Caudell. 
Chalmers, Wm. J., Chicago. Stone's "Life of Brant," 2 vols, 

Buffalo 1851. 
Chandler, (Miss) Ellen M., 731 Elmwood ave. Toy book; 

articles from the Hiram T. Greene estate. 


Cheney, (Hon.) Wm. A., Los Angeles. Books. 

Chilcott, (Mrs.) L. M., Orchard Park. Periodicals. 

Choate, (Mrs.) Mary E., 15 Bid well Pky. Old steel engravings; 

early view Ft. Porter. 
Christey, (Miss) Ella G., College st. Souvenirs of Spanish- 
Am. War; Spanish War medal of Capt. Arthur Bryant 

Clark, (Dr.) E. A. D., 2300 Main st. L. s. Lafayette, July 2, 

1832, and other docs. 
Clement, J. W. Co., Buffalo. Buffalo City Directories. 
Clinton, Geo. (Jr.), 9 Clarendon PL, as trustee Root. C. Titus 

estate. Titus genealogical papers, scrap-books. 
Collins, (Mrs.) W. H., 1200 Delaware ave. Misc. books. 
Conlee, (M?~s.) Hattie L., Amsterdam, N. Y. English periodical, 

The Ancestor. 
Conway, Wm. F., 148 W. Ferry st. War literature. 
Cormican, (Rev.) P. J., Canisius College. Historical picture, 

Morgan monument, Batavia. 
Cottier, (Miss) M. Elizabeth, 55 Richmond ave. Photos and 

Crafts, John W., for E. B. D. Riley estate. Books and papers, 
Crandall, (Dr.) Frank A., 6 Elam PL Early English miscro- 

scope, apparently made in reign of George HI. 
Crawford, Jas. A., 31 Brantford pi. Books. 
Cullen, (Lt.) Simon, Buffalo Police Dept. Book. 
Curtis Pub. Co., Phila. Books. 
Davie, J. H., Erie, Pa. Bible of 1599, specially bound, presented 

as a memorial to the late Wm. G. Bancroft. 
Dearing, Chas. J., 145 Park st. Photos, records, etc., Buffalo 

Metzger-Verein; views, old St. Louis R. C. Church. 
Decker, (Mrs.) Arthur W., 115 Park st. Antique carved wood- 
en implement, given by Red Jacket to Mrs. Decker's father, 

William B. Hart. 
Decker, Geo. P. Rochester. Pamphlets. 
Dellenbaugh, F. S., Cragsmoor. Civil War souvenirs. 
Depew, (Hon.) Chauncey M., New York. "Speeches and literary 

contributions at four score and four," 1 vol. 
Dilks, (Mrs.) H. R., 238 Elm wood ave. Books. 
Dunn, (Mrs-) Mary E., 496 W. Ferry st. Books. 
Dunston, F. J., 832 White Bldg. Portrait, Harlow French, and 

Fire Dept. souvenirs. 
Durant, Wm. J., N. Y. City. Books. 


Elder, (Mrs.) Frank S., 700 Lafayette ave. Misc. books. 

Ellis, Fenwick L., 763 Bird ave. Souvenirs from the Conqueror 

oak, cut down at Windsor, Eng., by Canadian soldiers, 1917, 

by order of the King. 
Emerson, Geo. D., 87 Whitney PI. Misc. books. 
EVans, (Miss), E. A., 2342 Fillmore ave. Medals and badges; 

also ms book. 
Express, Publisher oif. The Express, bound, 1918, '19, '20. 
Filkins, (Mrs.) C. C, 76 Johnson Park. Book. 
Fleming, Edwin, 363 Delaware ave. Original drawing Pan- 
American emblem designed by Raphael Beck. 
Forty-fourth N. Y. Vol. Inf. Assn. Books. 
Foster, Jas. F., (Republic Metalware Co. Pamphlet. 
Foster, (Mrs.) Wm. E., 431 Delaware ave. Doll owned when she 

was a child by the first wife of Millard Fillmore, married 1826. 
Fowler, (Mrs.) R. S., 109 Baynes st. Section of redwood bark, 

Indian and Chinese relics and souvenirs. 
Fraustino, Anthony V. N., 492 Swan st. Silk U. S. flag, gold 

fringed, made by German women in Linkembach, Ger„ in 1919, 

at the direction of Private Fraustino of the 125th Inf., A. E. F. 
Fronczak, (Dr.) Francis E., 806 Fillmore ave. Various pubs. 

and souvenirs relating to the World War. 
Galloway, (Mrs.) Ella Dubois, Oswego. Wreaths and other 

forms of hair and feather work made by donor when a young 

Galpin, Wm. A., 735 W. Delavan ave. Numerous additions to 

the Galpin collections of historical engravings, antiques, etc. 
Gardner, (Dr.) Miriam, Castile. Books and pictures. 
General Ry. Signal Co., Rochester. Two 9.2" British howitzer 

shells, made by donor. 
Glenny, (Mrs) John C, Hove, Eng. Oil portrait Jas. N. Johns- 
ton, painted toy donor. 
Goodyear, (Mrs.) C. W., 888 Delaware ave. Book. 
Gorham Mfg. Co., N. Y. City. Medal commemorating entrance of 

U. S. in the World War. 
Gowdy, (Mrs.) Mason B., Kansas City, Mo. Framed portrait, 

Gen. Mason Bray man. 
Graham, Lloyd S., 103 Warren ave. Complete file Trench and 

Camp, Aug. 1-Dec. 26, 1918. 
Gram, Edward, 351 Lafayette ave. N. Y. C orris. Advertiser, 

bound, 1831-'32. 


Greene, (Dr.) DeWitt C, The Touraine. Numerous articles 
collected by his father, Dr. Jos. C. Greene, in a tour around 
the world. 

Greene, (Maj.-Gen.) Francis Vinton, N. Y. City. To be added to 
the Greene collection, Historical Soc. library, 579 vole; also, 
his dress uniform as major-gen. of vols, TJ. S. A., in Spanish- 
Am. War. 

Hackenheimeb, Jacob, 676 Lafayette ave. Mounted bison head. 

Hainer, (Mrs.) B., 219 East st. Gun carried in Civil War by 
her father, John Fisher, of Co. A, 113th N. Y. V. 

Hamlin, Chauncey J., Snyder. Ms. vol., "Firing record, Battery 
C, 106th Field Artillery." 

Hampton, Chas. M., 116 Congress st. Map N. Y. State, 1850. 

Harris, Saml J., Ellicott Sq. Collection, posters, etc., drive for 
Univ. Buffalo fund. 

Hatch, Ernest G., 51 Windsor ave. Singalese palm-leaf book, 
containing part of the Ramayana, a sacred poem. 

Hausle, Leo J., 816 Elm st. Star bicycle. 

Hawley, Edward S., 420 Delaware ave. Maps, Niagara river and 
falls, 1836. 

Hayden, (Rev.) Chas. A., Springfield, 111. Sword of Peter Hay- 
den, Quiney, Mass., a mounted dragoon, Mass. militia, in 
War of 1812. Quantity genealogical data. 

Heald, (Hon.) Chas. M., Grand Rapids, Mich. Model of early 
lake schooner, made by Frank Gilbert. 

Heiss, (Mrs.) Frances, Williamsville. Old English glazed ware; 
silk wove bag. 

Held, Frank, 200 S. Elmwood ave. Bound files Der WeUbiirger, 
Der Freimuthige, and Buffalo Demokrat. 

Hicks, (Hon.) Frederick C, Port Washington. Pamphlet. 

Hill, (Hon.) Henry W., 471 Linwood ave. Books and pamphlets. 

Hill, Richmond C, Olean. Ms. and printed records, Pan-Amer- 
ican Exposition Co., 1897; and serapbooks, "Buffalo at At- 
lanta," 1895. 

Hill, Wallace S., Utica. Bass^dirum carried by donor's great- 
grandfather in War of 1812, and by his father, Wallace Hill 
of Eden, Erie Co., N. Y., in the Civil War. 

Hodge, Dwight W. Set of etchings, California missions. Por- 
trait, Velorous Hodge. 

Holloway, Allan I., 60 Lexington ave. Collection Liberty 
Loan posters. 

Holmes, E. B., 59 Chicago st. Old broadsides. 


Horton, (Mrs.) John Miller, 477 Delaware ave. Framed por- 
trait of her father, Pascal P. Pratt. Also, "Sketch of life 
of Samuel F. Pratt," 1 vol. 

Horton, IN. J., Ripley. Address at reunion, 116th Regt. N. Y. 
Vol. Inf., July 13, ,1918. 

Houghton, Frederick, 1910 Abbott Road. Books and pamphlets. 

Howard, (Dr.) Chas. F., 88 Lexington ave. Old-time folding 
boot-jack with pulls. 

Howe, John W., 310 Bird ave. Collection autographs. 

Howland, Henry R., 217 Summer st. Early map, Niagara river, 
and plan, "Gen. Porter's proposed harbor." 

Jackman, (Mrs.) Katharine Sears, Delevan. Papers, etc., of 
the Hosmer family. 

Jarrad, (Mrs.) Edward T., 357 N. Division st. Flax wheel and 

Jefferson, (Mrs-) Thos. M., 18 California st. Ms. sketch and 
msc. data relating to Ingleside Home. 

Jewett, (Gen.) Edgar B., 148 Morris ave. Six scrap-books, cov- 
ering Buffalo City affairs during his term as Mayor, 1895-'97. 

Johnson, Wm. H., 48 Oxford ave. Books. 

Kahle, (Mrs.) Louise Lewis, 29 Irving PI. President Fillmore's 
carriage. Later owned and used by donor's father, Hon. 
Loran L. Lewis. 

Kimball, Henry Ames, Concord, N. H. Books. 

Koerner, Herman T., Grand Island. Books, maps, music. 

Lafayette High School. The Oracle, 1915-'19. 

Lamb, Frank B., Westfield. Pamphlet. 

Lamy, (Mrs-) George H., 796 Ellicott st. A. 1. Horace Greeley, 

Laney, John I., 208 Washington st. Book. 

League (The) of Knowledge, by Col. Wm. J. Donovan, 44 Build- 
ers' Exchange. The Catholic Encyclopaedia, 16 vols, 

Letchworth, Wm. C, 98 Anderson PL Books. 

Lewis, (Dr.) Geo. M., Amherst st. Old Dutch foot-warmer and 
other articles. 

McEwen, B. H. Marine Trust Co. Niagara Courier, Aug. 12, 1841. 

Mac Naughton, (Mrs.) W. F., 27 Elm view ave. Papers, Civil 
War souvenirs. 

Manchester, (Miss) Grace, 82 N. Pearl st. Schwabian woman's 
festal head-dress; child's uniform, style of American Revolu- 
tion, worn at costume ball, St. James Hall, about 1860. M. 
St. Ody, dancing master. 


Mann, Elbert B., 339 Elmwood ave. Replica, the Lusitania 

Marvin, (Miss) Cornelia L., 1081 Elm wood ave. Framed por- 
trait Eurotas Marvin. 

Matthews-Northrup €o., Buffalo. "Aircraft Y ear-Book," 1919. 

Matzinger, (Dr.) Herman G., 90 Soldiers PI. Brace of double 
Derringers, Elliot's patent, 1865. Pamphlet: "Prevention of 
mental defect." 

Meiscio, Tony, Dante Place. Mexican silver dollar, 1829. 

Menge, Edward R., 32 Fargo ave. Old-time photographs of Buf- 
falo; old business signs. 

Mensch, (Mrs.) Chas. F., 125 Glenwood ave. Old pewter, books. 

Michael, Isadore, 625 Delaware ave. Inkstand, said to have 
been used by Washington and Lafayette, at home of Gen. 
Dey, Breakness, N. J. 

Milsom, (Miss) Grace, Angola. Carriage owned by Ebenezer 
Johnson, first Mayor of Buffalo, 1832. 

Moeller, (Maj.) E. H., Washington. Revolutionary shot found 
at Governor's Island. 

Moreney, Charles, 271 W. Delavan ave. Old coins. 

Morrow, Hugh, 15 Dakota st. Old Connecticut clock. 

Mulligan, (Mrs.) Elizabeth H., Auburn, Cal. A. I. s. John 
Haddock to his brother, dated "Buffalo, Jan. 7, 1815," de- 
scribing the burning of Buffalo. 

Myer, A. J., Pemaquid, Me. Steel portrait, Gen. A. J. Myer, 
U. S. A. 

Myers Post, G. A. R., Buffalo, by Wm. E. Hickey. State flag 
(silk), altar flag (bunting), silk guidons inscribed, given to 
'the Post by Albert J. Myer, son of Gen. Myer, for whom the 
Post was named. Also, the Post gavel. 

Nash, (Rev.) J. Edward, 64 Walnut st. Pamphlets. 

Neary, John S., Trenton, N. J. Lantern slides of Pan-American 

Newell, E. J., 699 Lafayette ave. Book. 

Newman, (Rev.) Geo. N., 85 Parkdale ave. Books. 

New York Central R. R., Passenger Dept. Framed painting, 
"Flight of the Fast Mail." 

New York State Bridge & Terminal Commission, N. Y. City. 

Nieman, Edward, 19 Grace st. Souvenirs of North German 
Lloyd ss. Eitel Freidrick. 

Noble, Henry Harmon, Essex. Books. 


Noble, (Miss) Minnie J., 131 Allen st. Old documents. 

North, Chas. J., 51 Johnson Park. Books, leaflets, atlases. 

North, (Mrs.) Chas. J., 51 Johnson Park. Buffalo school paper, 
the Gleaner, 1850. 

Norton, Chas. P., 401 Delaware ave. Maps, village of Black 
Rock, 1806, 1807. Five scrap-books, University of Buffalo, 

Oishei, A. J., Jr., 220 Jefferson st. Collection post-cards of Hud- 
son-Fulton celebration; Perry centenary; and other souvenirs. 

One Hundredth Regt. Veterans Assn, Buffalo. Civil War jour- 
nals, commissions, etc., of Capt. Edwin Nichols. 

Pack, Chas. L., Washington. Book. 

Pappas, Anton, Washington. Book. 

Park, Julian, 25 Niagara Square. A. 1. s., Erastus Granger to 
Maj. Gen. H. [Dearborn, commanding Fort George U. C, 
June 22, 1813. 

Parke, (Mrs.) Roberta, 293 Linwood ave. Books and papers. 

Parker, Arthur C, Albany. Mss. and pamphlets on Indian 

Parker, (Mr. & Mrs.) Perry Greene, through Miss Clara C. 
Hamaeher, executrix for E. L. Parker estate, 44 Goodrich st. 
Oil portraits, manuscript genealogy. 

Paul, (Miss) Anna M., 136 N. Pearl st. Books; Phinney's Al- 
manacs, many years. 

Petrie, (Mrs.) S. W., 44 Inwood PI. Collection Pan-American 
Exposition photographs. 

Polish Daily News Co., 389 Peckhami st. Pamphlet. 

Porter, (Hon.) Peter A., 97 Linwood ave. Pictures, msis., relics; 
genealogical charts; maps of Niagara region; papers of Gen. 
Peter B. Porter. 

Post, (Miss) Margaret, 753 Amherst st. Woman's dress-skirt 
worn in Holland, 18th Cent. 

Pratt & Lambert, Inc., Tonawanda st. Book. 

Putnam, Geo. Haven, N. Y. City. Book. 

Rathbun, (Misses) Emily and Mary, Washington. Copies of the 
Ledger, Buffalo, 1845 (juvenile journal.) 

Reed, (Rev.) H. A., Elma. Book. 

Reeves, (Miss) Esther, Darien Center. Sewing machine bought 
in Buffalo, 1862. Misc. articles, books and pictures. 

Renner, (Mrs.) Pauline, 112 Wex ave. Anti-slavery token, 
1838. Old-time dentist's instruments. 

Rice, Walter Allen, 594 Grant st. Book. 


Rich, G. Barrett, 1305 Main st. Military commission with 
Queen Victoria's signature, 1849. 

Rich, (Mrs.) G. Barrett, 1305 Main st. Book. 

Richardson, A. C, Williamsville. Misc. relics of Civil War, Buf- 
falo Bicycle Club; portraits President and Mrs. Cleveland. 

Richardson, R. B., 102 (Fargo ave. Early Buffalo advertising 

Riddell, (Hon.) Wm. Ren wick, Toronto. Book. 

Riester, F. J., 42 Ripley pi. Women's wooden slippers, from 

Robbins, (Miss) J. Bessie, 751 Ashland ave. Books from li- 
brary of her late father, E. C. Robbins. 

Roberts, Frank D., Perry. Book. 

Roberts, George T., 63 Jewett Pkwy. Old halberd or battle-ax, 
apparently French, found Oct. 1918, near crossing of N. Y. 
C. Ry., Falls branch, at Hertel ave., in clay excavation some 
10 ft. below surface. Apparently a relic of the old French 

Rosseel, (Miss) Fanny T., Bordentown, N. J. Map of Buffalo 
(rough sketch), 1812. 

Rummel, A., 37 Holland pi. Souvenir, Blaine & Logan campaign. 

Sackett, (Mrs.) Jennie W., N. Y. City. Oil portraits, Col and 
Mrs. Niram Sackett of Chautauqua Co. 

Seitz, (Miss) Anna, 237 Chester st. Yarn reel. 

Severance, Frank H., 150 Jewett Pkwy. Old sewing machine 
and other articles. Books. Framed photo. American soldiers' 
cemetery, Romagnes, France. 

Shanahan, W. F., 365 Herkimer st. Civil War relics. 

Shaw, (Miss) Isabella M., 385 Auburn ave. Antique secretary, 
formerly owned by Dr. Daniel Rumsey; old blue china; 
Connecticut clock. 1820; books,, and other articles. 
Sheehan, (Mrs.) Wm. F., Roslyn, L. I. Marble bust, Hon. Wm. 

F. Sheehan; framed photograph; memorial vol. 
Sheehan, Robert F., (U. S. N.) boat-flag of U. S. S. $an 
Diego, sunk July 19, 1918, off Fire Island Light; brought 
ashore by Com'dt Sheehan, after several hours in the water. 
Sheldon, (Miss) Grace, 567 Potomac ave. Misc. relics, por- 
traits, Civil War data. 
Shepard, Frederick J., 17 Pearl pi. Books, mss.; records, Yale 

Alumni Assn. 
Shepard, (Mrs) F. J., 17 (Pearl pi. Album of portraits, Wom- 
en's Ed. & Indus. Union. 


Shisler, Chas. E., Medina. Shot-gun, used by 'his great-grand- 
father, Geo. Henry Shisler, Sunbury, Pa., in pioneer days. 

Shuttleworth, (Miss) Claire, 399 Franklin at. A. 1. s. Millard 
Fillmore, Sept. 15, 1856; photos. 

Sickmon, Chas. W., 337 W. Delavan ave. Books. 

Silver, Dilworth M., 559 West ave. Collection Indian relics; 
lantern slides; books and maps. 

Sisters of the Good Shepherd, 485 Best St. Book. 

Skeel, (Mrs.) Rosewell, Jr., Irvingtonnon-Hudson. Book. 

Sliwinski, (Miss) M., 15 Loepere st. Polish flag, made by Buf- 
falo women for the Buffalo Historical Society. 

Smith, Chas. (Jr.), 41 Hawley st. Relic of Spanish War in 
Cuba; clasp knife, horn handle. 

Stafford, James B., 411 Norwood ave. Five large scrap-books 
of newspaper record of work of the office of Food Adminis- 
tration for Erie Co., during the World War. 

Stone, Rufus Barrett, Bradford, Pa. Book. 

Stone, Thos. R. and Nettie. Books formerly owned by Rt. Rev. 
Wm. Murray Stone, 3d Bishop of Maryland. 

Stumpf, Geo. J., 350 Germania st. Key of front door, Bennett 
mansion, now site of Bennett Park. 

Taber, (Miss) Sarah, 246 Bryant st. Souvenirs and historical 
articles from Jerusalem, India, etc.; Buffalo Fire Dept. and 
other relics; Civil War portraits and mementos. 

Talbot, (Dr.) Ashton B., N. Y. City. Framed oil portrait of 
Mrs. Calista Marie Talbot; also portrait of Mrs. Talbot's 
mother, Mrs. Maria St. John Fisk, who, with her mother 
Mrs. Gameliel St. John, and sisters, saved their house from 
destruction in the burning of Buffalo by British and Indians, 
Dec. 30-31, 1813. 

Talbot, Geo. C, 27 Penfield st. Specimens Continental cur- 

Tifft, Robert H., 196 Linwood ave. American Indian, Russian 
and Egyptian articles. 

Tillinghast, (Mrs.) James, 394 Elmwood ave. Books on heral- 
dry, genealogy, Orders of Knighthood, etc., formerly owned 
by her late husband, James Tillinghast, President of the 
Buffalo Historical Society 1888. Also, souvenirs from India, 
the Congo, etc.; Mexican pottery; statuette of Cornelius 

Todd, A. M., Kalamazoo, Mich. Sub. The Nation. 


Trible, Walter P., 45 Hodge ave. Mrs. Millard Fillmore's Bible; 
misc. docs, and mss. 

Tripp, Geo. A., Chicago. The Buffalo & Black Rock Gazette, Dec. 
15, 1827. 

Underhill, Charles R., N. Y. City. Book. 

Wagner, Adam I., 239 Laurel st. Civil War journal of Lt. Ed- 
win Nichols, 100th N. Y. Vols; also, his commissions, photos, 
etc. in specially-made box. 

Wagner, Mat. & Son, Chippewa st. Old cigar store sign, Indian 
girl, made of metal, used many years at 198 Pearl st; framed 
photo of bldg. 

Walker, (Mrs.) Wm. D., 360 Linwood ave. The Bishop Walker 
Memorial — a museum case containing many articles associ- 
ated with the life and work of Bishop Walker. Also, books. 

Walker, (Mrs.) Wm. D., estate of. Oil portrait, Rt. Rev. Wil- 
liam D. Walker. 

Walker, Wm. H., 59 Berkeley pi. Buffalo Commercial, 1845-'46. 

Warren, (Mrs.) Edward S., 20 Lincoln pkwy. Misc. articles, 

Warren, Wm. Y., 271 Porter ave. Book, geographic globe. 

Watson, Henry M., 573 Auburn ave. Pendulum and weight 
from tower clock of the old 1st Pres. church. Framed photo 
of church. 

Weld, Lewis H., Medina. Old-time household and farm articles 
and tools. 

Western Savings Bank of Buffalo. Old lease, made by the Bank 
to the Buffalo Historical Soc'y, 1873. 

White, (Miss) Isabella, Fredonia. Cot bed formerly used by 
Ebenezer Johnson, first Mayor of Buffalo. 

Wilcox, Ansley, 641 Delaware ave. Pamphlet. 

Wilgus, Leonard W., 1 Windsor ave. Early Western N. Y. 
papers. Collection, relics of the World War, on deposit. 

Wilkins, (Mrs.) J. B., Pottsdam. Programme of entertainment, 

Williams, (Dr.) Herbert U., 40 Irving pi. Old-time advertising 

Wilson, R. J., Genesee Grain cradle, wooden barley^fork, used 
in 1835. 

Witmer, C. F., Williamsville. Newspaper, Greeley's Log Cabin, 
Sept. 26, 1840. 

Woodward, (Hon-) John, 138 Bryant st. Book. 

Wood worth, (Rev.) Chas. E., 332 Potomac ave. Book. 


Vat,f. University Press, New Haven, Conn. Books. 
Yeigh, Frank, Toronto. Book. 

Young, Wm. D., 1032 Niagara st. Ms. and printed copies, "His- 
tory First Church of Evans, N. Y." 
Zesch, Frank H., 73 Crescent ave. Book. 
Zurcher, (Rev.) George, North Evans. Books. 


In past years the membership of the Buffalo Historical Society has 
been classified as Patrons, Honorary, Corresponding, Life and Annual. 

The class of Patrons was established for those who contribute 
$2,500 or more to the Society. There have been but two Patrons, Hon. 
James M. Smith and Mr. Andrew Langdon, both now deceased. 

Honorary and Corresponding membership is occasionally conferred, 
by vote of the Board of Managers, on non-residents, usually for some 
special favor received or courtesy extended. These classes are purely 
complimentary and carry no obligation whatever. Most of the Cor- 
responding members of the Society in past years have been officers of 
other historical societies in the United States and Canada. 

Life membership is had on payment of $100. It entitles the holder 
(and family) to all the privileges of the institution, including the 
Publications, free. Life membership ceases on the death of the 
holder, and does not pass to the family. 

Annual membership costs $5.00 a year, and entitles the holder to all 
the privileges of the Society, and to the Publications for every year 
for which the membership fee is paid. 

The membership of the Society (revised to December, 1920), omitting 
•the complimentary classes, is as follows: 


Albright, John J. 
Alexander, Col. D. S. 
Andrews, Mrs. Anna A. 
Beecher, Edward L. 
Beecher, Mrs. James C. 
Bennett, Lewis J. 
Cary, Mrs. Charles 
Cary, George 

Clarke, Mrs. Sarah Hazard 
Clifton, Col. Charles 
Cottier, Miss M. E. 
Crawford, William J. 
Day, Robert Webster 
Dold, Jacob C. 
Dunbar, George H. 
Eastman, Mrs. Frank F. 
Eisele, Edward A. 
Elias, Abraham J. 
Field, Gen. George S. 
Forman, George V. 

Galpin, William A. 
Gavin, Joseph E. 
Gerrans, Henry M. 
Graves, Gen. John C. 
Greene, Gen. Francis 
Greiner, Fred 
Grezinger, John C. 
Hawley, Edward S. 
Hayes, Charles E. 
Hayes, Edmund 
Hayes, George B. 
Hazard, Archibald M. 
Heron, Mrs. Edward 
Hill, Hon. Henry W. 
Hodge, Charles J. 
Howard, George R. 
Hughes, John 
Hutchinson, E. H. 
Jefferson, Thomas M. 
J^nes, Mrs. Joseph T. 




Kellogg, Spencer 
Koerner, Herman T. 
Laney, John I. 
Larkin, John D. 
Laverack, George E. 
Lee, H. Shumway 
Lewis, Mrs. George H. 
Locke, Franklin D. 
Lockwood, Millington 
Manchester, Miss Grace 
Mathews, George B. 
Messer, L. Franklin 
Michael, Isadore 
Miller, Charles W. 
Moffat, Miss Helen F. 
Newhall, Daniel E. 
Newman, John B. 
North, Charles J. 
Olmsted, William D. 
Orr, Charles A. 
Parker, Arthur C. 
Pat ton, L. H. 

Peterson, Jesse 
Potter, Edward W. 
Prentiss, J. I. 
Reed, Horace 
Rew, Esbon B. 
Richmond, Edward S. 
Rogers, William A. 
Severance, Frank H. 
Severance, Mrs. Frank H. 
Shepard, Frederick J. 
Silver, D. M. 
Spaulding, Samuel S. 
Strickland, Edward D. 
Stringer, George A. 
Sweeney, James 
Tillinghast, James W. 
Urban, George, Jr. 
Walbridge, Harry 
Ward, Hamilton 
Weed, Shelton 
Wesley, Charles 


Abbott, Rev. F. W. 
Adam, Robert B. 
Adams, Charles F. 
Adams, Orlando 
Adler, Elmer 
Agthe, Adelbert E. 
Albright, Raymond K. 
Alden, Carlos C. 
Alward, Charles F. 
Anderson, H. G. 
Andrews, W. H. 
Arnott, James K. 
Aspinwall, Walter 
Avery, Mrs. Trueman G. 
Babcock, Louis L. 
Baecher, Joseph C. 
Bailey, Charles H. 
Bailey, Mrs. George A. 
Baker, Howard A. 
Baker, John H. 
Balliett, H. J. 
Bapst, Frank L. 
Barcalo, Edward J. 
Bartholomew, A. G. 
Bartlett, Dr. G. Hunter 
Bartlett, Mrs. G. Hunter 
Bartlett, Lucius E. 

Bayliss, Dr. A. W. 
Beach, Elias W. 
Beach, Howard D. 
Beals, Pascal P. 
Becker, Alfred L. 
Becker, Franklin W. H. 
Behling, Emil H. 
Benedict, Dr. A. L. 
Bennett, Leslie J. 
Benson, George W. 
Beyer, L. P. 
Bigelow, Lucius S. 
Bingham, George C. 
Bird, William A. 
Bissell, Howard 
Blackmer, James L. 
Blakeslee, H. D., Jr. 
Bliss, Harry A. 
Board, Robert C. 
Boasberg, Emanuel 
Boechat, David F. 
Bonnar, John D., M. D. 
Botsford, Samuel B. 
Boxall, George H. 
Brady, Edward L. 
Bray, Rev. James B. 
Briggs, Albert H., M. D. 



Brogan, John H. 
Brown, E. C. 
Brown, Walter L. 
Bryant, William L. 
Budd, T. Augustus 
Bull, E. C. 
Bunce, Daniel J. 
Burt, Rev. William, D. D. 
Bush, John W. 
Bush, Mrs. John W. 
Bush, Myron P. 
Bushnell, Clarence E. 
Buswell, Mrs. Henry C. 
Byers, James N. 
Cabana, Oliver, Jr. 
Callan, Frank H. 
Camehl, George H. 
Canisius College 
Cant, Andrew 
Carroll, William C. 
Cary, Thomas 
Case, Whitney G. 
Caudell, Frank H. 
Chamberlain, Horace P. 
Champlin, H. S. 
Champlain, O. H. P. 
Christ, William E. 
Clark, George A. 
Clark, Martin 
Clawson, J. L. 
Clement, Norman P. 
Clinton, DeWitt 
Clinton, Hon. George 
Clinton, George, Jr. 
Cobb, Howard O. 
Codd, Robert M. 
Cole, Wm. H. J. 
Coit, George 
Collins, C. A. 
Comstock, Marc W. 
Cooke, Walter P. 
Cott, George F., M. D. 
Cottle, Edmund P. 
Crafts, John W. 
Cragin, Irving F. 
Crawford, James A. 
Crofts, George D. 
Cronyn, Miss Elizabeth A. 
Crosby, William H. 
Crouch, H. E. 
Curtiss, Harlow C. 
Cuthbert, Miss Katherine 

Cutter, William B. 
Dahlstrom, Arthur D. 
Danforth, Frank L. 
Danforth, Frederick W. 
Dann, Jesse C. 
Dark, Samuel J. 
Darr, Mrs. M. M. 
Davidson, George G., Jr. 
Davis, George A. 
Davis, Herbert R. 
DeForest, Miss Marion 
DeCeu, Robert E., M. D. 
DeGroat, Clinton K. 
Deming, Fred C. 
Depew, Ganson 
Detmers, Arthur 
Devereux, Mrs. V. Evans 
Devereux, Walter 
DeWeese, Truman A. 
Diebold, Charles, Jr. 
Dold, Mrs. Edward F. 
Donaldson, Robert S. 
Doorty, William G. 
Douglas, William A. 
Dresser, Horace W. 
Drullard, Frank E. 
Dudley, Joseph G. 
Dugan, W. J. 
Eagan, S. B. 
Eckert, W. A. 
Elliott, Calvin S. 
Ellis, Dr. Charles J. 
Ellis, Samuel 
Eltges, Joseph F. 
Ely, Hon. W. Caryl 
Emerson, Edwards D. 
Erb, Peter, M. D. 
Esenwein, August C. 
Evans, Miss Ella K. 
Falk, Eugene 
Farrington, Robert W. 
Feigel, Charles L. 
Feigel, John H. 
Ferguson, Frank C. 
Fielder, Charles W. 
Finck, John J. 
Fisher, Frederick W. 
Fisher, William D. 
Fiske, R. T. 
Fosdick, Frank S. 
Foster, James F. 
Francis, Mrs. William C. 



French, F. D. 

Fronczak, Francis E., M. D. 
Frost, Mrs. Charles H. 
Fryer, Mrs. Robert L. 
Fuhrmann, Hon. Louis P. 
Gansworth, Howard E. 
Gardner, W. Allan 
Gaston, Harry G. 
Germain, Charles B. 
Getman, Charles W. 
Gibbons, Frank 
Gibson, Thomas M. 
Glenny, W. H. 
Goetz, Philip Becker 
Goode, Richard W. 
Goodyear, A. C. 
Grabau, John F. 
Gratwick, Frederick C. 
Gratwick, W. H. 
Grauer, Christopher G. 
Graves, Hon. Ross 
Green, Edward B. 
Greene, DeWitt C, M. D. 
Grein, William H. 
Griffin, Joseph D. 
Grimm, William E. 
Grosvenor, Miss Abby W. 
Grosvenor Library 
Grove, Benjamin H, M. D. 
Grove, William V., M. D. 
Hamlin, Chauncey J. 
Haines, William P. 
Harries, Edward A. 
Harris, Elmer E. 
Harrison, Alfred L. 
Hart, Hon. Louis B. 
Hartwell, Ernest C. 
Hatch, Mrs. Albert G. 
Hauenstein, Mrs. A. G. 
Hayd, Dr. H. E. 
Hayes, Harold A., M. D. 
Hazel, Hon. John R. 
Head, Walter D. 
Hedstrom, Mrs. Anna M. 
Hendee, Lawrence, M. D. 
Henry, Frank F. 
Hibbard, George 
Hill, William H. 
Hobbie, George S., M. D. 
Hoddick, Arthur E. 
Hodge, William C. 
Hofeller, Theodore 

Hollister, Evan 
Holloway, Allan I. 
Holmes, Rev. S. V. V. 
Holt, Elijah W. 
Hopkins, Mrs. Fred R. 
Hornor, Thomas R. 
Horton, Mrs John Miller 
Houck, W. C. 
Houghton, Frederick 
Howard, Albert J. 
Howard, Herbert A. 
Howe, Lucien, M. D. 
Howie, John McF. 
Howland, Henry R. 
Hubbell, B. G. 
Hubbell, Clifford 
Hull, John M. 
Huntley, Charles R. 
Hurd, Arthur W., M. D. 
Hutter, Albert 
Ingram, Miss Isabelle R. 
Irish, John Patterson 
Irwin, Dudley M. 
Jackson, Burton F. 
Jackson, Willis K. 
Jellinek, Edward L. 
Jewett, Charles S., M. D. 
Jewett, Hon. Edgar B. 
Jewett, Josiah 
Jones, Albert E. 
Jones, Bert L. 
Jones, C. Sumner, M. D. 
Jones, William A. 
Kamman, Henry A. 
Karl, Rudolph J. 
Kauffman, L., M. D. 
Kellogg, Spencer, Jr. 
Kempke, Miss Ida L. 
Kenefick, Hon. Daniel J. 
Kener, Edward, Jr. 
Kennedy, Hugh 
Kent, Ralph S. 
Kielland, Soren M. 
Kilhoffe'r, William G. 
Kirby, George M. 
Kirkover, H. D. 
Kleinhans t E. L. 
Kloepfer, John A. 
Kn owl ton, D. E. 
Koester, William L. 
Koons, Edward W. 
Kopald, Rabbi Louis J. 



Kratz, Herbert S. 
Krug, Theodore 
Krull, Sherman W. 
Laird, Thomas A. 
Landon, A. A. 
Lanza, Horace O. 
Larkin, John D., Jr. 
Lascelles, J. H. 
Daub, Albert F. 
Laub, George C. 
Lautz, Carl A. 
Lay cock, O. S. 
Lee, Stephen B. 
Letchworth, Edward H. 
Lewis, Fred D., M. D. 
Lewis, George M., M. D. 
Lewis, Loran L. Jr. 
Littell, Hardin H. 
Lockwood, Thomas B. 
Lowe, Alfred J. 
McDowell, Mrs. Nevil 
McGraw, Frank S. 
McGuire, Edgar R., M. D. 
McGuire, Peter S. 
McKay, Mrs. A. T. 
McNutt, Randolph 
McWilliams, Shirrell N. 
Magavern, William J. 
Magoffin, James A. 
Malone, Hon. John F. 
Mann, Elbert B. 
Mann, John A. 
Marcy, William D. 
Martin, Darwin D. 
Martin, Mrs. Darwin D. 
Mason, Robert H. 
Matthews, Charles B. 
Matzinger, Herman G., M. D. 
Meadway, George 
Means, William H. 
Mellen, Calvert K. 
Meredith, Sullivan A. 
Meyer, F. A. 
Michael, Edward 
Mickle, Miss Jennie E. 
Milinowski, Mrs. Arthur 
Miller, George C. 
Miller, George Ward 
Miller, Gustave C. 
Miller, William 
Mitchell, George A. 
Mitchell, James McCormick 

Mitchell, Roscoe R. 
Mixer, Frederick K. 
Moissinac, John D. 
Montgomery, H. Ernest 
Moot, Adelbert 
More, George E. 
Morey, Joseph H. 
Mo-rgan, Lewis G. 
Morgan, W. A. 
Movius, Mrs. M. L. R. 
Mueller, John F. 
Nay Ion, Henry M. 
Newman, Rev. George N. 
Neill, Albert B. 
Neunder, Charles A. 
North, Mrs. Charles J. 
Northrup, William P. 
Norton Capt. George H. 
Nye, Sylvanus B. 
Olmsted, George W. 
Palmer, Harry C. 
Palmer, John W. 
Park, Julian 
Park, Roswell 
Parke, Fenton M. 
Paul, Anthony M. 
Penney, Thomas 
Perkins, Thomas G. 
Perrine, Carlton R. 
Perry, Hubert K. 
Phillips, Bradley H. 
Pierce, George E. 
Pilkey, Charles J. 
Plimpton, Mrs. George A. 
F]umley, Edmund J. 
Pomeroy, Robert W. 
Pooley, Hon. Charles A. 
Porter, Hon, Peter A. 
Potter, Irving W., M. D. 
Pratt, Frederick L. 
Putnam, James W., M. D. 
Ramsdell, Harry T. 
Ramsdell, Thomas T. 
Ramsdell, William M. 
Rand, George F., Jr. 
Randall, Edward C. 
Rankin, Alfred Erwin 
Rankin, Miss Harriett M. 
Ransom, Charles M. 
Redfield, Nelson M. 
Reed, Rev. Henry A. 
Reidpath, Robert J. 



Rhodes, Charles E. 
Rhodes, Eli A. 
Rich, G. Barrett 
Richmond, Gerald H. 
Richmond, Theodore L. 
Rix, William A. 
Roberts, Eugene C. 
Roberts, George T. 
Boberts, Hon. James A. 
Robertson, John S. 
Robinson, J. W. 
Rochester, DeLancey, M. D. 
Rochester, Mrs. Nathaniel 
Rochester Historical Society. 
Rockwell, Harry W. 
Root, Robert K. 
Ross, Renwick, M. D. 
Rounds, Edward H. 
Rumrill, Henry, Jr. 
Rumsey, Mrs. Dexter P. 
Rumsey, Judson S. 
Sandrock, W. J. 
Sawyer, Ansley W. 
Schoellkopf, Jacob F. 
Sears, A. D. 
Sears, Hon. Charles B. 
Sears, Woodard W. 
Shearer, Dr. Augustus H. 
Shepard, Walter J. 
Sherk, Warren G. 
Sidway, Frank S. 
Simpson, Louis Wright 
Smith, Archibald C. 
Smith, Carlton M. 
Smith, Howard J. 
Smith, Lee H, M. D. 
Smith, James Murdock 
Snow, Dr. George B. 
Snow, Irving M., M. D. 
Snyder, Joseph T. 
Sprague, Henry W. 
Spraker, Mrs. James R. 
Spring, Dana L. 
Springer, Mrs. Katherine 
Squire, Dr. Daniel H. 
Staples, George K. 
Starr, Elmer G., M. D. 
Stevens, Edgar B. 
Stevens, F. A. 
Stevens, Frederick H. 
Stevenson, Miss Amelia 
Stockton, Charles G., M. D. 

Stoner, Thurman W. 
Straub, Henry 
Strebel, Edward D. 
Strootman, John 
Swain, Miss Sara S. 
Sweeney, D'aniel J. 
Talbot, George C. 
Tanke, Eugene 
Templeton, Richard H. 
Thomas, Mrs. Adelaide K. R. 
Thompson, Augustus A. 
Thompson, John C, M. D. 
Thompson, Sheldon 
Thurstone, Mr. George I. 
Thurstone, Mrs. George I. 
Tifft, Robert H. 
Tillinghast, Mrs. James 
Timerman, Clark H. 
Townsend, E. Corning 
Trexler, Rev. Samuel G. 
Trible, Walter P. 
Tucker, George L. 
Tucker, Risley 
Tuttle, Mrs. Mary K. 
Tynes, T. E. 
Underhill, C. M. 
Underhill, Irving S. 
Unger, Fred 
University of Buffalo 
Van Bergen, Charles, M. D. 
Van Peyma, P. W., M. D. 
Volger, Hon. Otto W. 
Vought, William G. 
Wagner, Adam J. 
Walker, John K. 
Walker, Wm. H., Jr. 
Walsh, Louis C. 
Ward, Rev. John C. 
Warner, Clarance M. 
Warner, Ludy A., Jr. 
Warren, Edward S. 
Warren, Col. James G. 
Warren, William Y. 
Weed, Miss Kate S. 
Welch, Miss Jane Meade 
Wells, John D. 
Wende, Grover W., M. D. 
Wertimer, Henry 
Western N. Y. Branch 

Associate Alumnae Vassar 

Wheeler, Hon. Charles B. 



White, J. Herbert 
Whiston, Frank G. 
Winston, John B. 
Whitmore, J. E., M. D. 
Wickser, Hon. John G. 
Wickser, Mrs. John G. 
Wilcox, Ansley 
Wilgus, Leonard W. 
Wilkes, Edward N. 
Williams, Arthur H. 
Williams, Henry C. 

Wilner, Merton M. 
Wilson, Charles R. 
Wilson, W. Morse 
Winship, Howard 
Wohlrab, John 
Wolfe, Avery C. 
Woodward, Hon. John 
Yates, Harry 
Young, Albert B. 
Young, Robert D. 
Young, William D. 


Adkins, James, 377. 

Albert, King of Belgium, his queen 

and suite visit Buffalo, 263. 
Alden, Timothy, visited Buffalo 

Creek, 113, 145, 147. 
Allegheny Reservation, denned, 106. 
Appling, Daniel, 332 and note. 
Armistice Day, observance in Buffalo. 

Artifacts, Indian, on surface, 13; at 

Seneca Indian Park, 18. 

Babcock, Louis L., 389. 

Bach, Louis P., tribute to Bp. Walk- 
er, 187. 

Bass, Lyman K., 389. 

Beasley (Hon.) Andrew T., 359. 

Beers, Andrew, 344, 345. 

Berry's Town, at Gardenville, 115. 

Big Kettle, at East Elma, 115; leads 
conservative party, 151; opposes 
sale of lands, 172; holdings listed, 

Big Sky, an Onondaga, 114; village 
of, 116. 

Bowen, Dennis, 388. 

Bowen & Rogers, 389. 

Brant, Joseph, organizes a confeder- 
acy, 89; reluctant to attend con- 
ference, 100; oppose sale of Pres- 
qu'isle lands, 156; deposed, 158. 

Brebeuf, lists Iroquoian nations, 37. 

Breed, Fred W., 346. 

Breed, Butler & Co., 347. 

Breed & Lent, 347. 

Breed, Lent & Co., 347. 

Brent (Rt. Rev.) Chas. H., installed 
Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of 
West. N. Y., 258. 

"Bridge-Water," see Lundy's Lane. 

Bristol, C ; C, 356. 

Brown (Gen) Jacob, inspection tour 
up the Lakes in 1819, 295-323. 

Brown (Col.) Jas. M., 382. 

Buffalo, a Seneca fisherman, 69. 

Buffalo in 1819, 305, 306; as de- 
scribed by John Haddock in 181 5, 

Buffalo in the World War: selective 
service laws, 212; enrollment in 
Buffalo, 212-213; Liberty Loan cam- 
paigns, 214; Red Cross campaign, 
216; united war-work fund, 217; 
selection service board, 219-221; 
war industries, 222; Buffalo's 
share in the war, 252; return of 
troops, 253-256; Victory Loan, 256; 
draft board records, 379-381; some 
memorials, 381-382. 

Buffalo Creek Reservation, bounded. 
6, no; topography, 6; origin of 
name, 63; map of, no; census of, 
113; sold to Ogden, 160; a portion 
sold, 167; improvements on, 179. 

Buffalo River, probably Oak Orchard 
Creek. 66. 

Buffalo Courier & Enquirer Almanac, 

Buffalo Historical Society, accepts 
Walker memorial, 185-205; proceed- 
ings, 57th annual meeting, 207- 
245; 58th an. mtg., 247-289; de- 
votes room to Red Cross work, 240; 
compiles war records, 240, 241, 286; 
owns Gen. Jacob Brown's sword, 

Buffalo Medical College, gives de- 
gree to A. J. Myer, 352. 

Buffalo Medical Journal, 357. 

"Buffalo Practical School," 347. 

Buffalo Volksfreund, 358. 

Buffaloes, never lived on Buffalo 
Creek, 66. 

Camps, early Indian, character of, 
24; probably Algonkian, 25. 

Canandaigua, 322. 

Cantor (Hon.) Jacob A., 359. 

Carthage, N. Y., 299 and note. 

Cass, Lewis, 306, 319. 

Cattaraugus Reservation, exempted, 
106; changed, 157; conference on, 

Cayugas, on Buffalo Creek, 10, 116. 

Cemeteries, of ancient villages, 15, at 
Seneca Indian Park, 20. 

Charles II, charters Massachusetts, 

Chippewa (Chippaway), 304. 

Chippewa (Chippawa), war ship on 
L. Ontario, 298. 

Church, at Buffalo Creek, 178; Sene- 
ca membership, 150; built, 151. 

Claims, by States, 89; by Indians, 89; 
settled, 90. 

Clark, Seth, 186. 

Cleveland, Grover, relations with Wm. 
F. Sheehan, 360, 362; as law stu- 
dent in Buffalo, 388. 

Coleridge, Lord Chief Justice, 389. 

Cooke, Walter P., directs Liberty 
Loan campaigns, 215, 256. 

Council, at Fort Stanwix, 82; at Fort 
Erie, 87, 100; at Buffalo Creek, 87, 
88, 149, 178; Proctor at, 94; at 
Painted Post, 95; Butler at, 98; 
at Canandaigua, 100; at Big Tree, 




104; Miss Powell at, 126; to sell 

lands, 166; to consider treaty of 

1838, 171. 
Council House, Geneva, 11; at Tona- 

wanda described, 118. 
Coxe (Rt. Rev.), A. C, 201. 
Cutler (Miss) Clare, her Buffalo 

boarding-house, 348. 

Dallion, Father, visits Wenroes, 36. 
Dandy (Col.) Geo. B., N. S. A., 382. 
Dandy (Maj.) Jas. H., 382. 
David, Captain, described, 126. 
Dearborn, Henry A. S., at council, 

171; at Cattaraugus, 176. 
Dekanawideh, forms Confederacy, 49. 
Delawares on Buffalo Creek, 113. 
Depew, Chauncey M., 364. 
Devil's Island, 316. 
Dix, John A., as Governor, N. Y. 

State, 364. 
Dosyowa, a name for Buffalo Creek, 

Drummond (Lt. Gen.), 299. 
Drummond's Island, 312, 314. 
Dudley, T. J., 356. 
Dudley (Hon.) Wesley C, 389. 

East Bloomfield, 322. 

Elliott, Joseph, names New Amster- 
dam, 64; gives Senecas map of res- 
ervation, 106; buys Little Beard's 
reservation, 160. 

Emerson, Henry P., services as Supt. 
of Education in Buffalo, 223. 

Episcopal diocese Western N. Y., 
bishops of, 197. 

Erie Nation, 41. 

Experiment, vessel on Lake Erie, 1815, 

Fillmore, Millard, defines purposes of 
Buf. Hist. Soc, 210; his carriage 
in Hist. Soc. Museum, 238; his 
desk, ib. 

Fillmore, Hall & Haven, 388. 

Five Nations, Confederacy of, 49. 

Forests, 9. 

Fort Erie, 295, 305, 306; in 1814;, 374. 

Fort George, 301, 327. 

Fort Gratiot, 308, 318. 

Fort Holmes, 310. 

Fort Howard, 315, 317, 318. 

Fort Mackinac, 310, 315. 

Fort Niagara, 301, 302. 

Fort Stanwix, treaty at, 82. 

Forts, ancient, 9. 

Foster, Milburn & Co., 357. 

Freeman's Journal, Cooperstown, 350. 

Frontenac, first Canadian-built steam- 
boat on the Lakes, 296. 

"Gabriel Goodweather" (pseud.), 344, 

Gaines (Gen.) E. P., letter to War 
Dept., 342. 

Geneva, 323. 

Giddins, Edward, his "Niagara Alma- 
nac," 355- 

Gilbert family, 63, 71, 74. 

Gillett, Ransom H., at Buffalo, 171. 

Gorham, Nathaniel, buys Indian 
lands, 85. 

Grace, Oliver, early printer of Lewis- 
ton, N. Y., 355. 

Green, Manley C, 389. 

Green Bay, lands reserved for In- 
dians, 165; Senecas refuse to go to, 

Greene, Jos. C, (M. D.), 291. 

Haddock, Charles, 373. 

Haddock, John, his letters from Buf- 
falo in 1815, 371-375- 

Haddock, Joseph E., 371. 

Haddock, Lorenzo K., 371. 

Hall, Nathan K., 388. 

Handsome Lake, teaching of, 135. 

Harris (Capt.) Samuel D., his mili- 
tary career, 325-342. 

Harris (Rev.) Thompson S., mission- 
ary at Buffalo Creek, 149; leaves 
his mission, 151. 

Haskins, R. W. & Co., 355- 

Haven, Solomon G., 388. 

Heathcote school, Buffalo, 347. 

Hiawatha, aids in forming Iroquois 
confederacy, 49. 

Hill (Hon.) David B., 360, 362, 365; 
relations with Wm. F. Sheehan, 368. 

Hill (Hon.) Henry W., remarks at 
presentation Walker memorial, 195- 
200; an address Buf. Hist. Soc'y, 
1919, 207-235; an address, 1920, 
247-279; re-elected president, 245, 
289; mentioned, 291. 

Hobart college, 352. 

Holland Land Co., buys lands, 103; 
sells to Ogden, 160. 

Hollister, Evan, 389. 

Holmes (Rev.) Elkanah, preaches at 
Buffalo Creek, 143; missionary at 
Buffalo Creek, 144. 

Hopkins, Caleb, 377. 

Houghton, Frederick, "History of Buf- 
falo Creek Reservation," 3-181. 

Houghton, I., 378. 

Houses, communal, 117, 120; log, 118; 
effect of change in, 119. 

Hyde, Jabez, described Seneca re- 
ligion, 129; missionary at Buffalo 
Creek, 145. 

Indian Territory, lands to be acquired 
for Six Nations, 169; in treaty of 
1838, 171. 

Iroquoian nations, country ot, 47; 
migrations of, 48. 

Iroquois, country of, 80; claims rec- 
ognized, 80; deed lands to England, 
81; define limits of lands, 82. 

Iveson, Phinney & Co., 347. 

Jessup (Rev.) Chas. A. (D.D.), 
speaks for Buffalo clergy at pre- 
sentation of Walker memorial, 200- 

Jesuits, work among Senecas, 134. 



Johnson, John Girard, 389. 
Johnston, William, excluded from 

council at Canandaigua, 100; at 

Buffalo Creek, 1 1 1 ; accompanies 

Senecas to Presqu'isle, 156. 
Jones, Albert E., 389. 
Jones (Capt.) Roger, his journal of 

Gen. Brown's tour in 1819, 296-323. 
Jones, Mary Ann (Mrs. Roger), 297- 

299-303, 305, 310, 311, 319. 
Judson (Mrs.) S. M., 371. 
Kirkland (Rev.) Samuel, at Buffalo 

Creek, 86. 
Kleynties, explores Susquehanna 

River, 51. 

Lady of the Lake, early lake schoon- 
er, 296. 

Langdon, Andrew, at presentation 
Walker memorial, 186; death, 274, 
280; sketch of, and tributes, 274, 
281; memorial, 291. 

Lavelle (Rt. Rev.) M. J., 359. 

LeClear, Thomas, 39. 

Lent, James M., 347. 

Lewiston, N. Y., 302. 

Lincoln (Gen.) Benj., visits Buffalo 
Creek, 96. 

Locke, Franklin D., 389. 

Locke, Babcock, Spratt & Hollister, 

Love, Thos. C, 177 

Lubomirski, Prince and Princess, visit 
Buffalo, 264. 

Lundy's Lane, 303. 

McClure (Gen.) George, 301. 

McLouth, Wm. W., 356. 

Madison, U. S. vessel on L. Ontaria, 

Manchester, early name of Niagara 
Falls, N. Y., 303. 

Massachusetts, chartered by the King, 
79; adjusts land claims, 83; preemp- 
tive rights given to, 83 ; sells to 
Phelps, 85; sells to Morris, 103. 

Mathews, A. I., 357. 

Mercier (Cardinal), visits Buffalo, 264. 

Milburn, John G., 389. 

Mile strip, sold by Senecas, 167. 

Mills, Edward McM., 389. 

Mississaugas, on Buffalo Creek, 114. 

Morris, Robert, buys Seneca lands, 
103; map of purchase of, 104. 

Mulligan (Mrs.) Elizabeth H., pre- 
sents Haddock ms. to Buffalo His- 
torical Soc'y, 371. 

Munsees, on Buffalo Creek, 113. 

Myer (Gen.) Albert James, 351, 352- 
354; styled "Old Probs," 353. 

Neuter Nation, origin of name, 27; 
history of, 28; archaeology, 33; no 
Neuter villages on Buffalo Creek, 
33; Senecas in country of, 44. 

New Amsterdam, 64. 

New York, claims Iroquois country, 
80; compromises with Massachu- 
setts, 83; western limits defined, 
83; buys lands on the Niagara Riv- 
er, 158. 

Niagara Falls in 1819, 302, 303. 
Norton, Chas. P., 389. 

Ogden, Thomas, buys reservations, 
167; and Fellows, tries to buy res- 
ervations, 172; buys reservations, 
178; appoints arbitrators, 179. 

Oil Spring Reservation, described, 

"Old Probs" (pseud. Gen. A. J. My- 
er), 353, 355. 

Ontario, early lake steamboat, 296. 

Onondagas, on Buffalo Creek, 10; 

Proctor visits, 114; village of, 116; 
women of, 124; dance of 130. 

Ordinance of 1787, 90. 

Otsego Herald, 343, 344. 

Paul (Peter) & Bros., 347. 

Parker, Alton B., nomination for 
President, 363. 

Parker, Amasa J., 359. 

Parmelee & Hadley, 357. 

Peace Queen, 35; helped form the 
Iroquois Confederacy, 49. 

Peace, F. S., his almanac, 358. 

Perkins, Geo. R., 345, 356; death, 

Phelps, Oliver, buys pre-emption 
rights to Seneca lands, 85; buys 
from Indians, 86; unable to pay, 
87; map of lands, 104. 

Pickering, Timothy, holds council at 
Painted Post, 95; visits the OL 
Indians, 96; at Canandaigua, 99. 

Phinney (Judge) Elihu, 343. 

Phinney, Elihu (2d), 343. 

Phinney, Elihu (3d), in Buffalo, 348; 
defends his weather predictions, 

Phinney, Henry, 343 ; death, 347. 

Phinney, Henry Frederick, removes 
to Buffalo, 344. 

Phinney & Co., in business at Buf- 
falo, 346. 

Phinney, Blakeman & Mason, 347. 

Phinney's Almanac, story of, 343-358. 

Poole, Herman, 347. 

Porter, Augustus, surveys reserva- 
tions, 108; at Presqu'isle, 156. 

Porter (Gen.) Peter B., his house at 
Black Rock, 303, 318. 

Porter (Mrs.) Peter B., 303, 318. 

Powell, Ann, describes Seneca coun- 
cil, 126. 

Pre-emption right, given to Massa- 
chusetts, 83; description of, 84; 
bought by Phelps, 85. 

Prentiss, Edwin E., 345. 

Presqu'isle, tract as bought by Penn- 
sylvania, 155; claimed by Six Na- 
tions, 156; surveyed by Porter, 156; 
purchased from Indians, 157. 

Proctor, Colonel Thomas, sent to 
Buffalo Creek, 93; results of con- 
ference, 94. 

Pulaski (Count) Francis, visits Buf- 
falo, 264. 

Put-in-Bay, 307, 320. 



Quakers, aid Senecas, 176. 
Queenstown, Can., 302, 335. 

Ransom (D.) & Co., 357. 

Red Jacket, speaks for women, 95; 
mentioned by Miss Powell, 126; 
consents to preaching, 143; pro- 
fesses friendliness to mission, 145; 
opposed to Christianity, 147; son 
married, 148; ejects missionaries, 
150; leads opposition to Christian- 
ity, 151; deposed, 152; considers 
sale of Presqu'isle lands, 156; 
claims islands in Niagara River, 
162; speaks on war with England, 
163; leads opposition to selling res- 
ervations, 166. 

Reese, George, 357. 

Refuse heaps, 13; on Seneca Indian 
Park, 18. 

Reservations established, 105. 

Ripley (Gen.) E. W., at Chippewa, 

Riviere aux Chevaux, a name for Buf- 
falo Creek, 65. 

Rockwell, Harry W., installed as 
principal Buf. State Normal School, 

Rogers, Henry W., 388, 389. 

Rogers, Sherman S., 389. 

Rogers & Bowen, 388. 

Rogers, Bowen & Rogers, 389. 

Rogers, Locke & Babcock, 389. 

Rogers, Locke & Milburn, 389. 

Roosevelt, Theodore, 198. 

Sackett's Harbor, 297, 326. 

St Clair, defeated by Ohio Indians, 

St. Davids, Can., 300. 

Salisbury, H. A., early Buffalo print- 
er, 355- 

Sanford, Warren & Harroun, 357. 

Sayenqueraghta, Seneca chief, comes 
to Buffalo Creek, 62, 71. 

Schlosser's, 304 and note. 

Schools on Buffalo Creek, 144-149. 

Scott (Col.) Winfield, 299. 

Sears, Charles B., 389. 

Sellstedt, Lars G., 389. 

Senecas, villages of, 44; country of, 
47; status in Iroquois Confederacy, 
50; origin of name, 50; tradition of 
origin, 53; ancient villages of, 55; 
early history of, 56; in Revolution, 
58; at Fort Niagara, 61; lands de- 
fined, 82, 101; houses of, 117; as 
farmers, 120; clothing of, 123; re- 
ligion of, 127; sell Presqu'isle, 157; 
sell lands along Niagara River, 158; 
sell Little Beard's reservation, 160; 
sell islands in Niagara River, 161; 
consider removing to the West, 164; 
consider selling lands, 166; sell 
parts of Buffalo Creek Reserva- 
tion, 166; oppose sale of lands, 
172; sell Buffalo Creek Reserva- 
tion, 178. 
Seneca Indian Park, 17. 

Seneca White, Christian, 150; favors 
sale of reservations, 172. 

Sheehan (Hon.) Wm. F., sketch of, 
359 et seq.; his career reviewed by 
Hon. John Woodward, 360-369; bust 
and portrait presented to Buffalo 
Historical Society, 359. 

Smith (Rev.) Chas. H., shares in 
Walker memorial exercises, 186. 

Smith (Hon.) James, M., 291, 292. 

Smoke, Captain, Delaware chief, 114. 

Smoke's Creek, origin of name, 69. 

Spafford, Oliver, early Buffalo pub- 
lisher, 355. 

Spencer, P. R., his system of pen- 
manship, 347. 

Spratt, Maurice, 389. 

Squier, E. G, describes fort at pres- 
ent Indian Park, Buffalo, 17; maps 
embankments, 22. 

Starkweather, George A., 350. 

Steele & Faxon, 355. 

Stewart, Sarah L., 348. 

Street's Creek, Can., 302. 

Sweeney, Daniel J., compiles Buf- 
falo's official war memorial volume, 
252, 286, 379; letter to President 
Hill, 379-381. 

Tehosororon, a name for Buffalo, 63, 
65, 82. 

Te-kise-na-da-yont, 4, 10. 

Tonawanda, 11, 106, 108, 180. 

Topography of Buffalo Creek Reser- 
vation, 6. 

Treaty, at Fort Stanwix, 82; at 
Canandaigua, 101; of 1838, 169; de- 
clared fraudulent, 176. 

Troup, Robert, 165. 

Turner (Rt. Rev.) Wm., consecrated 
R. C. Bishop of Buffalo, 258. 

Tuscarora, 106. 

Van Curler, visits the Oneidas, 51. 

Village sites, ancient, 14, 21. 

Walden (Miss) Kate, marries Gen. 
A. J. Myer, 353. 

Walker (Rt. Rev.) William D., Bish- 
op of Western N. Y., presentation 
of memorial collection to Buffalo 
Historical Society, 185-205"; life 
and work, 195-200. 

Walker (Mrs.) William D., presents 
collection in memory of Bishop 
Walker to Buffalo Historical So- 
ciety, 185 et seq. 

Walker memorial case, contents of, 
204, 205. 

Walk-in-the-Water, first steamboat on 
Lake Erie, 296 Gen. Brown's tour 
on, in 1819, 306, 319, 320. 

Wampum, 125. 

War, Huron, 30; Neuter, 31; Wenro, 
38; waged by Iroquois, 43; in Ohio, 
91; with Great Britain, 162. 

Washington, President, policy to- 
wards the Iroquois, 92; urges Sen- 
ecas to remain neutral, 93 ; invites 
Senecas to visit him, 95; receives 
report of Seneca delegates, 96. 



Wayne, General Anthony, defeats the 

Ohio Indians, ioo. 
Weed & Co., 357. 
Wenro nation, history, 36; villages 

on Buffalo Creek, 41. 
West Bloomfield, 322. 
Wetherell, James, experiences on L. 

Erie in 1815, 375-377- 
Wheeler (Hon.) Charles B., 389. 
Wheeler, Lester, 347. 
White, Seneca, joins church, 150; 

leads Christian party in sale of 

lands, 172; properly appraised, 181. 
Wilgus, A., early Buffalo publisher, 

Wilgus, Alfred, 389. 

Williams (Rev.) George F., shares in 
Walker memorial exercises at His- 
torical Building, 185. 

Williams, Richard, 377. 

Williamsville, N. Y., 322. 

Wilson, Charles R., presides at Walk- 
er memorial meeting, 186; his ad- 
dress of welcome, 186-189. 

Witchcraft on Buffalo Creek, 131. 

Woodward (Hon.) John, memorial 
address on William F. Sheehan, 

Woolsey (Capt.) M. T., 296. 

Wright (Rev.) Asher, missionary at 
Buffalo Creek, 151, 

Yeo (Sir) James, 300. 
Young, King, described, 124. 


^1030 (.vail) «irifiiif(W 
o Ishonram 

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1861 CML WAR 1865 


JANUARY 7 1862 
























1861 CIVIL WAR 1865 

















. TOTALS 13 384 397 

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